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2.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(2): 98-114, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565948

RESUMEN

Paternal Risk and Protective Factors for Endangerment of Child Well-Being and their Consideration in the Risk Inventories Used Throughout Germany In view of the current family and role models, paternal risk and protective factors can have a significant impact on the risk of violence within a family and should therefore - in addition to the factors on the part of the mother, the child and the closer or other family systems - be taken into consideration when estimating the endangerment of child well-being. In this article we explore which empirical findings on paternal risk and protective factors for abuse, neglect and sexual abuse (sexual violence) in childhood and adolescence were published in international research literature from 1980 to 2019. Seventeen risk factors and four protective factors could be identified, which in 33 quantitative original studies showed a risk-increasing or a buffering influence on violence experiences in families on the part of the father. In addition, the risk inventories used in practice in Germany were analyzed with regard to the paternal risk and protective factors, in order to be able to illustrate the application of the empirically identified factors in early intervention, youth welfare and health care. The article used results from a benchmark survey on risk inventories from 2009. These results were compared with current findings from 2018 as part of a research update. In 2009, 67 % of the instruments "often" contained items on the father, while this was found for 12 % of the instruments in 2018. At the same time, in 2018, 53 % of the risk inventories were "often" asked about custodians, parents or main caregivers. The article thus reflects developments in research and practice in risk assessment for child well-being, in which especially the fathers, who unlike the mothers are often not explicitly addressed during screenings and interventions for families with psychosocial problems, are taken into consideration. The knowledge about the influence of the fathers can feed into the preventive interventions in early interventions and complement them meaningfully.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Salud del Niño/estadística & datos numéricos , Padre/psicología , Factores Protectores , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Masculino , Madres , Factores de Riesgo
3.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(2): 115-133, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565950

RESUMEN

Working with Fathers to Prevent Child Abuse. A Pilot Evaluation of the Caring Dads Program in Germany Selective and indicated prevention programs for fathers at high risk of (repeated) child maltreatment are lacking within early childhood intervention and child protection. The Canadian Caring Dads Program has been started in Germany in 2008. The aim of this study was to examine fathers who participated in a Caring Dads program in Düsseldorf, Hanover or Groß-Gerau until 2016. The study of n = 60 fathers and n = 34 mothers included the longitudinal examination of self-reported aggression, parenting behaviors and co-parenting in fathers as well as quality of life and co-parenting in mothers, the comparison of fathers participating in the program in Germany and Canada (n = 59/64) and a postal catamnesis (n = 20). Results have shown mean improvements in paternal aggression (d = .39) and parenting behaviors (d = .80, categorized: φ = .46) as well as maternal co-parenting (d = .46) and paternal behavior toward the partner (d = .47). In one-fourth to one-third of fathers at risk-levels, improvements controlled for measurement errors by the Reliable Change Index were clinically significant. German fathers reported higher motivation for change (t1/t2: d = 1.37/1.59) and verbal aggression (t1/t2: d = 1.29/1.36) compared to Canadian fathers. The catamnesis showed subjectively significant improvements in family relationships and parenting from the paternal point of view. The evaluation does not provide any evidence of culturally induced barriers of implementing Caring Dads in Germany.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Padre/psicología , Canadá , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Masculino , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Proyectos Piloto , Calidad de Vida
5.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(1): 6-23, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459215

RESUMEN

Legal Aspects of Child Protection Several legal codes (e. g. family, social and criminal law) are of importance in child protection cases in Germany. The intention of legal codes differs between family law (relations between family members), social law (support for families) and criminal law (penal aspects). Mental health professionals have to know the prevailing legal norms concerning child-welfare. Collaborative work between medicine and youth welfare and child protection services (CPS) requires a weighing of data protection issues and the risk for the child. German child protection law provides a stepped model for health care professionals to inform CPS. This includes a careful weighing of the risk for child abuse and own competences to provide support. Medical personnel should be aware of several further legislative regulations concerning child protection issues.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/legislación & jurisprudencia , Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Servicios de Protección Infantil/legislación & jurisprudencia , Bienestar del Niño/legislación & jurisprudencia , Niño , Familia , Alemania , Humanos
6.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(1): 64-83, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459220

