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1.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110049, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785509

RESUMEN

Crime-scenes are the heart of any investigation in terms of recovery of key forensic evidence - fingermarks and DNA. Yet, quite often, the operational work of the forensic units, in which different chemicals and reagents for fingermarks development are applied, can also be highly destructive to the property and the environment. Hence, for both ecological and intelligence purposes, an operational method that minimizes that damage would be ideal. In this study, an "out-of-the-box" approach is proposed; rather than working at the crime scene itself, gel-lifters were used as a transferring tool for the latent forensic evidence, fingermarks and DNA, to be developed by applying black wet-powder (Wetwop®) in a controlled laboratory environment, leaving the crime-scene undisturbed. The results show a promising potential, as this indirect method proved to be robust and successful for non-porous surfaces, and even for aged fingermarks. In addition, this study gave a new perspective into the accepted notion regarding the difference between male and female donors, showing a direct correlation of the size and weight of the hands to the natural pressure applied by the donor. Moreover, the indirect nature of the method highlights the importance of the interaction between the type of surface and the latent fingermark constituents, primarily water, and its effect on the survivability and quality of the developed fingermark. Due to the growing demand of keeping crime scenes and exhibits unharmed by both police and intelligence forces, the new approach of this application provides a valuable asset for future operational field-work.


Asunto(s)
Dermatoglifia , Manejo de Especímenes/instrumentación , Manejo de Especímenes/métodos , Adulto , ADN/aislamiento & purificación , Dermatoglifia del ADN , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Repeticiones de Microsatélite , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto , Propiedades de Superficie , Tacto
2.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110055, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785512

RESUMEN

Body fluid analysis has played a crucial role in ascertaining various characteristics and has greatly aided in reconstructing events during crime scene investigation. It is often presumed that crimes that involve violence and mental disturbances such as murder or sexual assault provide good sources of body fluids such as blood, saliva, semen, vaginal secretions, urine and tears. Tears are secreted in response to any emotional or stressful situations and may be found deposited on surfaces such as bedding, tissue paper or cloth. In the absence of the commonly noted body fluids such as blood or saliva, tears can play an important role that can lead to personal identification by examining the biochemistry and molecular aspects to obtain a full DNA profile. Additionally, identification of an individual may be done by carefully observing certain unique eye characteristics such as heterochromia which is highly individualistic. Characteristics of eyewear such as spectacles and contact lenses have unique properties and prescription criteria for correcting an individual's eyesight that can provide vital clues in understanding the visual ability of an individual. In crime scene investigation, the presence or absence of eyewear provides immense evidentiary value that has greatly aided in solving cases such as Janet Abaroa's Murder. This paper provides a systematic review of the possibility of using tears and eyewear for the purpose of forensic investigation and to statistically support the inferences with prescription databases which may be initiated across different populations. Forensic Optometry is yet to get streamlined along with the routinely followed investigative techniques and scientifically explored although no standard protocols exist to analyse eyewear. The use of behavioural optometry is gaining attention in the context of driving laws of different countries and is a simple but powerful indicator of abnormal behaviour. It is speculated that the last seen image referred to as an 'Optogram' of an individual may be captured in the retina since our eyes functions like a camera. Although this claim is considerably unexplored, it is quite possible that the last seen image of a criminal, objects or a place may be noted that can positively help in linking individuals at the scene of crime or identify the primary crime location. In this review, the potential for new insights into the analysis of tears, eye and eyewear characteristics have been explored.


Asunto(s)
Lentes de Contacto , Dermatoglifia del ADN , ADN/aislamiento & purificación , Anteojos , Ciencias Forenses/métodos , Lágrimas/química , Bases de Datos Factuales , Epitelio Anterior/química , Ojo/patología , Movimientos Oculares , Humanos , Cambios Post Mortem , Prescripciones , Manejo de Especímenes , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/diagnóstico , Cuerpo Vítreo/química
3.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110063, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790891

