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1.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110486, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399482

RESUMEN

Margarines are an expanding market worldwide due to large-scale commercial, lower cost, growth of bakery and confectionery markets, and seasonal independence. The fatty acid composition, solid fat content, consistency, and melting point of the fats used in margarine determine their functional properties. Due to its proven association with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, the recommendations of the World Health Organization and the enactment of laws in several countries to eliminate industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFA) have resulted in the prohibition or progressive reduction in the use of partially hydrogenated fat. However, issues related to high levels of TFA and saturated fatty acids still constitute a challenge in the formulation of this product category. Current trends on margarine production addition of phytosterols, non-lipid components, organogels, and new interesterified fat bases are reviewed. This review aims to present a historical view and the technological evolution of margarines, including their production processes, formulations, and physical and nutritional characteristics, as well as legislation, and main trends.


Asunto(s)
Margarina , Ácidos Grasos trans , Grasas de la Dieta , Ácidos Grasos
2.
J Oleo Sci ; 70(8): 1059-1068, 2021 Aug 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248093

RESUMEN

Vitamin C (VC)-loaded oleogel (VCOG) with corn oil and monoglyceride stearate was used to replace lipid phase of margarine completely. The oxidative stability of VCOG was evaluated at 60±1°C in a lightproof oven for 18 days and the result showed that VCOG peroxide (> 6 days) and p-anisidine value (> 4 days) was significantly lower than that of bulk oil and VC-free oleogel (p < 0.05). Then, the margarine containing 79.70% VCOG (VCOGM) was in comparison with four commercial butter in sensory and physical characteristic. Results showed that firmness, solid fat content and trans fatty acid of VCOGM were in the lowest values while unsaturated fatty acid and adhesiveness of VCOGM was in the highest values. Furthermore, VCOGM presented the similar springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, score appearance, texture, taste and overall impression to some/all commercial butters selected in this research (p > 0.05). These results implied that VC-loaded oleogel was an excellent alternative of lipid phase in margarine which confirmed by 55% "definitely buy" and 25% "try once-then decide".


Asunto(s)
Ácido Ascórbico/química , Aceite de Maíz/química , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/química , Margarina , Monoglicéridos/química , Estearatos/química , Mantequilla , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Ácidos Grasos Insaturados/análisis , Humanos , Compuestos Orgánicos/química , Oxidación-Reducción , Gusto , Triglicéridos/análisis , Triglicéridos/química
3.
Food Chem ; 363: 130260, 2021 Nov 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120047

RESUMEN

Soybean oil (SBO) and fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSBO) have been used for margarine production. However, SBO-based margarine requires a considerable amount of trans fatty acid-containing FHSBO due to its low melting point. We aimed to reduce the FHSBO content in margarine by employing duck fat, which has a higher melting point than SBO. Margarines were prepared using different ratios of duck fat and reduced levels of SBO and FHSBO. Physicochemical, sensory, and oxidative properties of the margarines were evaluated. The quality characteristics of margarine improved when duck fat replaced SBO and FHSBO. Furthermore, the lipid oxidation parameters were lower in duck fat-added margarines than the control during storage at 60 °C for 28 days. The margarine containing 80% duck fat showed the best sensory properties. Collectively, duck fat can replace SBO in margarine while reducing the use of FHSBO and maintaining desirable physicochemical properties, oxidative stability, and sensory properties.


Asunto(s)
Margarina , Ácidos Grasos trans , Animales , Patos , Estrés Oxidativo , Aceite de Soja
4.
J Food Sci ; 86(7): 2785-2801, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160057

RESUMEN

This review discusses the application of oleogel technology in emulsified systems. In these systems of mimetic fats, water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsions can be obtained, but, here, we cover emulsions with an oil continuous phase in detail. Depending on the percentage of water added to the oleogels, systems with different textures and rheological properties can be developed. These properties are affected by the characteristics and concentration of the added components and emulsion preparation methods. In addition, some gelators exhibit interfacial properties, resulting in more stable emulsions than those of conventional emulsions. Oleogel-based emulsion are differentiated by continuous and dispersed phases and the structuring/emulsification components. Crucially, these emulsions could be applied by the food industry for preparing, for example, meat products and margarines, as well as by the cosmetics industry. We present the different processes of emulsion elaboration, the main gelators used, the influence of the water content on the structuring of water-in-oleogel emulsions, and the structuring mechanisms (Pickering, network, and combined Pickering and network stabilization). Finally, we highlight the applications of these systems as alternatives for reducing processed food lipid content and saturated fat levels.


