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1.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(2): 98-114, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565948

RESUMEN

Paternal Risk and Protective Factors for Endangerment of Child Well-Being and their Consideration in the Risk Inventories Used Throughout Germany In view of the current family and role models, paternal risk and protective factors can have a significant impact on the risk of violence within a family and should therefore - in addition to the factors on the part of the mother, the child and the closer or other family systems - be taken into consideration when estimating the endangerment of child well-being. In this article we explore which empirical findings on paternal risk and protective factors for abuse, neglect and sexual abuse (sexual violence) in childhood and adolescence were published in international research literature from 1980 to 2019. Seventeen risk factors and four protective factors could be identified, which in 33 quantitative original studies showed a risk-increasing or a buffering influence on violence experiences in families on the part of the father. In addition, the risk inventories used in practice in Germany were analyzed with regard to the paternal risk and protective factors, in order to be able to illustrate the application of the empirically identified factors in early intervention, youth welfare and health care. The article used results from a benchmark survey on risk inventories from 2009. These results were compared with current findings from 2018 as part of a research update. In 2009, 67 % of the instruments "often" contained items on the father, while this was found for 12 % of the instruments in 2018. At the same time, in 2018, 53 % of the risk inventories were "often" asked about custodians, parents or main caregivers. The article thus reflects developments in research and practice in risk assessment for child well-being, in which especially the fathers, who unlike the mothers are often not explicitly addressed during screenings and interventions for families with psychosocial problems, are taken into consideration. The knowledge about the influence of the fathers can feed into the preventive interventions in early interventions and complement them meaningfully.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Salud del Niño/estadística & datos numéricos , Padre/psicología , Factores Protectores , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Masculino , Madres , Factores de Riesgo
2.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(2): 115-133, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565950

RESUMEN

Working with Fathers to Prevent Child Abuse. A Pilot Evaluation of the Caring Dads Program in Germany Selective and indicated prevention programs for fathers at high risk of (repeated) child maltreatment are lacking within early childhood intervention and child protection. The Canadian Caring Dads Program has been started in Germany in 2008. The aim of this study was to examine fathers who participated in a Caring Dads program in Düsseldorf, Hanover or Groß-Gerau until 2016. The study of n = 60 fathers and n = 34 mothers included the longitudinal examination of self-reported aggression, parenting behaviors and co-parenting in fathers as well as quality of life and co-parenting in mothers, the comparison of fathers participating in the program in Germany and Canada (n = 59/64) and a postal catamnesis (n = 20). Results have shown mean improvements in paternal aggression (d = .39) and parenting behaviors (d = .80, categorized: φ = .46) as well as maternal co-parenting (d = .46) and paternal behavior toward the partner (d = .47). In one-fourth to one-third of fathers at risk-levels, improvements controlled for measurement errors by the Reliable Change Index were clinically significant. German fathers reported higher motivation for change (t1/t2: d = 1.37/1.59) and verbal aggression (t1/t2: d = 1.29/1.36) compared to Canadian fathers. The catamnesis showed subjectively significant improvements in family relationships and parenting from the paternal point of view. The evaluation does not provide any evidence of culturally induced barriers of implementing Caring Dads in Germany.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Padre/psicología , Canadá , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Masculino , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Proyectos Piloto , Calidad de Vida
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562467

