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1.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246295, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539383

RESUMEN

Since December 2019, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has catapulted the world into a marked health crisis, with over 29 million cases and >930,000 deaths. To better detect affected individuals at an early stage and stop disease progression to an advanced stage, several studies have been conducted to identify the clinical, biological, and radiological characteristics of COVID-19. This study aimed to enrich the literature by critically analyzing the clinical and biological characteristics of 134 patients from the North African Mediterranean region, including numerous genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors that may influence disease evolution. This single-center retrospective study included all patients older than 18 years confirmed to have COVID-19 and hospitalized at the Cheikh Khalifa University Hospital affiliated with Mohammed VI University of Health Sciences, Casablanca, Morocco. Clinical, demographic, and biological data were analyzed in a cohort of severe and non-severe patients. Univariate analysis was performed to identify factors predictive of severity. There were 134 patients: the median age was 53 years, and 54.5% were male. Of these, 89 had mild to moderate disease; 45 had severe to critical disease, of which 14 died and 31 survived. Advanced age, presence of comorbidities, male sex, and infection in ethnic or family groups were risk factors for progression to severe disease. The presence of abnormalities in the following parameters were strongly associated with progression to severe disease: white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin, D-dimers, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ferritin, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) during both admission and hospitalization. Based on these results and an extensive literature review, we recommend that clinicians closely monitor the biological parameters identified herein and perform immunological and genetic studies.


Asunto(s)
/sangre , /aislamiento & purificación , Adulto , Anciano , /epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Marruecos/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
2.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 7, 2021 01 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33505866

RESUMEN

Background: Pandemic confinement of COVID-19 may influence dietary behaviors and physical activity, and increases the risk of stress, especially among adolescents. This increases the subsequent risk of degenerative diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, etc., which can lead to a higher risk of death. This study aims to evaluate the effect of confinement on the weight load, physical activity and dietary behavior of higher education students during the period of confinement. Methods: Data was collected by an anonymous online questionnaire with 406 students. Physical activity was evaluated with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A reference score of the National Nutrition and Health Program (PNNS-GS) was used to determine the dietary habits. Stress appreciation was assessed by using a psychological instrument known as the "Perceived Stress Scale" provided by Mind Garden. Results: More than a quarter of the students were overweight or obese. During the confinement of COVID-19, most of the students suffered from nutritional disorders, only one-third were moderately physically active, and the majority of students were at risk of stress. Multivariate analysis showed that the concept of threat of Stress increases the risk of weight gain at a risk level of 2.4 [95% CI 1.09-5.43], low physical activity increases the risk level to 1.9 [95% CI 1.18-3.04]. However, a balanced diet is protective against the occurrence of weight gain (ORa = 0.30, [95% CI 0.15-0.61]). Conclusion: The study showed that confinement appeared to contribute to weight gain and those students were more sedentary than active with unhealthy eating behaviors. Understanding these behaviors during COVID-19 confinement will help public health authorities implement future policies on recommendations when new pandemics arrive and confinement policies are implemented.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Ejercicio Físico , Conducta Alimentaria , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Aumento de Peso , Adolescente , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Dieta , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Marruecos/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Factores Protectores , Conducta Sedentaria , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 48, 2021 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430783

