Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.353.263
Filtrar
1.
Acta Neurochir Suppl ; 127: 11-13, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407056

RESUMEN

In the 1960s Professor Setsuro Ebashi, a physiologist from the University of Tokyo, discovered calcium ion plays a pivotal role in muscle contraction for the first time. However, he was confounded by icy neglect of the society of physiologists. The International Conference on Physiology was held in Boston in 1962, and Dr. Ebashi and his coworker Dr. Anne Mary Weber gave a talk about calcium signal which is a key mechanism for regulating muscle contraction. Every single attendant stood against their theory and even laughed at them.


Asunto(s)
Contracción Muscular , Vasoconstricción , Calcio , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Investigación/historia
2.
Acta Neurochir Suppl ; 127: 191-194, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407084

RESUMEN

The aim of the study was to assess the time constant of cerebral arterial bed in TBI patients with cerebral vasospasm (CVS) with and without intracranial hematomas (ICH).We examined 84 patients with severe TBI (mean 35 ± 15 years, 53 men and 31 women). The first group included 41 patients without ICH and the second group included 43 patients with epidural (7) and subdural (36) hematomas.Perfusion computed tomography (PCT) was performed in 1-12 days after TBI in the first group and in 2-8 days after craniotomy in the second group. Arteriovenous amplitude of regional cerebral blood volume oscillation was calculated as the difference of arterial and venous blood volume in the "region of interest." Mean arterial pressure was measured and the flow rate of middle cerebral artery was recorded with Transcranial Doppler after PCT. Time constant was calculated by the formula modificated by M. Kasprowicz. Results and Conclusion: The τ was shorter (p < 0.005) in both first and second group in comparison with normal values. The τ in the second group on ipsilateral side former hematoma with CVS was shorter than in the first group and in the second group on contralateral side former hematoma without CVS (р = 0.024).


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos Craneocerebrales , Vasoespasmo Intracraneal , Traumatismos Craneocerebrales/complicaciones , Femenino , Hematoma , Humanos , Masculino , Arteria Cerebral Media , Ultrasonografía Doppler Transcraneal , Vasoespasmo Intracraneal/etiología
3.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4876, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576909

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of sericin extracted from silkworm Bombyx mori cocoon on morphophysiological parameters in mice with obesity induced by high-fat diet. METHODS: Male C57Bl6 mice aged 9 weeks were allocated to one of two groups - Control and Obese, and fed a standard or high-fat diet for 10 weeks, respectively. Mice were then further subdivided into four groups with seven mice each, as follows: Control, Control-Sericin, Obese, and Obese-Sericin. The standard or high fat diet was given for 4 more weeks; sericin (1,000mg/kg body weight) was given orally to mice in the Control-Sericin and Obese-Sericin Groups during this period. Weight gain, food intake, fecal weight, fecal lipid content, gut motility and glucose tolerance were monitored. At the end of experimental period, plasma was collected for biochemical analysis. Samples of white adipose tissue, liver and jejunum were collected and processed for light microscopy analysis; liver fragments were used for lipid content determination. RESULTS: Obese mice experienced significantly greater weight gain and fat accumulation and had higher total cholesterol and glucose levels compared to controls. Retroperitoneal and periepididymal adipocyte hypertrophy, development of hepatic steatosis, increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels and morphometric changes in the jejunal wall were observed. CONCLUSION: Physiological changes induced by obesity were not fully reverted by sericin; however, sericin treatment restored jejunal morphometry and increased lipid excretion in feces in obese mice, suggesting potential anti-obesity effects.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Antiobesidad/uso terapéutico , Dieta Alta en Grasa , Obesidad/tratamiento farmacológico , Sericinas/uso terapéutico , Tejido Adiposo/patología , Animales , Fármacos Antiobesidad/farmacología , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Colesterol/análisis , Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , Ingestión de Alimentos/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado Graso/patología , Tránsito Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Prueba de Tolerancia a la Glucosa , Hígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Obesos , Obesidad/etiología , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Sericinas/farmacología , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Triglicéridos/análisis , Aumento de Peso/efectos de los fármacos
4.
Gene ; 722: 144098, 2020 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494241

