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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(3): 712-726, 2020 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891495

RESUMEN

Lycopene, one of the most dominant carotenoids in a person's diet, is a well-known natural compound that has protective effects against chronic diseases. Industrial and domestic processing and storage conditions significantly influence retention and isomerization of lycopene; thus, in recent years, great attention has been given for their preservative effects of lycopene. This review highlights recent strategies that have been developed to preserve lycopene in processed products, especially in tomato pulp, puree, paste, and juice. The key factors influencing lycopene degradation and isomerization, such as ingredients and intensity of thermal treatments, are also discussed. Special attention was paid to the crystalline structures of lycopene which facilitate its resistance to degradation and isomerization. Emerging non-thermal processing methods, such as ultrasound and high-pressure processing (HPP), are critically evaluated for their preservation of thermo-labile compounds. Novel trends to improve lycopene stability by micro- and nanoencapsulation and addition of antioxidants are also included to examine their efficacy to protect against light, heat, oxygen, and other oxidative processes. Finally, recommended processing and storage conditions are discussed to provide strategies to retain the highest possible amount of bioactive lycopene until consumption.


Asunto(s)
Manipulación de Alimentos/métodos , Licopeno/química , Manipulación de Alimentos/instrumentación , Calor , Isomerismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/química
2.
Water Res ; 171: 115466, 2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927094

RESUMEN

Intense pressure on water resources has led to efforts to reuse reclaimed processing wastewater for cleaning purposes in food processing plants. The milk industry produces considerable amounts of wastewater, which can be used for cleaning of equipment after appropriate treatment. However, due to naturally occurring microbiological contamination in raw milk, the wastewater is often contaminated, and therefore the reuse of reclaimed wastewater is perceived as risky. This study aims to quantify the risks of Listeria monocytogenes infection and associated disease burden when wastewater reclaimed from milk processing operations is used in cleaning-in-place (CIP) systems for pasteurized fluid milk production following a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) approach. Furthermore, this study aims to inform risk-based tolerable limits for levels of contamination in CIP water based on a public health target of 10-6 DALY per person annually. The suggested model investigates the passage of L. monocytogenes throughout the fluid milk chain, from receipt of raw milk at the plant to the point of consumption and covering storage in receiving and storage tanks, pasteurization, and storage at retail and at home. Risk and disease burden estimates are simulated for general (younger than 65 years), elderly (65 years and older) and pregnant population subgroups. Additional scenarios covering the effect of using clean water, using water with different levels of contamination and using reclaimed wastewater modeled as recovered from cheese whey after membrane filtration (reclaimed water scenario) are considered to estimate a risk-based limit of contamination and simulate a real-life example. The tolerable limit of contamination in CIP water was estimated as -2 log10 CFU/mL to ensure the protection of the most vulnerable subgroup, pregnant women, while higher limits were estimated for the elderly and general subgroups. Under the reclaimed water scenario, the annual number of listeriosis cases was estimated as 3.36, 5.67, and 0.15 for the general, elderly and pregnant population subgroups, respectively, while in the clean water scenario, the estimates were 3.33, 5.56 and 0.15, respectively. In both scenarios, the DALY estimates were lower than the tolerable limit. The results indicate that reclaimed water can be an alternative to potable water for CIP applications.


Asunto(s)
Listeria monocytogenes , Animales , Femenino , Contaminación de Alimentos , Manipulación de Alimentos , Humanos , Leche , Embarazo , Medición de Riesgo , Aguas Residuales
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 298: 122449, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784253

RESUMEN

The food industry generates enormous quantity of food waste (FW) either directly or indirectly including the processing sector, which turned into biofuels for waste remediation. Six types of food processing wastes (FPW) such as oil, fruit and vegetable, dairy, brewery, livestock and finally agriculture based materials that get treated via dark fermentation/anaerobic digestion has been discussed. Production of both hydrogen and methane is daunting for oil, fruit and vegetable processing wastes because of the presence of polyphenols and essential oils. Moreover, acidic pH and high protein are the reasons for increased concentration of ammonia and accumulation of volatile fatty acids in FPW, especially in dairy, brewery, and livestock waste streams. Moreover, the review brought to forefront the enhancing methods, (pretreatment and co-digestion) operational, and environmental parameters that can influence the production of biohythane. Finally, the nature of feedstock's role in achieving successful circular bio economy is also highlighted.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos , Anaerobiosis , Animales , Biocombustibles , Reactores Biológicos , Alimentos , Manipulación de Alimentos , Metano
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 292-300, 2020 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809573