RESUMEN

Protection Against Violence and Abuse in Medical Institutions - Reasons, Prevalence and Implications for Practice Reported cases of (sexual) abuse in institutions as well as the results of surveys show that violence against children and adolescents, but also against adults, occurs also in medical institutions. There are still few studies on the frequency of these cases. However, the cases that have come to public attention show that medical institutions bear systemic risk factors for such assaults. On the other hand, medical institutions also play an important role in child protection, since many children and adolescents affected by maltreatment including sexual abuse come into contact with the medical system. It is necessary that medical institutions deal with this problem and develop respective institutional protection concepts. A protection concept is a system of measures that ensure better protection against assaults within an organisation. Important steps are analysis of risk factors, structural changes, the creation of plan of procedures and the development of an institutional attitude that assaults are not tolerated. Although the development of protection concepts takes time and resources, it has many advantages for institutions, such as an increased sense of security for professionals, because they know how to proceed in such situation. Now that the obligation to draw up protection concepts is anchored in the quality management guideline of the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA), all hospitals and practices must set out to develop appropriate concepts.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Instituciones de Salud , Violencia/prevención & control , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Abuso Sexual Infantil/prevención & control , Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
8.
J Surg Res ; 257: 232-238, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862050

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to identify the pattern of injuries that relates to abuse and neglect in children with burn injuries. METHODS: The Nationwide Readmissions Database for 2010-2014 was queried for all patients aged less than 18 y admitted with burn injuries. The primary outcome was child maltreatment identified at the index admission. The secondary outcome was readmission for maltreatment. A subgroup analysis was performed on patients without a diagnosis of maltreatment during the index admission. Multivariable logistic regression was performed for each outcome. RESULTS: There were 57,939 admissions identified and 1960 (3.4%) involved maltreatment at the index admission. Maltreatment was associated with total body surface area burned >20% (odds ratio (OR) 2.79, P < 0.001) and burn of the lower limbs (OR 1.37, P < 0.001). Readmission for maltreatment was found in 120 (0.2%), and the strongest risk factor was maltreatment identified at the index admission (OR 5.11, P < 0.001). After excluding the patients with maltreatment identified at the index admission, 96 (0.17%) children were found to have a readmission for maltreatment that may have been present on the index admission and subsequently missed. The strongest risk factor was burn of the eye or ocular adnexa (OR 3.79, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that a portion of admissions for burn injuries in children could involve maltreatment that was undiagnosed. Identifying these at-risk individuals is critical to prevention efforts.


Asunto(s)
Quemaduras/etiología , Maltrato a los Niños/diagnóstico , Niño Hospitalizado/estadística & datos numéricos , Diagnóstico Erróneo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Quemaduras/terapia , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Readmisión del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , Estados Unidos
9.
Barbarói ; (57): 254-273, jul.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1150635

RESUMEN

Este trabalho objetivou relatar a experiência de oficinas de prevenção à violência realizadas com mães e responsáveis dos alunos matriculados em séries iniciais de duas escolas de um município do Rio Grande do Sul, no ano de 2013 e 2014. As oficinas tiveram o intuito de possibilitar um espaço de diálogo sobre a violência contra crianças e adolescentes a fim de preveni-la. As participantes relataram vivência de violência física em suas histórias de vida e no seu cotidiano, não possuindo recursos diferentes da punição física no disciplinamento. Foi relatada a presença do abuso do álcool nas famílias e o desconhecimento das leis de proteção à população infanto-juvenil. Os encontros se constituíram em um momento reflexivo sobre a violência e os danos da mesma no desenvolvimento dos sujeitos. Espaços como esse devem ser fomentados visando ao cumprimento do papel social da escola e da universidade como coadjuvantes na prevenção à violência.(AU)