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Morocco, of the estimated 29,000 people living with HIV in 2011, only 20% were aware of their HIV status. More than half of diagnoses were at the AIDS stage. We assumed that people who were unaware of their infection had contacts with the healthcare system for HIV indicators that might prompt the healthcare provider to offer a test. The aim was to assess missed opportunities for HIV testing in patients newly diagnosed with HIV who accessed care in Morocco. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012-2013 in six Moroccan HIV centers. Participants were aged ≥18, and had sought care within 6 months after their HIV diagnosis. A standardized questionnaire administered during a face-to-face interview collected the patient's characteristics at HIV diagnosis, HIV testing and medical history. Contacts with care and the occurrence of clinical conditions were assessed during the 3 years prior to HIV diagnosis. Over this period, we assessed whether healthcare providers had offered HIV testing to patients with HIV-related clinical or behavioral conditions. RESULTS: We enrolled 650 newly HIV-diagnosed patients (median age: 35, women: 55%, heterosexuals: 81%, diagnosed with AIDS or CD4 < 200 cells/mm3: 63%). During the 3 years prior to the HIV diagnosis, 71% (n = 463) of participants had ≥1 contact with the healthcare system. Of 323 people with HIV-related clinical conditions, 22% did not seek care for them and 9% sought care and were offered an HIV test by a healthcare provider. The remaining 69% were not offered a test and were considered as missed opportunities for HIV testing. Of men who have sex with men, 83% did not address their sexual behavior with their healthcare provider, 11% were not offered HIV testing, while 6% were offered HIV testing after reporting their sexual behavior to their provider. CONCLUSIONS: Among people who actually sought care during the period of probable infection, many opportunities for HIV testing, based on at-risk behaviors or clinical signs, were missed. This highlights the need to improve the recognition of HIV clinical indicators by physicians, further expand community-based HIV testing by lay providers, and implement self-testing to increase accessibility and privacy.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , VIH/aislamiento & purificación , Tamizaje Masivo , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Heterosexualidad , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Marruecos/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Asunción de Riesgos , Conducta Sexual , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(7): 7636-7651, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398755

RESUMEN

Rapid population growth and poor waste management practice are among the main drivers of plastic pollution in modern times, thus making Africa a hotspot for plastic pollution both now and in the future. This study is a review of plastic pollution reports from the African aquatic environment with regard to causes, current status, toxicological implications and implications for ecosystem services. A total of 59 plastic pollution studies from 1987 to September 2020 were reviewed. They comprised 15 from North Africa (NA) (Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia), six from East Africa (EA) (Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda), 13 from West Africa (WA) (Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania and Nigeria), and 25 studies from Southern Africa (SA) (South Africa). This shows that plastic pollution studies in Africa, according to the sub-regions, are in the order: SA > NA > WA > EA. High human population in the basins of African large aquatic systems is identified as the greatest driver enhancing plastic surge in the aquatic environment. The occurrence of plastics was mostly reported in the estuarine/marine environment (42 studies) compared to the freshwater environment (only 17 studies). Plastics have also been reported in the three compartments of the aquatic environment: water column, benthic sediment and animals. Zooplankton, annelids, molluscs, insects, fishes and birds were reported as bioindicators of plastic ingestion in the inland and coastal waters of Africa. Polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (polyester) and polypropylene were the common plastic polymers observed in the African aquatic environment. In situ toxicological implications of the ingested plastic polymers were not reported in any of the studies. However, reports from laboratory-controlled experiments showed that these polymers are deleterious to aquatic animal health. More research efforts need to delineate the plastic pollution status of the East, West and North of Africa. Furthermore, such studies are required to identify the plastic polymers and in situ ecotoxicological impacts of plastics on both animal and human health.


Asunto(s)
Plásticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Argelia , Animales , Ecosistema , Egipto , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Etiopía , Ghana , Guinea Bissau , Humanos , Kenia , Marruecos , Nigeria , Tanzanía , Túnez , Uganda , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 266: 113435, 2021 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022340