RESUMEN

Nano/submicrometer red rice particles were obtained through processing a type of red rice using media-milling. The diameters of red rice were gradually reduced as processing time increased. After 4 h of processing, the particle size of milled red rice was reduced to around 692 nm. Microscopic observation and SEM analysis confirmed the presence of nano/submicrometer particles. The phytochemical contents of milled red rice were analyzed. The total anthocyanin content of red rice increased after milling process. Its phenolic and flavonoid contents were slightly decreased after the milling process. All milled red rice exhibited good ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity. The emulsifying ability of milled red rice particles with different milling time was characterized. Milled red rice starch particles with a concentration of 0.8-3.5% were able to form stable Pickering emulsions, and milled red rice particles retarded the oil oxidation process when being used as Pickering emulsions stabilizers. This pioneer study directly modifies whole grain materials to submicrometer particles that can form stable food grade Pickering emulsions with intrinsic antioxidant properties.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/química , Emulsiones/química , Oryza/química , Preparaciones de Plantas/química , Manipulación de Alimentos , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Nanopartículas/química , Oxidación-Reducción , Tamaño de la Partícula
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 978-985, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617213

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sorghum grain is rich in phenolic compounds and has the potential to be developed into functional beverages such as sorghum grain tea, in which the health benefits and flavour are the important quality attributes to be considered in tea product development. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of grain tea processing steps on the phenolic contents, antioxidant activity and aroma profile (volatile compounds) of MR-Buster (red-coloured) and Shawaya Short Black 1 (black-coloured) sorghum and the results compared with those for our previously reported Liberty (white-coloured) sorghum. RESULTS: Tea processing had significant impacts on sorghum polyphenols and volatile compounds, but the effect and level varied among sorghum varieties. The phenolic contents and antioxidant activity in these three sorghum varieties were consistent in both raw grain and grain tea samples and in the order Shawaya Short Black 1 > MR-Buster > Liberty. However, the volatile profiles (both individual and grouped volatiles) were significantly different between sorghum varieties, and the abundance and diversity of the volatile compounds of the tea samples were in the order Liberty > MR-Buster > Shawaya Short Black 1. CONCLUSIONS: Black-coloured sorghum with high phenolic content and antioxidant activity is more suitable for making sorghum tea considering the health benefits. In terms of the aroma intensity and diversity, white-coloured sorghum could be the ideal material. However, future study is needed to determine the key volatile compounds that positively contribute to the aroma. This work provides important insights into the selection of grain materials for sorghum grain tea production. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/química , Bebidas/análisis , Fenoles/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Sorghum/química , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/química , Manipulación de Alimentos , Sorghum/clasificación
6.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1030-1037, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646633

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The objective of this work was to develop gummy jellies containing honey and propolis, keeping the natural antioxidant principles of the beehive ingredients and satisfying consumer requirements. RESULTS: A gummy jelly containing honey and propolis (HPGJ) was developed. A sensory study with consumers (n = 74) performed an intensity level evaluation test analyzing color, hardness, adhesiveness, gumminess, sweet taste and honey taste. A penalty analysis indicated that HPGJ was too hard. However, in the global acceptance study, more than 90% of consumers gave liking categories. Regarding the potential functional properties, the antioxidant capacity (AC) of HPGJ was 8.17 ± 0.55 mmol Trolox equivalent kg-1 , and up to 40% AC was retained after in vitro digestion. Additionally, AC of HPGJ was up to ten times higher than that of similar commercial products. A storage study at 25 °C showed that color and AC increased significantly over 90 days owing to the development of Maillard reaction. Storage under darkness allowed keeping low values of global color change for up to 45 days. Another positive facet was that the addition of propolis delayed fungal growth during storage. CONCLUSION: An organoleptically palatable gummy jelly was obtained. Among the positive features, it showed higher AC than similar commercial candies. Additionally, HPGJ offered a high bioaccesible AC input detected upon in vitro digestion. Overall, HPGJ could be considered an interesting, appetizing and healthier alternative to regular gummy jellies available in the market. Adequate packaging should be considered in order to extend HPGJ shelf life, reducing browning reactions. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Dulces/análisis , Miel/análisis , Própolis/análisis , Antioxidantes/análisis , Manipulación de Alimentos , Almacenamiento de Alimentos , Geles/análisis , Humanos , Reacción de Maillard , Gusto
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1004-1011, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646639