RESUMEN

Introduction: Children are widely recognized as a vulnerable population during disasters and emergencies. The COVID-19 pandemic, like a natural disaster, brought uncertainties and instability to the economic development of the society and social distancing, which might lead to child maltreatment. This study aims to investigate whether job loss, income reduction and parenting affect child maltreatment. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of 600 randomly sampled parents aged 18 years or older who had and lived with a child under 10 years old in Hong Kong between 29 May to 16 June 2020. Participants were recruited from a random list of mobile phone numbers of a panel of parents. Of 779 recruited target parents, 600 parents completed the survey successfully via a web-based system after obtaining their online consent for participating in the survey. Results: Income reduction was found significantly associated with severe (OR = 3.29, 95% CI = 1.06, 10.25) and very severe physical assaults (OR = 7.69, 95% CI = 2.24, 26.41) towards children. Job loss or large income reduction were also significantly associated with severe (OR= 3.68, 95% CI = 1.33, 10.19) and very severe physical assaults (OR = 4.05, 95% CI = 1.17, 14.08) towards children. However, income reduction (OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.15, 0.53) and job loss (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.28, 0.76) were significantly associated with less psychological aggression. Exposure to intimate partner violence between parents is a very strong and significant factor associated with all types of child maltreatment. Having higher levels of difficulty in discussing COVID-19 with children was significantly associated with more corporal punishment (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.34), whereas having higher level of confidence in managing preventive COVID-19 behaviors with children was negatively associated with corporal punishment (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.76, 0.99) and very severe physical assaults (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58, 0.93). Conclusions: Income instability such as income reduction and job loss amplified the risk of severe and very severe child physical assaults but protected children from psychological aggression. Also, confidence in teaching COVID-19 and managing preventive COVID-19 behaviors with children was significantly negatively associated with corporal punishment during pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Renta , Pandemias , Abuso Físico/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Hong Kong/epidemiología , Humanos , Responsabilidad Parental , Castigo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
4.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(1): 6-23, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459215

RESUMEN

Legal Aspects of Child Protection Several legal codes (e. g. family, social and criminal law) are of importance in child protection cases in Germany. The intention of legal codes differs between family law (relations between family members), social law (support for families) and criminal law (penal aspects). Mental health professionals have to know the prevailing legal norms concerning child-welfare. Collaborative work between medicine and youth welfare and child protection services (CPS) requires a weighing of data protection issues and the risk for the child. German child protection law provides a stepped model for health care professionals to inform CPS. This includes a careful weighing of the risk for child abuse and own competences to provide support. Medical personnel should be aware of several further legislative regulations concerning child protection issues.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/legislación & jurisprudencia , Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Servicios de Protección Infantil/legislación & jurisprudencia , Bienestar del Niño/legislación & jurisprudencia , Niño , Familia , Alemania , Humanos
5.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(1): 24-39, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459219

RESUMEN

Assessment of Maltreatment in Childhood and Adolescence In view of mounting evidence for substantial prognostic relevance of child maltreatment for the future developmental course, assessment of maltreatment in children and adolescents is increasingly gaining attention. At the same time, maltreatment assessment is replete with difficulties, ranging from the definition of maltreatment and establishment of threshold values determining when events meet prognostically relevant criteria, to poor agreement between sources. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of instruments for assessing maltreatment in children and adolescents. This overview serves as a point of departure to emphasize the importance of various sources for the purpose of assessing maltreatment and to consider the unique role of the child's or young person's perspective. We conclude with preliminary proposals regarding the role of maltreatment assessment in clinical practice.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Actitud , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Humanos
6.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(1): 64-83, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459220

RESUMEN

Protection Against Violence and Abuse in Medical Institutions - Reasons, Prevalence and Implications for Practice Reported cases of (sexual) abuse in institutions as well as the results of surveys show that violence against children and adolescents, but also against adults, occurs also in medical institutions. There are still few studies on the frequency of these cases. However, the cases that have come to public attention show that medical institutions bear systemic risk factors for such assaults. On the other hand, medical institutions also play an important role in child protection, since many children and adolescents affected by maltreatment including sexual abuse come into contact with the medical system. It is necessary that medical institutions deal with this problem and develop respective institutional protection concepts. A protection concept is a system of measures that ensure better protection against assaults within an organisation. Important steps are analysis of risk factors, structural changes, the creation of plan of procedures and the development of an institutional attitude that assaults are not tolerated. Although the development of protection concepts takes time and resources, it has many advantages for institutions, such as an increased sense of security for professionals, because they know how to proceed in such situation. Now that the obligation to draw up protection concepts is anchored in the quality management guideline of the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA), all hospitals and practices must set out to develop appropriate concepts.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Instituciones de Salud , Violencia/prevención & control , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Abuso Sexual Infantil/prevención & control , Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
7.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(1): 40-63, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459222