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cancer is a major health problem worldwide. Drugs' side effects and high cost of treatment remain the main limitations of conventional therapy. Nowadays, developing new therapeutic strategies is necessary. Therefore, medicinal plants can be used to promote novel, safe, and potent anticancer drugs through their natural compounds. AIM OF THE STUDY: This review aims to provide scientific evidence related to the anticancer activities of medicinal plants used by Moroccan people as well as approving their efficiency as an alternative cancer therapy. METHODS: An ethnopharmacological review approach was conducted by analyzing Moroccan published ethnobotanical surveys from 1991 to 2019 and consulting peer-reviewed articles worldwide to investigate the pharmacological, phytochemical, and clinical effects related to the anticancer activities. Plants with anticancer proprieties were classified into four groups: (a) plants only cited as anticancer, (b) plants pharmacologically investigated, (c) plants with bioactive compounds tested as anticancer, and (d) plants clinically investigated. RESULTS: A total of 103 plant species belonging to 47 botanical families used by Moroccans to treat cancer have been recorded. Aristolochia fontanesii Boiss. & Reut, Marrubium vulgare L., and Allium sativum L. are the most referred species in Morocco. Medicinal plants used for cancer treatment were classified into four groups: 48 species were used traditionally as anticancer (group a), 41 species pharmacologically investigated for their anticancer activities (group b), 32 plants with bioactive compounds tested against cancer (group c), and eight plants were clinically investigated for their anticancer effects (group d). Out of 82 plants' extracts pharmacologically tested (from plants of group b), only 24 ones show a significant cytotoxic effect. A total of seventy-seven compounds are isolated from plants of group (c). However, only six ones were clinically evaluated, and most of them exhibit a beneficial effect on cancerous patients with few side effects. CONCLUSION: Medicinal plants can be a promising candidate for alternative cancer therapy. Nevertheless, it is critical to increasing the clinical trials to confirm their beneficial effect on patients with cancer. Overall, this review can serve as a database for further studies.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Plantas Medicinales/química , Animales , Antineoplásicos Fitogénicos/aislamiento & purificación , Etnobotánica , Etnofarmacología , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Marruecos , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Fitoquímicos , Fitoterapia , Extractos Vegetales/química
7.
Food Chem ; 339: 128098, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152883

RESUMEN

Zantaz honey is a monofloral variety produced from the melliferous plant Bupleurum spinosum (Apiaceae), a shrub that grows mainly in the Atlas Moroccan Mountains. Determination of the polyphenol composition revealed that methyl syringate accounts for more than 50% of total polyphenols, which represents a very useful parameter for the characterization of this monofloral honey. Epicatechin, syringic acid and catechin are also abundant. Caco-2 and THP-1 cells were used for determination of antioxidant and antiproliferative activities in Zantaz honey, respectively. All six commercial samples that were used for these studies exhibited antioxidant activity and inhibited cell proliferation. Interestingly, these activities had a positive correlation mainly with the content in methyl syringate and gallic acid. The recognition of health promoting activities in Zantaz honey should increase its commercial value, which would have a positive economic impact on the poor rural communities of Morocco where it is produced.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/farmacología , Ácido Gálico/análogos & derivados , Miel , Antioxidantes/química , Células CACO-2 , Proliferación Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Fenómenos Químicos , Ácido Gálico/análisis , Ácido Gálico/farmacología , Miel/análisis , Humanos , Marruecos , Polifenoles/análisis
8.
Zootaxa ; 4892(1): zootaxa.4892.1.1, 2020 Dec 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311101

RESUMEN

Morocco is a well known hot-spot of biodiversity in the Mediterranean basin. While some taxa like vascular plants are relatively well recorded, important groups of pollinators like bees are still understudied. This article presents an updated checklist of the bee species of Morocco and includes a summary of global and regional distribution of each species. A total of 961 species belonging to six bee families and 68 genera are recorded: Andrenidae (8 genera, 217 species); Apidae (15 genera, 241 species); Colletidae (2 genera, 74 species), Halictidae (12 genera, 144 species), Megachilidae (28 genera, 271 species) and Melittidae (3 genera, 14 species). Among them, 67 species are recorded for the first time in Morocco. Around 70% of the bee fauna of Morocco consists of widespread Palaearctic species. Only 18% of Moroccan species recorded are restricted to North Africa and 8% are Moroccan single-country endemics (81 species). Afrotropical elements in the Moroccan fauna are few, with only 3% of Morocco species co-occuring in that region. This checklist is intended to stimulate new regional research on bees including their taxonomy and biogeography. As many groups of bees have been understudied, discovery of new species for science and new records for the country can be expected. Additional research including inventorying, monitoring, and integrative taxonomic studies are needed to develop a comprehensive strategy for bee conservation in Morocco.