Asunto(s)
Emulsiones , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Margarina/análisis , Productos de la Carne/análisis , Reología , Compuestos Orgánicos/química
5.
Food Chem ; 356: 129604, 2021 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819790

RESUMEN

A non-targeted chemometric method was devised to detect possible butter adulteration without prior knowledge of the adulterant and marker compounds. Nine common edible oils including vegetable oils, animal fats and margarines were selected as potential adulterants to build a unified classification model. The samples were analyzed using the high-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated with an evaporative light scattering detector (UHPLC-ELSD) and an ultraviolet detector (UHPLC-UV), with the pointwise chromatograms instead of individual peaks for modelling. Both models achieved over 95% correct classification in external validation at the adulteration levels as low as 5% (w/w). The root mean squared errors of prediction (RMSEP) of the regression model were 0.9865 and 1.9080 for UHPLC-ELSD and UHPLC-UV, respectively. Non-targeted chemometrics analyses based on pointwise chromatographic profiles could be valuable for detecting adulterated butter.


Asunto(s)
Mantequilla/análisis , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Margarina/análisis , Aceites Vegetales/análisis
6.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921832

RESUMEN

This register-based national cohort study of 206,900 individuals investigated whether prenatal exposure to small extra doses of vitamin D from fortified margarine prevented inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) later in life; whether the risk of IBD varied according to month or season of birth; and finally, whether there was an interaction between exposure to extra D vitamin and month or season of birth. Fortification of margarine with vitamin D was mandatory in Denmark from the mid-1930s until 1st June 1985, when it was abolished. Two entire birth cohorts, each including two years, were defined: one exposed and one unexposed to the fortification policy for the entire gestation. All individuals were followed for 30 years from the day of birth for an IBD diagnosis in Danish hospital registers. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Odds for IBD was lower among those exposed to extra D vitamin compared to those unexposed, OR = 0.87 (95% CI: 0.79; 0.95). No association with month or season of birth was found. However, estimates suggested that particularly children born during autumn may have benefitted from the effect of small extra doses of vitamin D. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to explore if prenatal exposure to vitamin D from fortification influenced the risk of IBD. Our results suggest that prenatal exposure to small amounts of extra vitamin D from food fortification may protect against the development of IBD before 30 years of age.


Asunto(s)
Alimentos Fortificados , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/prevención & control , Exposición Materna/prevención & control , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/prevención & control , Vitamina D/administración & dosificación , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios de Cohortes , Dinamarca , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Margarina , Fenómenos Fisiologicos Nutricionales Maternos , Política Nutricional , Oportunidad Relativa , Embarazo , Complicaciones del Embarazo/prevención & control , Sistema de Registros , Estaciones del Año , Factores de Tiempo , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/complicaciones , Deficiencia de Vitamina D/prevención & control , Adulto Joven
7.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 92, 2021 04 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853582