RESUMEN

Diagnosis of carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings has always been a challenging task due to the susceptibility to alterations of the optical state and degradation of blood samples during sampling, transport and storage, which highly affects the analysis with spectrophotometric methods. Methodological improvements are then required urgently because of increased reports of cases with discrepancies between results of the measured biomarker carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and reported symptoms. Total blood CO (TBCO) measured chromatographically was thus proposed in a previous study as alternative biomarker to COHb. This approach was investigated in this study by comparing the two biomarkers and assessing the effects of various storage parameters (temperature, preservative, time, tube headspace (HS) volume, initial saturation level, freeze- and thaw- and reopening-cycles) over a period of one month. Results show that while for TBCO, concentrations are relatively stable over the observation period regardless of parameters such as temperature, time and HS volume, for COHb, concentrations are altered significantly during storage. Therefore, the use of TBCO as alternative biomarker for CO poisonings has been proposed, since it provides more valid results and is more stable even under non-optimal storage conditions. Additionally, it can be used to predict COHb in cases where sample degradation hinders optical measurement. Furthermore, a correction formula for COHb and TBCO is provided to be used in laboratories or circumstances where optimal storage or analysis is not possible, to obtain more accurate results.


Asunto(s)
Intoxicación por Monóxido de Carbono/diagnóstico , Monóxido de Carbono/sangre , Carboxihemoglobina/análisis , Medicina Legal/métodos , Biomarcadores/sangre , Cromatografía de Gases , Interpretación Estadística de Datos , Humanos , Oximetría , Manejo de Especímenes , Espectrofotometría
4.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 183-188, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430392

RESUMEN

2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) is a compound used in the early 1900s as a weight-loss drug but later prohibited due to its severe adverse effects, including death. It has however been attracting interest, due to its weight-loss properties, and appears to be re-emerging in forensic casework. As 2,4-DNP is available for use in industry and as a pesticide and easily accessible online, the dissemination of this drug can be fast. The compound exerts its effects through inhibition of ATP synthesis, and corresponding thermogenic energy loss which can be fatal. A method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of 2,4-DNP in blood and urine specimens using GC-MS with hydrogen as carrier gas is described. The method was validated and displayed acceptable performance parameters with linearity (R2 higher than 0.998), inter-assay imprecision (lower than 10.6%), intra-assay imprecision (lower than 10.7%), and extraction efficiency (92.1%). Stability of 2,4-DNP in blood and urine was studied, and the drug was stable up to 30 days refrigeration or frozen. Six cases in United States suspected to be related to 2,4-DNP were analyzed. Three cases were found to be positive for 2,4-DNP. Concentrations of 2,4-DNP were in the range of 61.6-220 mg/L in urine and <3-114 mg/L in blood. Based on our findings, we suggest that medical examiners and forensic toxicologists be aware of the reappearance of 2,4-DNP, including this compound as a target in death investigations related to weight-loss drugs.


Asunto(s)
2,4-Dinitrofenol/sangre , 2,4-Dinitrofenol/orina , Fármacos Antiobesidad/sangre , Fármacos Antiobesidad/orina , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , 2,4-Dinitrofenol/efectos adversos , Fármacos Antiobesidad/efectos adversos , Estabilidad de Medicamentos , Femenino , Toxicología Forense , Humanos , Masculino , Manejo de Especímenes , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
5.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 209-213, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433497

RESUMEN

When using non-FTA cards in commercial multiplex STR kits for direct PCR, pretreatment steps with specific buffers are recommended. Here, we designed a rapid direct PCR method utilizing a non-FTA card, Oral Cell Sampling Kit, by omitting the pretreatment step involving Prep-n-Go™ Buffer, and it showed compatibility with the GlobalFiler™ Express PCR Amplification Kit, GlobalFiler™ PCR Amplification Kit, and PowerPlex® Fusion system. To optimize the PCR conditions, we tested the method with different final PCR volumes and cycles. Finally, we conducted a performance test using 50 Korean buccal samples and confirmed the high performance of the method, detecting more than 90% of the samples with full profiles when using GlobalFiler™ PCR Amplification Kit and PowerPlex® Fusion system at 29 cycles in a 10 µL final PCR volume. Thus, we report a simple direct PCR set-up to analyze reference samples collected using a non-FTA card manufactured in Korea.