Asunto(s)
Abejas , Himenópteros , Animales , Secuencia de Bases , Himenópteros/genética , Marruecos
9.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 240, 2020 12 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308164

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Morocco, consanguinity rate is very high; which lead to an increase in the birth prevalence of infants with autosomal recessive disorders. Previously, it was difficult to diagnose rare autosomal recessive diseases. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques have considerably improved clinical diagnostics. A genetic diagnosis showing biallelic causative mutations is the requirement for targeted carrier testing in parents, prenatal and preimplantation genetic diagnosis in further pregnancies, and also for targeted premarital testing in future couples at risk of producing affected children by a known autosomal recessive disease. METHODS: In this report, we present our strategy to advise a future couple of first cousins, whose descendants would risk cystinosis; an autosomal recessive lysosomal disease caused by mutations in the CTNS gene. Indeed, our future husband's sister is clinically and biochemically diagnosed with cystinosis in early childhood. First, we opted to identify the patient's CTNS gene abnormality by using (NGS), then we searched for heterozygosity in the couple's DNA, which allows us to predict the exact risk of this familial disease in the future couple's offspring. RESULTS: We have shown that the future husband, brother of the patient is heterozygous for the familial mutation. On the other hand, his future wife did not inherit the familial mutation. Therefore, genetic counseling was reassuring for the risk of familial cystinosis in this couple's offspring. CONCLUSIONS: We report in this study, one of the major applications of (NGS), an effective tool to improve clinical diagnosis and to provide the possibility of targeted premarital carrier testing in couples at risk.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Neutros/genética , Consanguinidad , Cistinosis/genética , Asesoramiento Genético , Mutación , Adulto , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Neutros/deficiencia , Cistinosis/diagnóstico , Cistinosis/patología , Femenino , Expresión Génica , Pruebas Genéticas , Heterocigoto , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Humanos , Masculino , Marruecos , Linaje , Riesgo
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 141, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193956

RESUMEN

Novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is a severe respiratory infection leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS] accounting for thousands of cases and deaths across the world. Several alternatives in treatment options have been assessed and used in this patient population. However, when mechanical ventilation and prone positioning are unsuccessful, venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation [VV-ECMO] may be used. We present a case of a 62-year-old female, diabetic, admitted to the intensive care unit with fever, flu-like symptoms and a positive COVID-19 test. Ultimately, she worsened on mechanical ventilation and prone positioning and required VV-ECMO. The use of VV-ECMO in COVID-19 infected patients is still controversial. While some studies have shown a high mortality rate despite aggressive treatment, such as in our case, the lack of large sample size studies and treatment alternatives places healthcare providers against a wall without options in patients with severe refractory ARDS due to COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Terapia de Reemplazo Renal Continuo/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Enfermedad Crítica , Oxigenación por Membrana Extracorpórea/instrumentación , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Lesión Renal Aguda/etiología , Lesión Renal Aguda/terapia , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Bacteriemia/complicaciones , Terapia Combinada , Terapia de Reemplazo Renal Continuo/instrumentación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad Crítica/terapia , Síndrome de Liberación de Citoquinas/etiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Resultado Fatal , Femenino , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/complicaciones , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Marruecos , Pandemias , Respiración Artificial , /etiología
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 144, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193959

RESUMEN

Introduction: since the first spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) in Morocco in March 2020, the Moroccan Health System underwent an important pressure and remarkable efforts were spent to provide efficient reactions to this emergency. Public hospitals have set adapted strategies dedicated to overcoming the overload of COVID-19 patients, and our Oncology and Hematology Center (OHC) has implemented a flexible adapted strategy aiming to reduce the burden of COVID-19. We report our single-center experience on the detailed infection control measures undertaken to minimize virus transmission. Methods: we reviewed all patients treated at the OHC from March 2nd to April 20th, 2020 as measures were taken since the detection of the first COVID-19 case to ensure the protection of patients and healthcare providers, especially a screening zone for any patient entering the center. The patient's data were retrospectively collected and anonymized. Results: we notified a significant decrease in patients' admissions during the lockdown period at the different units of our center. The screening area received a total of 5267 patients during our study period, with an average of 105 patients per day. Interestingly, no healthcare professional was infected and only 8 patients showed symptoms of fever and cough, and all of them had a negative test for COVID-19 (RT-PCR). Thus, the OHC is considered as a COVID-19 free center with zero cases among patients and healthcare providers. Conclusion: by having a 0% rate of infection, the efficiency of our measures is proven, but efforts are still needed as we have to measure the impact of this pandemic in our cancer management.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Instituciones Oncológicas/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neoplasias/terapia , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Continuidad de la Atención al Paciente , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Departamentos de Hospitales/estadística & datos numéricos , Unidades Hospitalarias/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/organización & administración , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/prevención & control , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Profesional a Paciente/prevención & control , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo/organización & administración , Persona de Mediana Edad , Marruecos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Estudios Retrospectivos
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 160: 111692, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181961