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the most important cereals worldwide, and its quality is affected by fungal contamination such as species of the genus Alternaria. No information is available about the occurrence of Alternaria mycotoxins in Argentinean barley grains, which is of concern, because they can be transferred into malt and beer. The aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tenuazonic acid (TeA) in malting barley grains from the main producing region of Argentina during the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. RESULTS: The most frequent mycotoxin was AOH (64%), which was detected at higher levels (712 µg kg-1 ) compared with other studies, followed by TeA (37%, 1522 µg kg-1 ), while AME was present in five samples in the 2015 growing season only, with a mean of 4876 µg kg-1 . A similar frequency of mycotoxin occurrence was observed in both years (80.8 vs 85.3%), but more diverse contamination was found in 2015, which was characterized by lower accumulated precipitation. Nevertheless, AOH was more frequently found in 2014 than in 2015 (80.8 and 47.1% respectively). A negative correlation between AOH concentration and temperature was observed. The susceptibility of different barley varieties to mycotoxin accumulation varied with the mycotoxin, geographical location and meteorological conditions. CONCLUSION: The results obtained in the present work represent a tool for risk assessment of exposition to these mycotoxins and could be used by food safety authorities to determine the need for their regulation. Furthermore, the establishment of a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system to minimize fungal and mycotoxin contamination in barley from farm to processing could be apply to ensure food safety. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Alternaria/metabolismo , Hordeum/microbiología , Micotoxinas/análisis , Argentina , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Manipulación de Alimentos , Hordeum/química , Lactonas/análisis , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Semillas/química , Semillas/microbiología
8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1022-1029, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646643

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pork is used as raw material to produce Cantonese sausage, and 0.5 or 1 g kg-1 of d-sodium erythorbate is added to the pork meat. In this study the myoglobin oxidation rate, relative metmyoglobin content, heme iron content, redness, pH, free radical content and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) value were measured at different processing times and different content of d-sodium erythorbate. RESULTS: It was found that d-sodium erythorbate significantly reduced the free radical content and myoglobin and lipid oxidation rates and increased heme iron levels. When d-sodium erythorbate was added to the sausage, the absorption peak of myoglobin porphyrin shifted left, migrating from 414 to 405 nm. At 72 h, with an increase in the d-sodium erythorbate content, a significant negative correlation was identified between heme iron and the degree of redness (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: During sausage processing, there are strong correlations among TBARS values, free radical content, metmyoglobin levels, heme iron levels, a* and pH at the same d-sodium erythorbate level. At the same processing time, adding d-sodium erythorbate can slow the rate of myoglobin and lipid oxidation and prevent the discoloration of sausage. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Ascórbico/análisis , Aditivos Alimentarios/análisis , Lípidos/química , Productos de la Carne/análisis , Mioglobina/química , Animales , Color , Manipulación de Alimentos , Metamioglobina/química , Oxidación-Reducción , Porcinos
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1238-1245, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696519

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Maize tortilla staling is a major drawback that affects its commercialization and consumption, and so novel methods for retarding staling are continuously being explored. The present study evaluated the effect of adding a canola oil/candelilla wax oleogel (CWO; 0. 2, 4 and 6 g 100 g-1 ) to a basic masa formulation (water, 60 g 100 g-1 ; nixtamalized maize flour, 40 g 100 g-1 ) on the texture, staling and in vitro starch digestibility of maize tortillas made using a hot plate (200 °C). RESULTS: Textural analysis showed that CWO reduced hardness and increased the tensile strength of tortillas. Fourier transform infrared analysis indicated that the retrogradation of starch chains, quantified in terms of the intensity ratio 1047/1022, was reduced by oleogel incorporation. In vitro starch digestibility tests showed that tortillas containing CWO had lower readily digestible and slowly digestible starch fractions compared to the control tortilla without oleogel. CONCLUSION: The formation of amylose-lipid inclusion complexes and the formation of an oily physical barrier around starch granules were postulated as mechanisms underlying the reduced starch digestibility. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Pan/análisis , Euphorbia/química , Aditivos Alimentarios/análisis , Aceite de Brassica napus/química , Almidón/química , Ceras/análisis , Zea mays/química , Digestión , Harina/análisis , Manipulación de Alimentos , Calidad de los Alimentos , Dureza , Humanos , Compuestos Orgánicos/química , Almidón/metabolismo , Gusto , Zea mays/metabolismo
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1204-1212, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696521