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence highlights healthy dietary patterns and links daily cooking oil intake with chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. However, food-based evidence supporting the consumption of cooking oils in relation to total and cardiometabolic mortality remains largely absent. We aim to prospectively evaluate the relations of cooking oils with death from cardiometabolic (CVD and diabetes) and other causes. METHODS: We identified and prospectively followed 521,120 participants aged 50-71 years from the National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study. Individual cooking oil/fat consumption was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for mortality through the end of 2011. RESULTS: Overall, 129,328 deaths were documented during a median follow-up of 16 years. Intakes of butter and margarine were associated with higher total mortality while intakes of canola oil and olive oil were related to lower total mortality. After multivariate adjustment for major risk factors, the HRs of cardiometabolic mortality for each 1-tablespoon/day increment were 1.08 (95% CI 1.05-1.10) for butter, 1.06 (1.05-1.08) for margarine, 0.99 (0.95-1.03) for corn oil, 0.98 (0.94-1.02) for canola oil, and 0.96 (0.92-0.99) for olive oil. Besides, butter consumption was positively associated with cancer mortality. Substituting corn oil, canola oil, or olive oil for equal amounts of butter and margarine was related to lower all-cause mortality and mortality from certain causes, including CVD, diabetes, cancer, respiratory disease, and Alzheimer's disease. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of butter and margarine was associated with higher total and cardiometabolic mortality. Replacing butter and margarine with canola oil, corn oil, or olive oil was related to lower total and cardiometabolic mortality. Our findings support shifting the intake from solid fats to non-hydrogenated vegetable oils for cardiometabolic health and longevity.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Margarina , Mantequilla , Culinaria , Grasas de la Dieta , Humanos , Aceite de Oliva , Aceites Vegetales
8.
Food Res Int ; 140: 110036, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648262

RESUMEN

This study aimed to investigate the effect of the addition of organogels in low-fat and high-fat margarines during storage. Margarine formulations were made using water: oil ratios of 65:35 and 40:60 (w/w), and a lipid phase composed of organogel made with soybean oil, candelilla wax, fully hydrogenated palm oil, and mononoacylglycerols. The thermal stability, particle size, consistency, peroxide index, oil exudation, and microstructure of the margarines were evaluated for six months of storage. All margarines showed thermal stability at 35 °C, with no physical destabilization during the period studied. Both low-fat and high-fat margarines presented similar particle size distribution, with d3.3 around units of 5 µm. The peroxide index of the margarines ranged from 1.27 to 5.97 meq O2/Kg after six months of storage. High-fat margarines showed greater hardness and lower spreadability. The amount of water added to the formulations affected the stability, particle size, and texture of the margarines. It was possible to produce margarines with different fat contents and greater health appeal. The margarines with 60% and 35% fat exhibited 12.00 and 8.03% SFA; 32.63 and 18.20% PUFA; and 14.37 and 8.20% MUFA, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Margarina , Aceite de Soja , Dieta con Restricción de Grasas
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709879

RESUMEN

In this study, polylactic acid (PLA)/titanium dioxide/lycopene (PLA/TiO2/Lyc) nano-composite film was prepared. The morphology and mechanical properties of the film were studied by SEM and texture analyser. Results showed that lycopene and TiO2 nanoparticles were distributed in the film matrix uniformly, TiO2 and lycopene increased the mechanical properties of PLA film. The PLA/TiO2/Lyc film was used to package margarine. The effect of PLA/TiO2/Lyc film, time and temperature of storage on the qualitative features of margarine were studied. Also the colour properties of PLA/TiO2/Lyc film were studied during storage period. Oxidative features (antioxidant activity, acidity number, peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid value) of margarine showed that the quality features of margarine decreased during storage, but the PLA/TiO2/Lyc film controled the oxidative factors and increased the margarine shelf life significantly (P < .05). Results also showed that the PLA/TiO2/Lyc film colour changed from red to light yellow during storage. With increasing margarine storage time, the film colour index a decreased (red colour diminished) while b increased (yellow colour increased). There were good relations between colour changes of film and oxidative parameters of margarine and storage time and storage temperature. Thus PLA/TiO2/Lyc film can be used as a visual indicator of the oxidation variations during storage of packaged margarine.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Embalaje de Alimentos , Licopeno/análisis , Margarina/análisis , Nanocompuestos/análisis , Poliésteres/análisis , Color , Análisis de los Alimentos , Titanio/análisis
10.
J Oleo Sci ; 70(4): 479-490, 2021 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692235