RESUMEN

Morocco is well known for its attractive Mediterranean beaches, which play an important economic role. With the fast development and growth, these beaches have become more contaminated by marine debris. This paper examined the abundance, composition and marine debris sources on five beaches in the Moroccan Mediterranean during 2019 four seasons. A total of 7839 marine debris were collected from the five beaches with a total weight of 231 kg. The average density of the debris collected was 0.20 ± 0.098 items/m2. Polymer materials constituted the majority of debris found, with a percentage of 71.36%, followed by paper/cardboard (11.50%), metal (5.77%), processed wood (5.34%), cloth/textile (2.51%) and glass/ceramics (1.76%). Human recreational activities were the main source of debris (70.13%), followed by smoking-related (13.98%). Debris density appears to be particularly influenced by beach users. Awareness campaigns are needed for beach users to improve the quality of the beaches.


Asunto(s)
Playas , Plásticos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Marruecos , Residuos/análisis
14.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37: 32, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209159

RESUMEN

Diabetes is considered a risk factor for complications due to COVID-19. In order to clarify this association, we are exploring the characteristics, the clinical signs, the outcomes and death in diabetic patients with COVID-19. In this retrospective observational study we are evaluating the demographic characteristics, the comorbidities of the patients, the clinical signs of the infection, the signs of clinical severity, the biological assessment at admission, the treatment, the outcomes and the deaths of 133 patients with COVID-19, of which 25 (19,4%) had diabetes. In the compared COVID-19 patients, with and without diabetes, the patients with diabetes were older, had higher blood pressure and more cardio-vascular diseases. Severe forms were more present in diabetic patients (56% versus 27.1%). Weight loss was higher in diabetic patients (6kg versus 3kg). Biologically, diabetic patients had higher levels of C-reactive protein (28 versus 5.8mg/l), procalcitonin (0.28 versus 0,13ng/l), ferritin (501 versus 140ng/ml), lactic dehydrogenase (268 versus 226IU/l) and of D. dimer (665 versus 444µg/l). Diabetic patients required more oxygen therapy (60% versus 26.9%), more mechanical ventilation (20% versus 8.3%) and more frequent admission to the intensive care unit (60% versus 27.8%). They presented more thromboembolic complications (12% versus 9%) but there were not significant differences in the other outcomes and in death rates. The excess of morbidity and mortality due to diabetes was still not fully clarified; the role of demographic factors, the interaction of mediations with ACE-2 receptors and the role of co-morbidities will all need to be studied in order to identify the patient at risk profile, i.e. who can develop severe forms of the diseases and more outcomes. The early identification of a possible hyper inflammation could be very valuable. More attention should be paid to patients with COVID-19 with diabetes because they are at a high risk of complications.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Factores de Edad , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Cuidados Críticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/sangre , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/epidemiología , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/mortalidad , Diabetes Mellitus/sangre , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidad , Ferritinas/sangre , Productos de Degradación de Fibrina-Fibrinógeno/análisis , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , L-Lactato Deshidrogenasa/sangre , Persona de Mediana Edad , Marruecos/epidemiología , Oxígeno/uso terapéutico , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/sangre , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Polipéptido alfa Relacionado con Calcitonina/sangre , Respiración Artificial/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Tromboembolia/epidemiología
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 269, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33088398