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to select appropriate low-toxicity degreasing solvents to degrease black soldier fly (BSF, Hermetia illucens L.) larvae to prepare high-quality protein. Aqueous ethyl acetate was chosen as the solvent to extract BSF protein, and traditional solvents, such as petroleum ether, n-hexane, and isopropanol, were chosen as controls. RESULTS: The meal degreased by aqueous ethyl acetate (the volume ratio of ethyl acetate to water is 90 to 10, EA + W10) shows a high degreasing rate (29.04%), crude protein content (562.3 g kg-1 ), essential amino acid index (EAAI, 95.57), and digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS, 85). The digestibility of the degreased meal samples in the simulated in vitro intestine can reach 76.52%. Thermodynamic analysis and the apparent morphology of the protein fragments showed that the meal degreased by EA + W10 exhibited thermodynamic stability, which suggests that using aqueous ethyl acetate as the degreasing solvent did not affect the nutritional value of the degreased meal. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that aqueous ethyl acetate (EA + W10) can be used as a novel solvent in the degreasing of BSF larvae meal to prepare high-quality protein with high EAAI and DIAAS and good digestibility. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Acetatos/química , Manipulación de Alimentos/métodos , Larva/química , Simuliidae/química , Animales , Calor , Valor Nutritivo
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1320-1327, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742702

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Potato protein hydrolysates (PPHs) were preparedwith Alcalase on intact potato protein isolates (PPI), with differenthydrolysis times (0.5-4 h), and functional and conformational properties of resultant hydrolysates were investigated. RESULTS: The degree of hydrolysis changed during incubation. Peptide bond cleavage increased and hydrolysis progressed rapidly. Gel electrophoresis showed that, by increasing the hydrolysis time, peptides with an apparent molecular weight below 20 kDa increased. It also revealed that, among potato protein components, patatin was more sensitive to Alcalase® hydrolysis than protease inhibitors. Enzymatic hydrolysis significantly enhanced the solubility and foam capacity of PPHs, but impaired foam stability (P < 0.05). Limited enzymatic hydrolysates (0.5PPH) at the interface improved the emulsion activity and stability index. These emulsions also had the smallest z-average and polydispersity index and showed the highest zeta potential. Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) analysis indicated extensive disruption of hydrogen bonds in PPHs, besides augmentation of α-helices and ß-turns, and a decline in the ß-sheets in the secondary structure of the PPHs was shown. CONCLUSION: Potato protein isolate, especially 0.5PPH, has good functional and conformational properties. Overall, our results provide new insights into the use of potato protein hydrolysates as a functional food component in the food industry. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Plantas/química , Solanum tuberosum/química , Subtilisinas/química , Biocatálisis , Manipulación de Alimentos , Hidrólisis , Peso Molecular , Péptidos/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Solubilidad
12.
Food Chem ; 302: 125290, 2020 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404873

RESUMEN

In our daily lives, we consume foods that have been transported, stored, prepared, cooked, or otherwise processed by ourselves or others. Food storage and preparation have drastic effects on the chemical composition of foods. Untargeted mass spectrometry analysis of food samples has the potential to increase our chemical understanding of these processes by detecting a broad spectrum of chemicals. We performed a time-based analysis of the chemical changes in foods during common preparations, such as fermentation, brewing, and ripening, using untargeted mass spectrometry and molecular networking. The data analysis workflow presented implements an approach to study changes in food chemistry that can reveal global alterations in chemical profiles, identify changes in abundance, as well as identify specific chemicals and their transformation products. The data generated in this study are publicly available, enabling the replication and re-analysis of these data in isolation, and serve as a baseline dataset for future investigations.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas/análisis , Análisis de los Alimentos , Manipulación de Alimentos , Espectrometría de Masas , Metabolómica , Fermentación , Flujo de Trabajo
13.
Food Chem ; 302: 125141, 2020 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416000