Asunto(s)
Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Manejo de Especímenes/instrumentación , Dermatoglifia del ADN/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Repeticiones de Microsatélite , Mucosa Bucal/química , República de Corea , Manejo de Especímenes/métodos
6.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110057, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786515

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Health professionals who work in emergency services must be prepared for the recognition, collection, storage, preservation and documentation of all physical traces related to injuries or crime, because failures in these processes may compromise any forensic analysis. We, therefore, investigated emergency health professionals' levels of knowledge about these processes and their abilities to implement them in practice during the care of victims of violence in an emergency unit of a specialized trauma hospital. METHODS: This was a survey to describe the knowledge of professionals working in the emergency department of the Sergipe Urgent Care Hospital (HUSE) in Sergipe state, Northeast Brazil about the preservation of forensic traces and their ability to implement the necessary related processes in practice. Their knowledge of the preservation of forensic materials and their abilities to implement the processes related to their preservation were assessed using the Portuguese version of the Questionnaire on the Preservation of Forensic Traces in Victim Assistance. RESULTS: A total of 144 health professionals completed the questionnaire, of whom 23 (16 %) were physicians, 33 (22.9 %) nurses and 88 (61.1 %) nursing technicians. Most physicians (15/65.2 %) reported knowing between 50 and 70 % of the required procedures, and the majority of nurses and nursing technicians knew less than 50 % (15/45.5 % and 72/81.8 %, respectively). Regarding their actual implementation, most physicians and nurses reported performing between 50 % and 70 % of the procedures (22/95.7 % and 15/45.5 %, respectively), while nursing technicians reported performing less than 50 % (55/62.5 %). CONCLUSION: Most professionals in the three professions (physician, nurse and nursing technician) knew less than 50 % of the required procedures for the documentation, collection and preservation of forensic traces, which explains the low implementation of most of the actions, particularly those related to the collection and preservation of traces.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Clínica , Documentación , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Cuerpo Médico de Hospitales , Personal de Enfermería en Hospital , Manejo de Especímenes , Adulto , Brasil , Víctimas de Crimen , Femenino , Ciencias Forenses , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos
7.
Crit Rev Anal Chem ; 50(1): 50-61, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767558

RESUMEN

Determination of intracellular concentration becomes essential for the drugs having target receptors or bioactivation site inside the cells. Majority of the antiviral drugs are nucleoside analogs and their intracellular phosphorylated metabolites are active. The anticancer drugs of the cellular enzyme and nucleoside analog category are also required to be undergone intracellular drug level analysis. In this review, we have sequentially described the cell isolation protocols, cell lysis techniques and sample preparation approach to be followed for quantification of intracellular levels of selected antiviral and anticancer drugs. Major limitations for intracellular analyte quantification and their possible way out has been discussed. Currently, no literature is available summarizing these important aspects including bioanalysis of intracellular quantification of either antiviral or anticancer drugs. This review, thus, can be considered to be first of its kind and will be highly useful in providing guidance for intracellular drug analysis aiming determination of the site-specific bioavailability.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/análisis , Antivirales/análisis , Disponibilidad Biológica , Línea Celular Tumoral , Separación Celular , Fraccionamiento Químico , Cromatografía Liquida , Humanos , Manejo de Especímenes/métodos
8.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 84-89, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454431

RESUMEN

Impressions of friction ridges left on a surface are important evidence for identifying an individual and can be used to confirm his or her presence at the scene of an incident. Factors influencing the durability of fingerprints include the physiological characteristics and cleanliness of the individual, environmental factors, and time. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of atmospheric factors, gender, hand cleanliness and time on the width of friction ridge impressions and the amount of material forming the print. The research shows that factors such as gender, ambient conditions, and hand cleanliness affect the width of the ridge impressions and the quantity of material forming the print. The passage of time significantly reduces both the width of the ridge impressions and the quantity of the material forming the print.


Asunto(s)
Dermatoglifia , Higiene de las Manos , Manejo de Especímenes , Adulto , Oscuridad , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Femenino , Humanos , Luz , Masculino , Microscopía , Factores Sexuales , Crema para la Piel , Temperatura Ambiental , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
9.
Gut ; 69(1): 52-61, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971436