RESUMEN

Introduction: coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was first reported in Wuhan, China. Clinical spectrum of this disease has nonspecific symptoms shared by many other frequent infectious diseases of the respiratory tract and other respiratory tract diseases. This study explains the importance of differential diagnosis between COVID-19 and other lung diseases. Methods: we analyzed in this study, the demographic features, clinical presentations, laboratory data and radiologic findings of the COVID-19 patients in comparison to those with other respiratory infections or diseases. Results: the mean age of all patients was 38.04 years; 35 patients were later confirmed to be positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The most common symptoms reported by both groups included nonproductive cough and myalgia. Two of the non-COVID-19 patients were having below 92% oxygen saturation and low systolic blood pressure. The patients shared relatively similar laboratory findings except 3% of the non-COVID-19 patients who had lympho-neutropenia and 22.6% had high levels of C-reactive protein. Pulmonary tuberculosis and autoimmune disease respiratory disorder were suspected in 2 of the non-COVID-19 patients respectively. Conclusion: we emphasize the importance of good screening protocols, rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 and other most common respiratory pathogens, which may help for a better control of COVID-19 spread and avoid delayed care of other lung diseases.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Evaluación de Síntomas/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Marruecos/epidemiología , Oxígeno/sangre , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Enfermedades Respiratorias/diagnóstico , Adulto Joven
16.
Bull Cancer ; 107(9): 861-866, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32863000

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has been revolutionized by the advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The results of the IRIS trial demonstrated the efficacy and long-term safety profile of Imatinib. The objective of our work is to report the results at 15 years of treatment of CML in chronic phase with Imatinib in Morocco. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study realized at the hematology unit of CHU d'Ibn-Rochd in Casablanca, from January 2003 to September 2018, including all CML patients in the chronic phase at diagnosis, were treated with Imatinib for a minimum duration of 6 months. RESULTS: In total, 318 patients were collected, the median age was 41.5 years, the sex ratio M/F was 0.7, the Sokal score was high in 56% of cases. The complete hematological response at 3 months was 92%, the complete cytogenetic response at 12 months and the cumulative response were obtained in 43% (29/67) and 55% (153/279) of the cases respectively, the molecular response was evaluated in 125 patients witch 85% were on major molecular response. On a median follow-up of 44 months, the OS and EFS at 10 years were 86% and 59%, respectively. DISCUSSION: Our profile is characterized by a young age of the patients, the female predominance and a high Sokal score. The rate of complete cytogenetic response remains lower compared to what is described, however the survival rates as well as the tolerance were similar to those of the literature.


Asunto(s)
Mesilato de Imatinib/uso terapéutico , Leucemia Mielógena Crónica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de Proteínas Quinasas/uso terapéutico , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Marruecos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
17.
Toxicon ; 187: 203-208, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971097

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to assess the contamination of breast milk by aflatoxin M1 among nursing mothers from Rabat, Morocco, and to explore its association with several maternal parameters and dietary habits. In addition, the health risk assessment of the newborns by the estimation of the daily intake. A competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay method was used for the analysis of aflatoxin M1 in breast milk samples. Analytical results indicate that out of 82 total samples, 43 samples (52.4%) of milk were positive. Aflatoxin M1 levels ranged from undetectable to 13.33 ng/L, while the mean level was 5.75 ± 3.44 ng/L. Besides, several factors and foodstuffs seem to increase the level of AFM1 in breast milk. As regards the estimated daily intake of aflatoxin M1, it varies between immeasurable and a maximum of 1.16 ng/kg.bw. The degree of exposure to AFB1 and the levels of its metabolite AFM1 in breast milk were low, compared to some studies from other countries. Further investigations and periodic monitoring programs are recommended in large samples and in many cities of morocco to assess the level of exposure of the Moroccan population.