RESUMEN

Four jams were made using two wild species of Physalis spp., two containing seeds (P1WS and P2WS) and two without seeds (P1WHS and P2WHS). Physicochemical, nutraceutical and rheological properties of the jams were determined and a sensory evaluation made. P1WS and P2WS jams had lower carbohydrates contents, reducing sugars and calories, and higher fiber contents than P1WHS and P2WHS. The presence of seeds in the jams increased phenols and flavonoids. However, the seedless jams had better sensory acceptance. The dynamic rheological testing indicated a gel-like behavior (G'>G'') in whole jams. Also, shearing flow testing showed shear-thinning and thixotropic behaviors, which are shared characteristics with others fruit jams, such as mango or gabiroba. The presence of seeds in the jam affected directly yield stress, apparent viscosity, hysteresis area, and viscoelastic parameters, which were described in the sensory analysis as a "less desirable texture". The use of seeds from wild species of Physalis spp., increased the nutritional value of jam. However, it would be necessary to improve consumer acceptance through technological processes prior to marketing.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Manipulación de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Physalis/química , Reología , Semillas/química , Gusto , Fibras de la Dieta/análisis , Flavonoides/análisis , Valor Nutritivo , Fenoles/análisis , Viscosidad
14.
Food Chem ; 302: 125299, 2020 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437710

RESUMEN

Flocculation and sedimentation of a protein-rich biomass from shrimp boiling water (SBW) using food grade polysaccharides (carrageenan, alginate and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)) as flocculants was investigated at different pH-values. The effect of flocculant concentration on particle size and viscosity of SBW was also evaluated. Flocculation with carrageenan (0.45 g/L) at pH = 4 exhibited the most efficient protein sedimentation; protein concentration of the upper phase was here reduced by 77%, allowing 86% protein to be sedimented from SBW. Flocculation by alginate and CMC at pH = 4 showed 67% and 60% protein reduction of the upper phase at concentrations of 0.5 and 0.2 g/L, respectively. Contrary to alginate and CMC, carrageenan concentration affected the size distribution of flocs. Finally, carrageenan at 0.45 g/L and pH = 4 was successfully tested in a scaled up trial (5L) providing 78.5% protein recovery and a biomass with 75% protein on dry weight basis.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Peces/aislamiento & purificación , Manipulación de Alimentos/métodos , Pandalidae/química , Alginatos/química , Animales , Carboximetilcelulosa de Sodio/química , Carragenina/química , Floculación , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Tamaño de la Partícula , Viscosidad , Aguas Residuales/química
15.
Food Chem ; 303: 125372, 2020 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446360

RESUMEN

The formation and partial degradation of acrylamide (AA), asparagine and low molecular weight sugars were evaluated during an industrial coffee roasting process, in which the temperature increased from 90° to about 215 °C. Arabica and Robusta varieties were roasted individually. AA content reached the maximum value at 10 min, corresponding to a temperature of 175-177 °C (1045 ±â€¯28 and 795 ±â€¯25 µg kg-1 for Arabica and Robusta, respectively). Successively, AA content decreased very quickly and at 14 min (203-205 °C) its concentration was lower than the benchmark level of 400 µg kg-1 for roast coffee set by the EU Commission Regulation (2017/2158). In the final product, AA content was close to 300 µg kg-1. Asparagine quickly decreased; contrary, the concentration of fructose and glucose increased reaching their maximum value at 12 min. Then, a quick degradation occurred; their increase could be mainly due to the hydrolysis of sucrose, which decreased in the same period.


Asunto(s)
Acrilamida/análisis , Café/química , Manipulación de Alimentos , Calor , Asparagina/química , Sacarosa , Azúcares/química
16.
Food Chem ; 303: 125390, 2020 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450177

RESUMEN

Cheddar cheese predicted to develop into different quality classes has been evaluated by time domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Thermogravimetric analysis and quantitative sensory analysis. The water and fat proton signals in the transverse relaxation decay curves have been deconvoluted. Proton transverse relaxation values for both the water and fat fractions decrease and the relative %age of the proton peak area, predominantly from the fat increases over a 450-day ripening period. The thermodynamic free water percentage increases during maturation. Water and fat attributes can distinguish between Cheddar cheese batches after 56 days. Cheese batches which have lower transverse relaxation values for the water and fat proton fractions and a higher relative %age of the proton peak area predominantly from fat at 56 days, mature after 270 days to be more yellow, rubbery and smooth, have a less sour and lingering aftertaste and are also harder to form into a cheese ball.