RESUMEN

The effects of sucrose ester of fatty acid (SEF) on the nanostructure and the physical properties of water-in-oil (W/O)-type emulsified semisolid fats were investigated. Model emulsions including palm-based semisolid fats and fully hydrogenated rapeseed oils with 0.5% SEF or fractionated lecithin, were prepared by rapidly cooling crystallization using 0.5% monoacylglycerol as an emulsifier. The SEFs used in this study were functionalized with various fatty acids, namely, lauric, palmitic, stearic, oleic, and erucic acids. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) was used to observe the sizes of the solvent- extracted nanoplatelets. The solid fat content (SFC), oil migration value, and storage elastic modulus were also determined. The average crystal size, which was measured in length, of the fat blends with SEFs containing saturated fatty acids (namely, palmitic and stearic acids) was smaller than that of the SEFs containing unsaturated fatty acids (namely, oleic and erucic acids). The effects exerted by these fatty acid moieties on the spherulite size in the corresponding bulk fat blends were observed via polarized microscopy (PLM). The results suggest that nanostructure formation upon the addition of SEF ultimately influenced these aggregated microstructures. Generally, smaller platelets resulted in higher SFC in the fat phase, and a high correlation between the SFC and the G' values in W/O emulsion fats was observed (R2 = 0.884) at 30°C. In contrast, the correlation was low at 10℃. Furthermore, samples with larger nanocrystals had a higher propensity for oil migration. Thus, the addition of SEF regulated the fat crystal nanostructure during nucleation and crystal growth, which could ultimately influence the physical properties of commercially manufactured fat products such as margarine.


Asunto(s)
Emulsiones/química , Grasas/química , Ácidos Grasos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Aceite de Palma/química , Sacarosa/química , Agua/química , Fenómenos Químicos , Cristalización , Emulsionantes/química , Hidrogenación , Lecitinas/química , Margarina , Aceite de Brassica napus/química , Temperatura
11.
J Chromatogr A ; 1639: 461940, 2021 Feb 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548662

RESUMEN

The development and validation of a method for the analysis of traces of 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD) esters (19) and glycidyl esters (7) of fatty acids in vegetable oils, margarine, biscuits and croissants was performed. An extraction method based on the use of solvents (tert­butyl methyl ether (20% ethyl acetate, v/v)) was carried out and cleaning of the extract with a mixture of sorbents (Si-SAX, PSA and Z-sep+) was optimized for the elimination of fatty interferents. The analysis of the targeted compounds was carried out by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, using a triple quadrupole analyzer (UHPLC-MS/MS-QqQ). The validation of the method provided trueness values between 72 and 118% and precision lower than 20%. The limits of quantification ranged from 0.01 to 0.1 mg kg-1, which were below the current legal limits. Twenty samples of vegetable oils as well of 4 samples of margarine, biscuits and croissants were analyzed. Six out of the 24 samples (25%) exceeded the limits set by European legislation, and a maximum contamination of 3-MCPD esters at 2.52 mg kg-1 was obtained in a sample of corn oil (being 1-myristoyl-3-MCPD the compound detected at the highest concentration). A maximum concentration of glycidyl esters at 7.84 mg kg-1 was determined in a soybean oil sample (glycidyl linoleate as the main compound). Only one sample of olive oil exceeded the maximum allowable limit for 3-MCPD esters with a value of 1.72 mg kg-1, expressed as 3-MCPD.


Asunto(s)
Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Ésteres/análisis , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos , alfa-Clorhidrina/análisis , Compuestos Epoxi/análisis , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Límite de Detección , Margarina/análisis , Aceite de Oliva/análisis , Propanoles/análisis , Estándares de Referencia , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Aceite de Soja/análisis
12.
Food Chem ; 340: 127927, 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889214

RESUMEN

The effects of the support on the catalytic performance of supported Ni catalysts for the hydrogenation of soybean oil were examined. The turnover frequency (TOF) for Ni/TiO2 was greater than those for other Ni catalysts. Among the examined Ni catalysts, the Ni/TiO2 catalysts were effective for the reduction of trans fatty acid (TFA) levels (minimum 10.5%) in hydrogenated oils at an iodine value (IV) of 70, independent of the difference in the crystalline structure of TiO2. In addition, the oils hydrogenated by Ni/TiO2 had suitable properties for feedstock of margarine and vegetable shortening. The highly dispersed Ni nanoparticles formed by reduction of the NiO monolayer on the surface of TiO2 contribute to increasing the catalytic activity and to reducing the TFA levels.