RESUMEN

The Diagnostic and Therapeutic Care of Abused Children and Adolescents In the following article, an overview of the current German health care situation concerning child abuse, neglect and maltreatment is provided. Interdisciplinary institutions of child protection are important initial contact points for families and professionals wishing to receive help. Furthermore, trauma clinics, victim support organizations and specialized counselling centers are indispensable to meet the complex needs of victims. Overall, the availability and accessibility of the support system in Germany is still insufficient and the number of unknown and untreated cases remains high. An improvement of the current situation should be of high governmental priority.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/diagnóstico , Maltrato a los Niños/terapia , Adolescente , Niño , Servicios de Protección Infantil , Alemania , Humanos
10.
Maturitas ; 143: 209-215, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308631

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) with overall menopausal symptom burden in midlife women. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of women between the ages of 40 and 65 years who were seen for specialty consultation in the Menopause and Women's Sexual Health Clinic, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN between May 1, 2015 and December 31, 2016. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants completed the ACE questionnaire to assess childhood abuse and neglect, the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) to assess menopausal symptom burden, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to assess depression, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder questionnaire (GAD-7) to assess anxiety, and provided information on current abuse (physical, sexual and verbal/emotional). RESULTS: Women meeting inclusion criteria (N = 1670) had a median age of 53.7 years (interquartile range: 49.1, 58.0). Of these women, 977 (58.5 %) reported any ACE and 288 (17.2 %) reported ≥4 ACEs. As menopausal symptoms increased in severity from the first to fourth quartile, the odds ratio of ACE 1-3 (vs. 0) increased from 1 to 2.50 (trend p < 0.01), and the odds ratio of ACE ≥ 4 (vs. 0) increased from 1 to 9.61 (trend p < 0.01), a pattern that was consistent across all menopausal symptom domains. The association between severe menopausal symptoms and higher childhood adversity (ACE score 1-3 or ≥4 vs. ACE = 0) remained significant after adjusting for age, partner status, education, employment, depression, anxiety, and hormone therapy use (OR 1.84 and 4.51, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: In this large cross-sectional study, there was a significant association between childhood adversity and self-reported menopausal symptoms that persisted even after adjustment for multiple confounders. These associations highlight the importance of screening women with bothersome menopausal symptoms for childhood adversity, and of offering appropriate management and counseling for the adverse experiences, when indicated.


Asunto(s)
Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia , Envejecimiento , Menopausia , Adulto , Anciano , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Envejecimiento/psicología , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Menopausia/fisiología , Menopausia/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sexualidad
11.
J Surg Res ; 257: 232-238, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862050

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to identify the pattern of injuries that relates to abuse and neglect in children with burn injuries. METHODS: The Nationwide Readmissions Database for 2010-2014 was queried for all patients aged less than 18 y admitted with burn injuries. The primary outcome was child maltreatment identified at the index admission. The secondary outcome was readmission for maltreatment. A subgroup analysis was performed on patients without a diagnosis of maltreatment during the index admission. Multivariable logistic regression was performed for each outcome. RESULTS: There were 57,939 admissions identified and 1960 (3.4%) involved maltreatment at the index admission. Maltreatment was associated with total body surface area burned >20% (odds ratio (OR) 2.79, P < 0.001) and burn of the lower limbs (OR 1.37, P < 0.001). Readmission for maltreatment was found in 120 (0.2%), and the strongest risk factor was maltreatment identified at the index admission (OR 5.11, P < 0.001). After excluding the patients with maltreatment identified at the index admission, 96 (0.17%) children were found to have a readmission for maltreatment that may have been present on the index admission and subsequently missed. The strongest risk factor was burn of the eye or ocular adnexa (OR 3.79, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that a portion of admissions for burn injuries in children could involve maltreatment that was undiagnosed. Identifying these at-risk individuals is critical to prevention efforts.


Asunto(s)
Quemaduras/etiología , Maltrato a los Niños/diagnóstico , Niño Hospitalizado/estadística & datos numéricos , Diagnóstico Erróneo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Quemaduras/terapia , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Readmisión del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , Estados Unidos
12.
Estud. Psicol. (Campinas, Online) ; 38: e190088, 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1133861

RESUMEN

Physical punishment - corporal punishment - of children/adolescents is highly prevalent. The objective of this study was to verify if, in a sample of parents/caregivers, there would be subgroups that would differentiate themselves regarding the behavior of physically punishing the children, in terms of modalities, frequency, body parts of the child affected, and presence of parental anger in the act of punishing, denoting severity levels associated with differences in the psychosocial variables pointed out in the literature as risk factors for physical abuse. A quantitative approach was adopted, with a cross-sectional design and cluster method. The study included 87 parents/caregivers who practice physical punishment. The analyses indicated the existence of three clusters that differed in the level of severity of corporal punishment and some of the psychosocial variables, denoting the importance of developing services/programs to cope with violence against children/adolescents and specific psychosocial intervention strategies.