Asunto(s)
Queso/análisis , Grasas/análisis , Manipulación de Alimentos , Agua/análisis , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Gusto , Tiempo
17.
Food Chem ; 303: 125405, 2020 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466029

RESUMEN

The study aimed at evaluating the influence of fermented sugarcane molasses ageing on lees and the distillation process used for the production of rums. Molasses were freshly fermented or 3-months lees aged. Batch (PS: Pot Still) or continuous (CS: Coffey Still) distillation was carried out resulting in four different rum distillates. Gas chromatography and 3D-fluorescence enabled to differentiate rum distillates chemical composition according to the distillation process, regardless of the ageing on lees of fermented molasses. Differences in fluorescent PARAFAC components and volatile acids, acetals and carbonyls contents revealed the predominance of the physicochemical processes driven at the liquid-vapor interface of fermented molasses, generated by the distillation systems. Notwithstanding the distilling conditions, the long chain fatty ester content was significantly higher in the 3-months lees aged condition. Multivariate analysis highlighted that CS rum distillates were chemically more homogeneous than those obtained by PS that preserved the lees effect.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas/análisis , Destilación/métodos , Manipulación de Alimentos/métodos , Melaza/análisis , Saccharum/química , Cromatografía de Gases , Fermentación , Factores de Tiempo
18.
Food Chem ; 304: 125284, 2020 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476546

RESUMEN

The reactions of different lipid-derived reactive carbonyls with ammonia-producing compounds were studied to investigate the formation of pyridines in foods. 2-Alkyl, 3-alkyl-, and 2,5-dialkylpyiridines were produced by oligomerization of short-chain aldehydes in the presence of ammonia. Thus, acetaldehyde/crotonaldehyde mixtures and 2,4-alkadienals were the main responsible for the formation of 2-alkylpyridines; acrolein or 2,4-alkadienals were needed for the formation of 3-alkylpyridines; and 2-alkenals were responsible for the formation of 2,5-dialkylpyridines. On the contrary, 2,6-dialkylpyridines were produced by cyclization of unsaturated ketones. Reactions pathways for formation of these pyridines are proposed, and confirmed by isotopic labelling experiments. Aldehydes and ketones required for their formation are produced in the course of lipid oxidation. Therefore, pyridine formation seems to be an additional consequence of the lipid oxidation pathway. This new knowledge can employed for the optimization of reactions to achieve the desired targeted flavor generation during food processing.


Asunto(s)
Aldehídos/química , Amoníaco/química , Manipulación de Alimentos , Calor , Peroxidación de Lípido , Piridinas/química , Acetaldehído/química , Oxidación-Reducción
19.
Food Chem ; 304: 125428, 2020 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476548

RESUMEN

To protect allergic patients and guarantee correct food labeling, robust, specific and sensitive detection methods are urgently needed. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based methods could overcome the limitations of current detection techniques. The first step in the development of an MS-based method is the identification of biomarkers, which are, in the case of food allergens, peptides. Here, we implemented a strategy to identify the most salient peptide biomarkers in peanuts. Processed peanut matrices were prepared and analyzed using an untargeted approach via high-resolution MS. More than 300 identified peptides were further filtered using selection criteria to strengthen the analytical performance of a future, routine quantitative method. The resulting 16 peptides are robust to food processing, specific to peanuts, and satisfy sequence-based criteria. The aspect of multiple protein isoforms is also considered in the selection tree, an aspect that is essential for a quantitative method's robustness but seldom, if ever, considered.


Asunto(s)
Alérgenos/análisis , Arachis/química , Manipulación de Alimentos , Espectrometría de Masas , Hipersensibilidad al Cacahuete , Biomarcadores/análisis , Humanos , Péptidos/análisis
20.
Food Chem ; 309: 125769, 2020 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734007

RESUMEN

Phenolic compounds are known to bind non-covalently with starch, but the impact of this interaction on the stability of the phenolic compounds through processing and digestion has received little attention. In this study, we examined the recovery of intact phenolic compounds (gallic acid-GA, catechin-CAT and epigallocatechin gallate-EGCG) from processed and digested porridges with different formulations (starch or starch/protein). We observed that phenolics were less degraded in presence of starch only than in presence of starch + proteins. This protection seemed to be linked to the ability of the phenolic compounds to form V-type inclusion complexes with starch, with GA, CAT and EGCG in decreasing order of protection. This work could influence formulation of functional cereal-based foods containing phenolic compounds in order to maximize their retention.


Asunto(s)
Manipulación de Alimentos/métodos , Fenoles/química , Proteínas/química , Almidón/química , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/química , Catequina/metabolismo , Ácido Gálico/química , Ácido Gálico/metabolismo , Gelatina/química , Gelatina/metabolismo , Fenoles/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Almidón/metabolismo
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