Asunto(s)
Níquel/química , Aceite de Soja/química , Titanio/química , Ácidos Grasos trans/química , Catálisis , Hidrogenación , Margarina , Nanopartículas del Metal
13.
J AOAC Int ; 103(5): 1256-1263, 2020 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241381

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The emulsion induced by emulsion breaking (EIEB) procedure was previously reported for the extraction of copper, iron, manganese, and nickel from liquid oil samples such as vegetable oil. OBJECTIVE: To optimize the EIEB procedure for determination of copper, iron, manganese, and nickel in solid oil (margarine) samples by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS). METHODS: The extraction procedure uses a surfactant in nitric acid to form an emulsion followed by heating to break the emulsion. Optimization included variation of the test portion size, the type and concentration of the surfactant, the concentration of nitric acid in the aqueous solution, the emulsion agitation time, heating temperature, and the time required to break the emulsion. RESULTS: Mean element concentrations of 11 margarine samples were in the following ranges: Cu 0.031-0.131 µg/g, Fe 5.7-24.9 µg/g, Mn 0.542-1.11 µg/g, and Ni 0.108-0.134 µg/g. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the detection limits (µg/kg) were 4.8, 13, 1.5, and 23 for Cu, Fe, Mn, and Ni, respectively. The accuracy of the extraction procedure was determined by comparison to commonly used microwave digestion procedure. The EIEB results were not statistically different from the microwave digestion results when analyzed by GFAAS as determined by the statistical tests. CONCLUSIONS: The EIEB procedure was shown to be equivalent to the commonly used microwave digestion procedure for extraction of analytes from margarine samples. HIGHLIGHTS: The optimized EIEB extraction procedure is simple, rapid, low cost, and environmentally friendly. It has improved detection limits and allows calibration with aqueous standards.


Asunto(s)
Grafito , Margarina , Emulsiones , Nivel sin Efectos Adversos Observados , Espectrofotometría Atómica
14.
J Food Sci ; 85(10): 3293-3302, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935874

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to examine the physical properties of margarines prepared from oleogels with binary mixtures of candelilla wax (CDW) and beeswax (BW) in soybean oil. Some of the margarines made from oleogels with mixtures of CDW and BW had higher firmness than those made with one wax. For example, a 3% wax margarine made with 25% CDW and 75% BW had significantly higher firmness (0.97 N) than those with 100% CDW (0.59 N) and with 100% BW (0.11 N). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) analyses revealed eutectic melting properties for binary wax margarines, which may be desirable since wax oleogel-based margarines often have higher melting points than conventional margarines. For example, the major melting point of 3% wax margarine made with 50% CDW and 50% BW was 43.85 °C, while for margarines made with 100% CDW or 100% BW, the melting points were at 46.00% and 47.61 °C, respectively. SFC was lowest for margarines with 50 or 75% BW; for example, 3% wax margarine with 25% CDW and 75% BW had 0.72% SFC at 40 °C while those with 100% CDW and 100% BW had 1.19 and 1.13% SFC, respectively. However, dropping point constantly decreased with increasing BW ratios. This study demonstrated that by mixing two waxes, the firmness of oleogel-based margarines could be increased, and the melting point could be tailored by the ratio of two waxes. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study demonstrated that firmness and melting properties of margarines prepared from wax-oleogels can be improved by mixing two waxes, making their practical application more feasible. Firmness of margarines prepared with oleogels of binary mixtures of candelilla wax and beeswax were higher than those with pure waxes. The melting point of wax oleogel-based margarines was decreased by use of binary mixtures of candelilla wax and beeswax.