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Despite improvements in imaging, serum CA19-9 and pathological evaluation, differentiating between benign and malignant bile duct strictures remains a diagnostic conundrum. Recent developments in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have opened new opportunities for early detection and management of cancers but, to date, have not been rigorously applied to biliary specimens. DESIGN: We prospectively evaluated a 28-gene NGS panel (BiliSeq) using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-obtained biliary specimens from patients with bile duct strictures. The diagnostic performance of serum CA19-9, pathological evaluation and BiliSeq was assessed on 252 patients (57 trainings and 195 validations) with 346 biliary specimens. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of BiliSeq for malignant strictures was 73% and 100%, respectively. In comparison, an elevated serum CA19-9 and pathological evaluation had sensitivities of 76% and 48%, and specificities of 69% and 99%, respectively. The combination of BiliSeq and pathological evaluation increased the sensitivity to 83% and maintained a specificity of 99%. BiliSeq improved the sensitivity of pathological evaluation for malignancy from 35% to 77% for biliary brushings and from 52% to 83% for biliary biopsies. Among patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), BiliSeq had an 83% sensitivity as compared with pathological evaluation with an 8% sensitivity. Therapeutically relevant genomic alterations were identified in 20 (8%) patients. Two patients with ERBB2-amplified cholangiocarcinoma received a trastuzumab-based regimen and had measurable clinicoradiographic response. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of BiliSeq and pathological evaluation of biliary specimens increased the detection of malignant strictures, particularly in patients with PSC. Additionally, BiliSeq identified alterations that may stratify patients for specific anticancer therapies.


Asunto(s)
Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/métodos , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Neoplasias de los Conductos Biliares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de los Conductos Biliares/genética , Neoplasias de los Conductos Biliares/patología , Enfermedades de las Vías Biliares/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de las Vías Biliares/genética , Enfermedades de las Vías Biliares/patología , Biomarcadores de Tumor/sangre , Antígeno CA-19-9/sangre , Constricción Patológica/diagnóstico , Constricción Patológica/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Femenino , Humanos , Cirrosis Hepática Biliar/diagnóstico , Cirrosis Hepática Biliar/genética , Cirrosis Hepática Biliar/patología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Manejo de Especímenes/métodos , Adulto Joven
10.
Hematol Oncol ; 38(1): 34-37, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872890

RESUMEN

This report summarizes a closed workshop cosponsored by the American Association for Cancer Research, the European School of Oncology, and the 15th-International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma to discuss critical open questions on liquid biopsy in lymphoid malignancies, develops a roadmap for their analytical and clinical validation, and prioritizes research areas.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores de Tumor/genética , ADN Tumoral Circulante/sangre , Biopsia Líquida/métodos , Linfoma/sangre , ADN Tumoral Circulante/genética , Congresos como Asunto , Humanos , Linfoma/diagnóstico , Linfoma/genética , Linfoma/terapia , Manejo de Especímenes
11.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 30(1): 010502, 2020 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839720

RESUMEN

Extravascular body fluids (EBF) analysis can provide useful information in the differential diagnosis of conditions that caused their accumulation. Their unique nature and particular requirements accompanying EBF analysis need to be recognized in order to minimize possible negative implications on patient safety. This recommendation was prepared by the members of the Working group for extravascular body fluid samples (WG EBFS). It is designed to address the total testing process and clinical significance of tests used in EBF analysis. The recommendation begins with a chapter addressing validation of methods used in EBF analysis, and continues with specific recommendations for serous fluids analysis. It is organized in sections referring to the preanalytical, analytical and postanalytical phase with specific recommendations presented in boxes. Its main goal is to assist in the attainment of national harmonization of serous fluid analysis and ultimately improve patient safety and healthcare outcomes. This recommendation is intended to all laboratory professionals performing EBF analysis and healthcare professionals involved in EBF collection and processing. Cytological and microbiological evaluations of EBF are beyond the scope of this document.


Asunto(s)
Líquidos Corporales/química , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/normas , Líquidos Corporales/metabolismo , Exudados y Transudados/química , Exudados y Transudados/metabolismo , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Seguridad del Paciente , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico , Garantía de la Calidad de Atención de Salud , Sociedades Médicas , Manejo de Especímenes/normas
12.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 62(6): 53-57, 2019.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825334

RESUMEN

The authors propose a new express method of low-temperature sample preparation based on the use of extractive freezing-out combined with a sample centrifugation as a stage of a preliminary preparation of a biological object (cadaveric liver, kidneys). The method made it possible to minimize sufficiently the so-called chemical noise of endogenous coextractive substances and to improve sufficiently the conditions of the GC-MS method.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Biosensibles , Manejo de Especímenes , Congelación , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Humanos
13.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856575