This study aimed to report the experience of workshops of prevention of violence carried out with parents and people responsible for students enrolled in initial school years in two schools, in a city of Rio Grande do Sul, during 2013 and 2014. The workshops aimed to enable the dialogue about violence against children and adolescents, in the sense of preventing it. Participants related having experienced physical violence throughout their lives and daily activities, as well as lacking other resources than physical punishment in disciplining. Abuse of alcohol in the families and lack of knowledge of laws of protection concerning the children and adolescents were reported. The meetings built up a moment to reflect about violence and its damages, as concerns the development of the subjects. Activities such as these should be fostered, aiming at the fulfillment of the social role of the school and university, supporting the prevention of violence.(AU)


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo informar sobre la experiencia de los talleres de prevención a la violencia realizados con los padres y responsables por los alumnos matriculados en los primeros grados de dos escuelas de una ciudad de Rio Grande do Sul, en 2013 y 2014. Los talleres tuvieron como meta posibilitar un espacio para el diálogo sobre la violencia contra los niños y adolescentes con el fin de prevenirla. Las participantes reportaron haber experimentado violencia física en sus historias de vida y en su cotidiano, al no tener otro recurso que el castigo físico para disciplinarlas. Se ha reportado también, la presencia de abuso de alcohol en las familias y el desconocimietno de las leyes de protección para los niños y adolescentes. Los encuentros se constituyeron en un momento de reflexión sobre la violencia y los daños de la misma en el desarrollo de los sujetos. Espacios como ese deben ser fomentados, buscándose el cumplimiento del papel social de la escuela y de la universidad como colaboradoras en la prevención a la violencia.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Instituciones Académicas , Violencia/prevención & control , Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Protección , Abuso Físico , Defensa del Niño
10.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 39: e2020267, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146295

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Social isolation is currently identified as the best way to prevent the infection by the new coronavirus. However, for some social groups, such as children and adolescents, this measure carries a contradiction: the home, which should be the safest place for them, is also a frequent environment of a sad aggravation: domestic violence. This study aims to evaluate the notifications of interpersonal/self-inflicted violence available in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases in the State of Santa Catarina (southern Brazil), for the juvenile age group, before and during the new coronavirus pandemics. METHODS: Cross-sectional, descriptive study of violence against children and adolescents (from 0 to 19 years) notified by health professionals by completing and entering the occurrence in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases of the State of Santa Catarina in 11 weeks in which the social isolation measure was instituted as mandatory, comparing with the same period before this measure. RESULTS: During the study period, 136 municipalities in Santa Catarina made 1,851 notifications. There was a decrease of 55.3% of them in the isolation period, and the difficulties encountered in seeking protection and assistance institutions were listed. CONCLUSIONS: The society needs to be aware of possible cases of violence in the children and adolescent population. It is important to provide accessible, effective, and safe ways for complaints and notifications, as well as a quick response to the cases, aiming at protecting victims and minimizing damages to prevent the perpetuation of the violence.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños , Bienestar del Niño , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Violencia Doméstica , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adolescente , Salud del Adolescente/tendencias , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud del Niño/tendencias , Estudios Transversales , Recolección de Datos/métodos , Recolección de Datos/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia Doméstica/prevención & control , Violencia Doméstica/tendencias , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Evaluación de Necesidades , Pandemias
12.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 367-370, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030455