Asunto(s)
Margarina/análisis , Aceite de Soja/química , Ceras/análisis , Animales , Ascomicetos/química , Abejas , Aditivos Alimentarios/análisis , Manipulación de Alimentos , Compuestos Orgánicos/análisis
15.
J Food Sci ; 85(9): 2866-2878, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790192

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of recovered sunflower waxes (RW) to be used as a structuring agent of oleogel emulsions in comparison with commercial sunflower waxes (CW). RW were recovered from filter cake with a simple hexane extraction procedure. For this purpose, oleogel-based emulsions were prepared using 2%, 3.5%, and 5% w/w wax in oleogel and characterized using several physicochemical techniques in order to evaluate the potential of these materials to develop products with functionality similar to commercial margarines. The total wax esters content of RW was similar to that of the CW and was mainly composed of wax esters with more than 44 carbon atoms (crystallizable waxes). Polarized light and scanning electron microscopy showed that RW produced emulsions with more intricate crystalline networks composed of smaller platelets than CW. The melting enthalpy was greater in CW emulsions than RW emulsions, which was in agreement with the thermal behavior found for CW and RW. The oil binding capacity of CW oleogel emulsions was higher than the RW ones, and this property improved with the increase in wax concentration. Likewise, the elastic behavior, as well as hardness and adhesiveness, increased with the wax content as a result of a greater amount of microstructural elements composing the network of these semisolid materials. The oleogel emulsions stability was monitored for 2 months at room temperature. The increase of CW concentration slowed down the coalescence process, but this behavior was not observed for RW emulsions. Obtained results demonstrated that RW oleogel emulsions have the potential to replace the functionality of soft spreadable products. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Wax esters are organogelators that have been shown to successfully gel liquid oil at low concentrations. In this work, we are interested in evaluating the potential of sunflower waxes recovered from filter cake, a waste generated during refined oil production, to structure oil and produce oil-in-water emulsions with functionality similar to commercial margarines. With this, it is sought not only the development of healthier fats but also the use of wastes to generate more sustainable products.


Asunto(s)
Helianthus/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Ceras/química , Emulsiones/química , Ésteres/química , Margarina/análisis , Compuestos Orgánicos/química , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Ceras/aislamiento & purificación
16.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 Apr 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349457

RESUMEN

Few studies have examined the role of maternal diet in relation to development of coeliac disease (CD). In Denmark, cancellation of mandatory vitamin D fortification of margarine in June 1985 provided this opportunity. This study examined if season of birth or prenatal exposure to extra vitamin D from food fortification were associated with developing CD later in life. A strength of this study is the distinctly longer follow-up of patients (30 years). This register-based study has a semi-ecological design. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios and to calculate 95% confidence intervals. The odds ratio for developing CD was 0.81 (95% CI 0.66; 1.00 p = 0.054), comparing those with fetal exposure to mandatory vitamin D fortification policy of margarine to those without after adjusting for gender and season of birth. There was a statistically significant season effect particularly for children born in autumn (OR 1.6 95% CI 1.16; 2.21) and born in summer (OR 1.5 95% CI 1.1; 2.1) when compared to children born in winter. Although this study did not find evidence to support the premise that prenatal exposure to small extra amounts of vitamin D from a mandatory food fortification policy lowered risk of developing CD, the small number of CD cases and observed association between season of birth and CD suggest that environmental exposure ought to be further explored.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Celíaca/etiología , Dieta/efectos adversos , Suplementos Dietéticos , Alimentos Fortificados/efectos adversos , Margarina/efectos adversos , Política Nutricional , Necesidades Nutricionales , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal , Estaciones del Año , Vitamina D/administración & dosificación , Vitamina D/efectos adversos , Enfermedad Celíaca/epidemiología , Enfermedad Celíaca/prevención & control , Dinamarca/epidemiología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Alimentos Fortificados/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Margarina/normas , Embarazo
17.
J Avian Med Surg ; 34(1): 70-77, 2020 Mar 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237685