A punição física - castigos corporais - de crianças/adolescentes é altamente prevalente. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se em uma amostra de pais/cuidadores existiriam subgrupos que se diferenciariam quanto ao comportamento de punir/castigar fisicamente os filhos. As modalidades analisadas foram de frequência com que a punição ocorria, de partes do corpo da criança que se punia e de presença de sentimento de irritação/raiva durante o castigo físico, denotando níveis de gravidade associados a diferenças em variáveis psicossociais apontadas como fatores de risco para os abusos físicos. Adotou-se uma abordagem quantitativa, com delineamento transversal e método de clusterização. Participaram 87 pais/cuidadores adeptos a práticas de punição física. As análises indicaram a existência de três agrupamentos que se diferenciaram no tocante à gravidade da punição corporal e em algumas das variáveis psicossociais, denotando a importância de os serviços/programas voltados ao enfrentamento da violência contra as crianças/adolescentes considerarem estratégias de intervenção psicossocial distintas e específicas a cada grupo.


Asunto(s)
Castigo , Servicio Social , Maltrato a los Niños , Relaciones Familiares
13.
Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv ; 18(2): 122-147, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144715

RESUMEN

Resumen (analítico): Se exploran las prácticas institucionales que facilitan u obstaculizan la protección de derechos de niños, niñas y adolescentes en el sistema de protección de la niñez en Honduras a través de sus diferentes etapas. Desde un diseño de Etnografía Institucional, se realizaron entrevistas a catorce trabajadores de instituciones que trabajan con niñez, y a tres residentes en un domicilio de protección. Como resultado, se identificaron múltiples instancias de denuncia, y una estrecha comunicación entre las mismas. Sin embargo, existe carencia de recursos en el sistema, y prejuicios contra adolescentes de la comunidad LGTBIQ; así como prácticas alimentadas por una concepción tradicional de la niñez. El sistema no solamente parece incumplir con algunos principios de la Convención, sino que se encuentra desbordado por precarias condiciones del contexto nacional.


Abstract (analytical) This study explores institutional practices that either facilitate or hinder the protection of the rights of children and adolescents in the child protection system in Honduras. The research focuses on the different stages that users go through when they request services. Using an institutional ethnography design, semistructured interviews were held with 14 workers from institutions that work with users in the system, as well as with three adolescents living in a protection home were conducted. The main results found that there are multiple mechanisms for reporting cases of child abuse, as well as close communication between the different mechanisms. However, there is a lack of resources in the system as well as prejudice against adolescents from the LGTBIQ community; also, practices are fed by a traditional conception of childhood. The system doesn't just violate some of the principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, but that its work is overwhelmed by the precarious conditions in the national context.


Resumo (analítico) Este estudo teve como objetivo explorar práticas institucionais que facilitam ou dificultam a proteção dos direitos das crianças e adolescentes no sistema de proteção à criança em Honduras, através das diferentes etapas. Para isso, com base no desenho de Etnografia Institucional, foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com quatorze trabalhadores de instituições governamentais e não governamentais e com três adolescentes residentes em um lar de proteção. Entre os principais resultados, constatou-se que existem várias instâncias para relatar casos de abuso infantil, bem como uma estreita comunicação entre elas. No entanto, havia também falta de recursos nas instituições que compõem o sistema, bem preconceitos contra adolescentes da comunidade LGTBIQ. Na análise, muitas práticas são alimentadas por uma concepção tradicional da infância. Por outro lado, o sistema de proteção à criança parece não apenas violar alguns dos princípios da Convenção, mas que seu trabalho é sobrecarregado por precárias condições do contexto nacional.