RESUMEN

Although family should be the basis for the development and formation of a child's personality, violence is mostly done in the family, and remains undiscovered for a long time. The real number of abused children is much more than that displayed in the registered cases. The secrecy of the problem is an important feature of this phenomenon. Families in which abuse takes place are mostly isolated. Social isolation does not come about by chance; secrecy is usually encouraged by an abuser to control over famoly members. In most cases, social reaction to violence is late, inadequate and focused on the consequences, but not on the causes. "Abuse implies an act of execution that directly inflicts damage, while neglect implies an act of non-fulfillment of something that is necessary for the well-being of a child". The most common forms of domestic violence are physical, emotional abuse in the presence of violence against the mother, and in a lesser extent sexual abuse. In addition, there is physical, emotional, educational and medical neglect. The presence of violence against the mother and the feeling of impotence leave the same consequences as the endured violence. It is considered that children living in violent families are likely to live under cumulative stress. Traumatic responses include a wide range of conditions from acute stress reactions through post-traumatic stress disorder to complex long-lasting, repeated trauma syndrome. All children will not react to this kind of experience in the same way, with the protective and risk factors in developmental psychopathology having a significant role to play. Because of their developmental vulnerability and dependency, children are at greater risk of violence than adults. Researches point to the need for a multidisciplinary approach to treatment and prevention of child abuse, with greater interaction between health institutions, relevant centers for social work, police, court, government and non-governmental sector, and the existence of adequate family and criminal laws.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Violencia Doméstica/psicología , Trauma Psicológico/psicología , Adulto , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/legislación & jurisprudencia , Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Maltrato a los Niños/terapia , Violencia Doméstica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Violencia Doméstica/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Madres/psicología , Trauma Psicológico/prevención & control , Trauma Psicológico/terapia , Factores de Riesgo , Instituciones Académicas , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/prevención & control , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/terapia
13.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e042867, 2020 09 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994262

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To determine any change in referral patterns and outcomes in children (0-18) referred for child protection medical examination (CPME) during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with previous years. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study, analysing routinely collected clinical data from CPME reports in a rapid response to the pandemic lockdown. SETTING: Birmingham Community Healthcare NHS Trust, which provides all routine CPME for Birmingham, England, population 1.1 million including 288 000 children. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged under 18 years attending CPME during an 18-week period from late February to late June during the years 2018-2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Numbers of referrals, source of disclosure and outcomes from CPME. RESULTS: There were 78 CPME referrals in 2018, 75 in 2019 and 47 in 2020, this was a 39.7% (95% CI 12.4% to 59.0%) reduction in referrals from 2018 to 2020, and a 37.3% (95% CI 8.6% to 57.4%) reduction from 2019 to 2020. There were fewer CPME referrals initiated by school staff in 2020, 12 (26%) compared with 36 (47%) and 38 (52%) in 2018 and 2019, respectively. In all years 75.9% of children were known to social care prior to CPME, and 94% of CPME concluded that there were significant safeguarding concerns. CONCLUSIONS: School closure due to COVID-19 may have harmed children as child abuse has remained hidden. There needs to be either mandatory attendance at schools in future or viable alternatives found. There may be a significant increase in safeguarding referrals when schools fully reopen as children disclose the abuse they have experienced at home.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños , Servicios de Protección Infantil , Bienestar del Niño , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Servicios de Salud Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicios de Protección Infantil/métodos , Servicios de Protección Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Bienestar del Niño/estadística & datos numéricos , Bienestar del Niño/tendencias , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Población , Aislamiento Social , Servicio Social/métodos , Servicio Social/estadística & datos numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiología
14.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960295

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Identification of child abuse is a daily challenge in medical work. The estimated number of unreported cases of child abuse and neglect is high. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the redesigned clinical child protection program of a major German pediatric hospital and to improve programs in other hospitals for children and physicians through presentation of the advantages of the new structure. METHODS: All cases of child protection at the Altona Children's Hospital were retrospectively analyzed before and after restructuring of the clinic's child protection program for a two-year period each, and a comparison was made. The child protection program was restructured and the new program subsequently managed by a fulltime coordinator. RESULTS: The prevalence of both suspected and substantiated cases of child abuse was significantly higher after restructuring of the child protection program. Before the change, 24 cases were investigated, of which 23 were substantiated; afterward, 124 cases were investigated and 89 were substantiated. Despite the high number of false-positive suspected cases, stigmatization of the families during the clarification progress was avoided by using a very sensitive approach, and the family was not confronted until the suspicion was affirmed. CONCLUSION: The presented concept of child protection in medical clinics seems to facilitate a higher detection rate of child abuse cases. The reduction in the number of undetected cases and thereby prevention of possible escalation of abuse, as well as the decline in the immense social follow-up costs, justifies the increased personnel costs.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/diagnóstico , Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Niño , Bienestar del Niño , Familia , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos
17.
J Psychol ; 154(7): 467-486, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730724