Asunto(s)
Aflatoxina M1/metabolismo , Leche Humana/metabolismo , Exposición Dietética , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Marruecos , Prevalencia , Medición de Riesgo
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 163, 2020.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952807

RESUMEN

From an epidemic in December to a global pandemic in early March, COVID-19 arrived on Moroccan soil on March 2nd and ophthalmology consultations decreased considerably. The majority of ophthalmologists come to the fore to ensure continuity of care and emergency care following health regulations. We developed a questionnaire to collect information on the general approach of 35 ophthalmologists regarding the impact of COVID -19 on consultation activities. The results of the survey objectified that 88.57% of the ophthalmologists surveyed maintained their consultation activities; ¾ of them only treated urgent cases or patients whose condition required undelayed management. The majority of ophthalmologists reported a decrease in consultations of at least 90% compared to their standard workflow. Active ophthalmologists believe that the risk of being infected or infecting their patients and others ranges from medium to high in the majority of cases despite protective barrier gestures.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Oftalmólogos/estadística & datos numéricos , Oftalmología/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Derivación y Consulta/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Marruecos/epidemiología , Pandemias
19.
Waste Manag ; 118: 247-257, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916421

RESUMEN

The integration of easily available and under-exploited biomasses is considered a sustainable strategy in biorefining approaches. Mediterranean countries, especially Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, offer such under-exploited waste of different origins. This study revealed the chemical composition and phytochemical characteristics of various agri-food side-products, marine residues, and wild grasses collected in the Maghreb region. Results showed that these wastes contained variable proportions of polysaccharides, lignin, constitute molecules (proteins, lipids, and inorganic molecules) and, various secondary metabolites, mainly flavonoids and condensed tannins. Based on this, the Mediterranean waste was divided into three categories. The first category included waste with high lignin content (40 wt%). The second category contained waste with lignin content below 10 wt% and structural carbohydrate content below 50 wt%. Additionally, the waste in this category comprised noticeable amounts of flavonoids and condensed tannins, particularly from thistle, speedwell, and spurge. Finally, the third category included waste with lignin content above 15 wt% and carbohydrate content in the range of 45-55 wt%. The results also showed that the waste in the third category has a chemical composition similar to that of raw materials envisioned for use in European or North American commercial biorefineries. The findings of this study indicate that the biomass waste employed in this study can be used to develop marketable bioproducts and may be a potential raw material for a biorefinery facility.


Asunto(s)
Lignina , Poaceae , Biomasa , Alimentos , Marruecos
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751384

RESUMEN

Aims: Perinatal mental illness (PMI) is associated with a high risk of maternal and infant morbidity. Recently, several systematic reviews and primary studies have explored the prevalence and risk factors of PMI in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. To our knowledge, there has been no critical analysis of the existing systematic reviews (SRs) on this topic in the MENA region. Our systematic overview primarily aimed to synthesize evidence from the published SRs on PMI in the MENA countries focusing on a) the prevalence of PMI and b) the risk factors associated with PMI. Methods: We conducted a systematic overview of the epidemiology of PMI in the Middle East and North Africa region by searching the PubMed, Embase, and PsycInfo databases for relevant publications between January 2008 and July 2019. In addition to searching the reference lists of the identified SRs for other relevant SRs and additional primary studies of relevance (those which primarily discussed the prevalence of PMI and/or risk and protective factors), between August and October 2019, we also searched Google Scholar for relevant studies. Results: After applying our inclusion and exclusion criteria, 15 systematic reviews (SRs) and 79 primary studies were included in our overview. Studies utilizing validated diagnostic tools report a PMI prevalence range from 5.6% in Morocco to 28% in Pakistan. On the other hand, studies utilizing screening tools to detect PMI report a prevalence range of 9.2% in Sudan to 85.6% in the United Arab Emirates. Wide variations were observed in studies reporting PMI risk factors. We regrouped the risk factors applying an evidence-based categorization scheme. Our study indicates that risk factors in the relational, psychological, and sociodemographic categories are the most studied in the region. Conversely, lifestyle-related risk factors were less studied. Conclusions: Our systematic overview identifies perinatal mental illness as an important public health issue in the region. Standardizing approaches for estimating, preventing, screening, and treating perinatal mental illness would be a step in the right direction for the region.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Embarazo , África del Norte/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Medio Oriente/epidemiología , Marruecos , Pakistán , Embarazo/psicología , Sudán , Emiratos Árabes Unidos
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