RESUMEN

We evaluated MRSA-CI agar (Kyokuto Pharmaceutical Industrial Co., Ltd.) and BD BBL CHROMagar MRSA II agar (BD Japan) for the detection of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We used 129 specimens in this study. The positive rate of MRSA-CI agar was 19.4% (25/129 samples), whereas BD BBL CHROMagar MRSA II was 17.8% (23/129 samples). It is suggested that MRSA selective agar medium including enzyme substrate compounds is a useful medium to detect MRSA.


Asunto(s)
Agar , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina , Infecciones Estafilocócicas , Medios de Cultivo , Humanos , Japón , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Manejo de Especímenes
14.
J Forensic Nurs ; 15(4): E1, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764530

RESUMEN

The International Association of Forensic Nurses has issued guidance in response to victim- or self-administered evidence kits after sexual assault.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen , Enfermería Forense , Delitos Sexuales , Manejo de Especímenes , Humanos , Evaluación de Necesidades , Rol de la Enfermera , Examen Físico
16.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 40(4): 304-311, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687979

RESUMEN

Semen is crucial evidence for some sex crimes, with its sole confirmation being sperm detection. The success of sperm detection is dependent on all levels of preanalytic and analytic procedures. Specimen collection must be performed by well-trained and competent forensic physicians as well as forensic nurses, with preservation done properly before laboratory transfer. Laboratory procedures should consider archival sperm identification, by visualization, with adequate amounts separated from other cells to obtain male DNA profiles. Differential extraction is robust and accepted as the forensic standard but is time consuming and may result in male DNA loss. Thus, alternative methods and microdevices have been developed. Challenges in sperm isolation from vaginal or buccal epithelium mixes and discrimination in multiperpetrator cases have been overcome by single-cell profiling; however, problems inherent in identical twin discrimination and azoospermia have yet to be solved. Epigenetics and future molecular biomarkers may hold the key; therefore, all laboratory processes must consider DNA and RNA protection. Long-term specimen preservation should be done when possible in light of future confirmatory tests.


Asunto(s)
Ciencias Forenses/métodos , Manejo de Especímenes , Espermatozoides/citología , Separación Celular , Dermatoglifia del ADN , Metilación de ADN , Femenino , Humanos , Captura por Microdisección con Láser , Masculino , Repeticiones de Microsatélite , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Antígeno Prostático Específico/aislamiento & purificación , ARN Mensajero/aislamiento & purificación , Proteínas de Secreción de la Vesícula Seminal/aislamiento & purificación , Delitos Sexuales , Coloración y Etiquetado , Factores de Tiempo
17.
Forensic Sci Int ; 305: 110031, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707238

RESUMEN

A rectrospective study was conducted on the effect of the long term storage of 122 DNA samples resuspended in water, one of the elution media still suggested by well established protocols. These DNA samples come from four different kinds of forensically relevant samples (saliva swabs, FTA card bloodstains, nails and II° World War bones) extracted in 2008-2018 and stored at - 20°C (n=113 of groups #1-#5) and at +4°C (n=9 of the group #6), respectively. At the time of the present study (2019), quantitative PCR (qPCR) was employed as tool for assessing the degradation of the samples. The employment of the Human Quantifiler Kit showed that the median loss of DNA ranged from 17.8% to 66.6% in groups #1-#5 while it was 85.0% in group #6. However, it is likely that these values represent an underestimation due to the shortness of the qPCR probe (62 bp). Noteworthy, the DNA loss was statistically significant in each of the six groups (p values ≤ 0.0167). Thus, in agreement with the data on spontaneous DNA decay, no forensic DNA sample should be stored in water for long term periods. In conclusion, the results of this technical note warn against the use of water for this purpose.