RESUMEN

Violence against children is a major public health concern and involves significant consequences. However, compared to research on the impact of violence on children, far less is known about the perpetrators of violence against children. The present study aimed to evaluate the psychosocial characteristics and motives of perpetrators of filicide in order to identify their psychosocial profile. Our study analyzed 50 perpetrators of filicides committed in the province of Quebec between 1997 and 2012. Data was obtained from the Office of the Chief Coroner of Quebec, and additional information were retrieved from newspapers. Descriptive analyzes identified the sociodemographic, criminological, psychological-psychiatric characteristics and the motivations of these men. The results indicate that male perpetrators of filicide are, on average, 34.8 years old (SD = 11.9), 46% between the ages of 18 and 35, 48% between the ages of 36 and 55, and 4% are 56 years of age and over. Most filicides were committed following a marital separation (34%), the victims were between 0 and 5 years old (78%) and they were killed with bare hands (78%). Half of the perpetrators of filicide had a criminal record (42%) or history of domestic violence (50%). Some of these men had traits or borderline personality disorder (32%) and depressive symptoms (24%). The addition of clinical cases expands our understanding of the different profiles of perpetrators of filicide. Our study provides avenues for intervention and to promote a better prevention of this type of homicide.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Homicidio/psicología , Homicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Motivación , Adolescente , Adulto , Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Preescolar , Femenino , Homicidio/prevención & control , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Quebec/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
18.
Ther Umsch ; 77(3): 107-110, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669075

RESUMEN

Prevention of aversive childhood experiences: social and health policy consequences Abstract. Neglect, as well as physical, psychological or sexual abuse increase the risk of developmental disorders and of long-term health consequences in adulthood. The prevention of maltreatment is therefore crucial. In Switzerland, a multi-layered prevention model mainly focuses on supporting the family. An improved social awareness of the importance of adequate childcare is in the interest of each individual as well as of the health care system and society as a whole.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Adulto , Niño , Política de Salud , Humanos , Suiza
19.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S82-S84, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538646

RESUMEN

COVID-19 and related efforts to mitigate its spread have dramatically transformed the structure and predictability of modern childhood, resulting in growing concerns children may be particularly vulnerable to serious mental health consequences. Worldwide stay-at-home directives and emergency changes in healthcare policy and reimbursement have smoothed the trail for broad implementation of technology-based remote mental health services for children. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is particularly well-positioned to address some of the most pressing child and parental needs that arise during stressful times, and telehealth formats of PCIT, such as Internet-delivered PCIT (iPCIT), have already been supported in controlled trials. This commentary explores PCIT implementation during the COVID-19 public health crisis and the challenges encountered in the move toward Internet-delivered services. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Síntomas Conductuales/terapia , Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Servicios de Salud Mental , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Psicoterapia/métodos , Telemedicina , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Intervención basada en la Internet
20.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 67(3): 481-498, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443988

RESUMEN

Child abuse is a public health concern with great costs to children, families, and society. Prevention of child abuse and maltreatment is an important clinical skill. Providers can take advantage of the opportunity to offer prevention interventions in the health care setting. Identification of risk factors and signs and symptoms of abuse, referral to local resources, parenting education, and application of the public health prevention framework should be integrated into clinical encounters. Identification of sentinel injuries enables tertiary interventions to save lives. Primary interventions during early childhood using effective parenting programs has been shown to reduce child maltreatment.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Padres/educación , Prevención Primaria , Prevención Secundaria , Prevención Terciaria , Niño , Humanos , Tamizaje Masivo , Padres/psicología , Factores de Riesgo
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