Asunto(s)
Defensa del Niño , Servicios de Protección Infantil , Prejuicio , Maltrato a los Niños
14.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 120(11): 141-147, 2020.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340309

RESUMEN

The article presents data from research literature on the neurobiological consequences of abuse and neglect in childhood. It is shown that early life stress affects the trajectory of brain development, changes the patterns of cognitive behavioral control and reception of rewards, potentially increasing the risk of substance misuse. The combination of this factor with an immature prefrontal cortex can dramatically increase the liability to the development of substance dependence.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Causalidad , Niño , Humanos , Corteza Prefrontal , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/complicaciones , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología
16.
Pap. psicol ; 41(3): 219-227, sept.-dic. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-197410

RESUMEN

Los traumas tempranos y repetidos en el contexto de las relaciones de apego impactan de una manera dramática en el desarrollo de los niños/as, generando una diversidad de manifestaciones psicopatológicas complejas, que se incluyen en la última versión de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades (CIE-11) como un diagnóstico nuevo denominado Trastorno por Estrés Postraumático Complejo (TEPT-C). Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron, por un lado, ofrecer una revisión de la sintomatología pos-traumática que se desarrolla por la exposición a estos eventos traumáticos, y, por otro, recapitular la evidencia empírica existente del TEPT-C o Trastorno Traumático del Desarrollo (TTD). Los resultados de los estudios revisados confirman la presencia de síntomas extensos y heterogéneos, así como graves alteraciones en la autorregulación (afectiva, cognitiva y conductual), que se ajustan a un TEPT Complejo o TTD, por lo que los datos existentes apoyarían la validez de dichos diagnósticos


Repeated and early attachment trauma has a huge impact on children's development, producing a wide range of psychopathology, which is included as a new diagnosis called complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) in the 11th revision to the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The aim of this study is to provide a review of the posttraumatic symptomatology caused by exposure to complex traumatic events and to summarize the existing empirical evidence on CPTSD and developmental trauma disorder (DTD). The results of the reviewed studies confirm the presence of extensive and heterogeneous symptoms, as well as serious affective, cognitive, and behavioral self-regulation alterations, which correspond to complex PTSD or DTD. Therefore, the current data support the validity of these diagnostic proposals


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Abuso Físico/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/diagnóstico , Enfermedad Crónica/psicología , Apego a Objetos , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología
17.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 23(271): 5055-5066, dez.2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1147039

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Descrever o perfil epidemiológico da violência sexual em crianças e adolescentes residentes do município de São Paulo. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo. Foram utilizados dados secundários, oriundos do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação no período de janeiro de 2015 a dezembro de 2017. Resultados: Para o período foram notificados 2.884 casos de violência sexual envolvendo crianças e adolescentes. Houve evolução do número de casos notificados entre os anos (2015­401; 2016­1049 e 2017 - 1434). A faixa etária com a maior estimativa de risco para violência sexual foi de 5 a 9 anos. A prevalência dos casos ocorreu no sexo feminino (81,1%) e na raça negra (47,2%). Em relação aos agressores prevaleceu os amigos/conhecidos (20,9%) e os pais (16,8%). Conclusão: Evidenciou-se o agravo temporal e evolutivo da violência sexual à saúde de crianças e adolescentes e observou-se desigualdades no ciclo de vida, gênero e raça.(AU)


Objective: To describe the epidemiological profile of sexual violence in children and adolescents living in the city of São Paulo. Methods: This is a descriptive study. Secondary data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System from January 2015 to December 2017 were used. Results: 2,884 cases of sexual violence involving children and adolescents were reported for the period. There was an evolution in the number of reported cases between the years (2015­401; 2016­1049 and 2017 - 1434). The age group with the highest risk estimate for sexual violence was 5 to 9 years. The prevalence of cases occurred in females (81.1%) and blacks (47.2%). Regarding the aggressors, friends / acquaintances (20.9%) and parents (16.8%) prevailed. Conclusion: The temporal and evolutionary aggravation of sexual violence to the health of children and adolescents was evidenced and inequalities were observed in the life cycle, gender and race.(AU)