Asunto(s)
Degradación Necrótica del ADN , ADN/análisis , Preservación Biológica/métodos , Manejo de Especímenes/métodos , Agua , Huesos/química , Humanos , Uñas/química , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Estudios Retrospectivos , Saliva/química , Temperatura Ambiental , Factores de Tiempo
18.
Forensic Sci Int ; 305: 110008, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707240

RESUMEN

Little is currently known about the importance of clotting during the drying of blood pools. While this is of little moment for droplets where drying occurs faster than contact-phase-induced clotting, clotting may significantly influence blood pools drying as it transform a liquid into a gel. To investigate this influence, we compare the drying of citrated and unmodified blood pools at constant haematocrit, showing large morphological differences during drying, both in the surface appearance, in the colour lightness, as well as in the generation and location of cracks. Further, we designed a clotting-reactivation protocol which allowed recovering the morphological evolution of pure blood drying while using citrate-sampled blood. This result opens the way to the use of citrated blood in blood pools investigations.


Asunto(s)
Coagulación Sanguínea , Manchas de Sangre , Desecación , Medicina Legal , Hemorreología , Humanos , Fotograbar , Manejo de Especímenes
19.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(30): 7943-7955, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713015

RESUMEN

The increasing need for rapid, in situ, and robust tissue profiling approaches in the context of intraoperative diagnostics has led to the development of a large number of ambient ionization-based surface sampling strategies. This paper compares the performances of a diathermic knife and a CO2 laser handpiece, both clinically approved, coupled to a rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS) source for quasi-instantaneous tissue classification. Several fresh meat samples (muscle, liver, bone, bone marrow, cartilage, skin, fat) were obtained from different animals. Overall, the laser produced cleaner cuts and more reproducible and higher spectral quality signals when compared with the diathermic knife (CV laser = 9-12%, CV diathermic = 14-23%). The molecular profiles were subsequently entered into a database and PCA/LDA classification/prediction models were built to assess if the data generated with one sampling modality can be employed to classify the data generated with the other handpiece. We demonstrate that the correct classification rate of the models increases (+ 25%) with the introduction of a model based on peak lists that are tissue-specific and common to the two handpieces, compared with considering solely the whole molecular profile. This renders it possible to use a unique and universal database for quasi-instantaneous tissue recognition which would provide similar classification results independent of the handpiece used. Furthermore, the laser was able to generate aerosols rich in lipids from hard tissues such as bone, bone marrow, and cartilage. Combined, these results demonstrate that REIMS is a valuable and versatile tool for instantaneous identification/classification of hard tissue and coupling to different aerosol-generating handpieces expands its field of application. Graphical abstract.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Rayos Láser , Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Animales , Calibración , Carne/análisis , Análisis Multivariante , Manejo de Especímenes
20.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 46(5): e20192276, 2019.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778396

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to assess the perioperative and postoperative results of transanal total mesorectal excision, as well as the quality of the specimens obtained by this technique. METHODS: we conducted a prospective, descriptive study in consecutive patients with rectal adenocarcinoma located up to 10cm from the anal verge, without distant metastasis, subjected or not to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. We evaluated the presence of technical difficulties, conversion to open abdominal route, surgical time and intra and postoperative complications. Through histopathological analysis, we assessed the quality of the mesorectum, involvement of the proximal and distal margins and positivity of the circumferential, classifying quality of the mesorectum as complete, partially complete or incomplete resection. RESULTS: between December 2016 and May 2019, 41 patients underwent transanal total mesorectal excision, of which 75% were classified as clinical stage III, 13% clinical stage II and 12% clinical stage I. The average distance between the anal verge and the lower border of the tumor was 6.2cm. Forty percent of the tumors were in the anterior rectal wall and 17% were circumferential. The average operative time was 189 minutes. The average hospital stay was 4.6 days. There were no in-hospital deaths. Eighty-two percent of the specimens were classified as complete resection. CONCLUSION: transanal total mesorectal excision demonstrates adequate specimen quality and surgical margins, being associated with lower rates of perioperative complications, acceptable surgical time and short hospitalization.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma/cirugía , Canal Anal/cirugía , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos del Sistema Digestivo/métodos , Laparoscopía/métodos , Neoplasias del Recto/cirugía , Recto/cirugía , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico por imagen , Adenocarcinoma/patología , Adulto , Anciano , Canal Anal/diagnóstico por imagen , Canal Anal/patología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Terapia Neoadyuvante , Periodo Perioperatorio , Periodo Posoperatorio , Estudios Prospectivos , Neoplasias del Recto/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias del Recto/patología , Manejo de Especímenes
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