RESUMEN

Two great blue herons (Ardea herodias) and an anhinga (Anhinga anhinga) were presented to the Wildlife Center of Texas with extensive plumage soiling from polyisobutylene (PIB), a synthetic rubber polymer used in manufacturing. All animals were provided supportive care and sedated for evaluation for hematologic and plasma biochemical values; one of the great blue herons was critically ill, based on the diagnostic evaluations and died approximately 24 hours after admission. On postmortem examination, it was diagnosed with coelomic migration of Eustrongylides species resulting in verminous peritonitis that was likely the primary cause of its poor condition and death, rather than the PIB exposure. Standard decontamination efforts with commercial liquid dish soap were unsuccessful. Application of margarine was used to emulsify the PIB on the remaining 2 birds and was followed by standard wash protocols for successful removal. These animals were successfully released after decontamination. The use of margarine for decontamination of PIB is unreported and could prove useful in future decontamination events in birds and other wildlife when traditional methods to remove hydrocarbon compounds are unsuccessful.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de las Aves/terapia , Aves , Margarina , Polienos/envenenamiento , Polímeros/envenenamiento , Contaminantes del Agua/envenenamiento , Animales , Enfermedades de las Aves/sangre , Descontaminación , Envenenamiento/terapia , Envenenamiento/veterinaria
19.
Fertil Steril ; 113(2): 383-391, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759634

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To study the association between extra vitamin D from a mandatory margarine fortification program and chance of live birth among infertile women. DESIGN: Nationwide cohort study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): The study population consisted of 16,212 women diagnosed with infertility from June 1, 1980, to August 31, 1991. INTERVENTIONS(S): We took advantage of the mandatory vitamin D fortification program of margarine in Denmark that was abruptly stopped on May 31, 1985. The termination of the vitamin D fortification served as a cutoff point to separate the study population into various exposure groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between vitamin D exposure status and chance of a live birth within 12, 15, and 18 months after first infertility diagnosis. RESULT(S): Women who were diagnosed with infertility during the vitamin D-exposed period had an increased chance of a live birth compared with women diagnosed with infertility during the nonexposed period. For women diagnosed with infertility during the wash-out period, the chance of a live birth was also increased, but somewhat lower. Similar estimates were obtained with longer follow-up, in women with anovulatory infertility, and little seasonal variation was observed when calendar period of conception was applied. CONCLUSION(S): Our findings suggest that infertile women exposed to extra vitamin D from a margarine fortification program had an increased chance of live birth compared with women not exposed to extra vitamin D from fortification.


Asunto(s)
Fertilidad , Alimentos Fortificados , Infertilidad Femenina/fisiopatología , Margarina , Vitamina D/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Dinamarca/epidemiología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Humanos , Infertilidad Femenina/diagnóstico , Infertilidad Femenina/epidemiología , Nacimiento Vivo , Embarazo , Índice de Embarazo , Ingesta Diaria Recomendada , Sistema de Registros , Factores de Tiempo
20.
Food Sci Technol Int ; 26(2): 113-122, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461367

RESUMEN

In this study, the quality of the local Romanian butters was investigated using the classical pycnometer and optic microscopy methods, combined with Raman spectroscopy. We used a pool of 10 samples with different characteristics, and analyzed them by the three aforementioned methods. Pycnometric measurements showed a direct correlation between the fat content and the density values of the samples. Raman spectroscopy validated the results from the pycnometric measurements and the optical microscopy and indicated several other properties, such as protein content, hydration, saturation level of the polycarbonate chains, as well as the total cis isomer content and the type of arrangement preferred by the aliphatic chains (polymorphic transition). The methods employed in the present study have a strong potential to become analytical tools for the food industry and food safety agencies in order to assess the quality of butters and margarines, in a fast and cost-effective manner.


Asunto(s)
Mantequilla/análisis , Espectrometría Raman , Grasas de la Dieta/análisis , Análisis de los Alimentos , Margarina/análisis , Microscopía , Tamaño de la Partícula , Análisis de Componente Principal
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