Objetivo: Describir el perfil epidemiológico de la violencia sexual en niños y adolescentes residentes en la ciudad de São Paulo. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo. Se utilizaron datos secundarios del Sistema de Información de Enfermedades Notificables de enero de 2015 a diciembre de 2017. Resultados: En el período se reportaron 2.884 casos de violencia sexual en niños y adolescentes. Hubo una evolución en el número de casos notificados entre los años (2015­401; 2016­1049 y 2017­1434). El grupo de edad con el mayor riesgo estimado de violencia sexual fue de 5 a 9 años. La prevalencia de casos ocurrió en mujeres (81,1%) y negros (47,2%). En cuanto a los agresores, predominaron los amigos / conocidos (20,9%) y los padres (16,8%). Conclusión: se evidenció el agravamiento temporal y evolutivo de la violencia sexual a la salud de niños y adolescentes y se observaron desigualdades en el ciclo de vida, género y raza.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Abuso Sexual Infantil , Salud del Niño , Epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Salud del Adolescente , Factores Socioeconómicos , Maltrato a los Niños , Sistemas de Información en Salud
19.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 39: e2020267, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146295

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Social isolation is currently identified as the best way to prevent the infection by the new coronavirus. However, for some social groups, such as children and adolescents, this measure carries a contradiction: the home, which should be the safest place for them, is also a frequent environment of a sad aggravation: domestic violence. This study aims to evaluate the notifications of interpersonal/self-inflicted violence available in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases in the State of Santa Catarina (southern Brazil), for the juvenile age group, before and during the new coronavirus pandemics. METHODS: Cross-sectional, descriptive study of violence against children and adolescents (from 0 to 19 years) notified by health professionals by completing and entering the occurrence in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases of the State of Santa Catarina in 11 weeks in which the social isolation measure was instituted as mandatory, comparing with the same period before this measure. RESULTS: During the study period, 136 municipalities in Santa Catarina made 1,851 notifications. There was a decrease of 55.3% of them in the isolation period, and the difficulties encountered in seeking protection and assistance institutions were listed. CONCLUSIONS: The society needs to be aware of possible cases of violence in the children and adolescent population. It is important to provide accessible, effective, and safe ways for complaints and notifications, as well as a quick response to the cases, aiming at protecting victims and minimizing damages to prevent the perpetuation of the violence.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños , Bienestar del Niño , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Violencia Doméstica , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adolescente , Salud del Adolescente/tendencias , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud del Niño/tendencias , Estudios Transversales , Recolección de Datos/métodos , Recolección de Datos/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia Doméstica/prevención & control , Violencia Doméstica/tendencias , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Evaluación de Necesidades , Pandemias
20.
J Forensic Odontostomatol ; 2(38): 47-56, 2020 Sep 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174537

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Forensic Odontology (FO) still strives for recognition in some countries such as Pakistan. Natural and man-made disasters, along with child abuse cases and age estimation for child marriages and juvenile imprisonments in Pakistan justify its applicability. AIMS: This study investigated the awareness, information, training, practice and interest in FO in dental professionals in Pakistan. Another aim was to design tools to deliver primary knowledge about FO and emphasize the importance of dental records. METHODOLOGY: A 10 question paper-based survey was distributed among 560 dental professionals and postgraduates of 14 public dental institutes/hospitals in Pakistan. The results were quantitatively analyzed by graphs using Microsoft Excel (version 16.22). An educational video and an information leaflet were produced after the survey was undertaken to explain the scope of FO and the importance of dental records respectively. RESULTS: 476 dentists (51%♀, 49 %♂) aged 20 - 50+ years responded and 98.53% confirmed that FO was not taught in the dental schools. 66% were aware of the field and 62% were only informed. 99% were not trained and 89.7% were not working in this field; however, 89% were interested in training within Pakistan. Considering dental charts, 60.92% do not produce detailed charts but 55% maintain them and the majority do so manually. Radiographs were the most stored type. CONCLUSIONS: Most dentists are aware of the existence of FO, but they need to acknowledge the significance of dental record keeping and encourage implementation of FO. Regardless of the absence of any governing body for FO and negligible education, training and implementation in Pakistan, this field is gradually progressing. The authorities should introduce detailed guidelines for recording, managing and storing dental records. They should ensure the future acknowledgement of this subject in the education system and assign forensic odontologists to the Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) team.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños , Registros Odontológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Víctimas de Desastres , Odontología Forense , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pakistán , Adulto Joven
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