RESUMEN

This study evaluated the possible association between SNPs in cytokines coding genes, namely IL10, IL6 and IFNG, cytokines serum levels and clinical assessment' scores in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis(RA). SNPs genotyping was performed in 126 RA patients and 177 healthy individuals with Taqman probes specific for IL10 -1082 (T>C, rs1800896);INFG -1616 (A>G, rs2069705) and IL6 -174 (G>C, rs1800795) variants,positioned in regulatory regions. Cytokine Bead Array (CBA) was used to measure cytokine levels. We found association between INFG -1616 G allele(p = 0.0210; OR = 1.605) and INFG -1616 GG genotype (p = 0.0268; OR =2.609) and RA susceptibility. We also observed association between IL10 -1082 TT genotype and high clinical disease activity index (CDAI) values (p = 0.026; OR = 1.906; 95% CI = 1.082 - 3.359), IL10 -1082 CC genotype and low CDAI values (p = 0.016; OR = 0.256) and INFG -1616 AA and high CDAI values (p = 0.025; OR = 2.919). IL10 -1082 CC also exhibited the lowest IL-10 levels than IL10 -1082 TT (p = 0.020) and IL10 -1082 TC (p = 0.032). Finally, we verified higher IL-6 value in the RA patients than healthy control group (p = 0.007) and an association between high IL-6 levels and increased CDAI (r = 0.4648, p = 0.0015); DAS 28 (r = 0.3933, p= 0.0091), presence of bone erosions (r = 0.3170, p = 0.0361), ESR levels(r = 0.3041, p = 0.0448) and IFN-γ levels (r = 0.3049, p = 0.0468).Altogether, we suggest that IL10 -1082 (T>C, rs1800896) and INFG -1616(A>G, rs2069705) polymorphisms as well as IL-6 levels alterations may play a role for prognostic and disease follow-up.


Asunto(s)
Artritis Reumatoide/genética , Interferón gamma/genética , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-6/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Adulto , Artritis Reumatoide/sangre , Artritis Reumatoide/diagnóstico , Femenino , Frecuencia de los Genes , Genotipo , Humanos , Interferón gamma/sangre , Interleucina-10/sangre , Interleucina-6/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
5.
Gene ; 722: 144127, 2020 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525397

RESUMEN

Complement factor H (CFH) serves as a major down-regulator in the complement system, often utilized by bacterial pathogens to evade complement attack. Yet, little is currently known about the genetic correlation of CFH polymorphisms with sepsis due to various microbial infections. A case-control method (488 septic patients and 527 healthy individuals) was carried out in this study to investigate the genetic relationship between CFH polymorphisms (rs3753394 C/T, rs1065489 G/T and rs1061170 C/T) and susceptibility to sepsis caused by bacterial infections in Chinese Han populations. Our findings indicated that the frequency of rs3753394 CT/TT genotype in the septic patients with P. aeruginosa was significantly higher than that in the control individuals (P = 0.033, OR = 2.668, 95%CI = 1.072-6.334). The rs3753394 T allele frequency in the P. aeruginosa-infected patients was significantly increased, compared to that in the healthy controls (P = 0.014, OR = 1.68, 95%CI = 1.118-2.538). Moreover, these significant differences of rs3753394 genotype and allele frequencies remained after multiple testing corrections [P (corr.) = 0.033 for genotype; P (corr.) = 0.033 for allele]. The current study highlighted the significance of CFH polymorphism rs3753394 as a potential biomarker for targeting P. aeruginosa infection in critically ill patients.


Asunto(s)
Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Infecciones por Pseudomonas/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Sepsis/genética , Adulto , Anciano , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/genética , Estudios de Casos y Controles , China/etnología , Factor H de Complemento/genética , Frecuencia de los Genes , Genotipo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infecciones por Pseudomonas/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Pseudomonas/etnología , Sepsis/diagnóstico , Sepsis/etnología , Sepsis/microbiología
6.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4784, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553356

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of three types of muscular resistance training on adiposity, inflammation levels and insulin activity in Swiss mice with fat-rich diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Lean and obese male Swiss mice were selected and allocated to one of eight groups comprising eight mice each, as follows: standard diet + no training; standard diet + muscular resistance training; standard diet + hypertrophy training; standard diet + strength training; high-fat diet + no training; high-fat diet + muscular resistance training; high-fat diet + hypertrophy training; high-fat diet + strength training. The training protocol consisted of stair climbing for a 10-week period. Blood samples were collected for lactate analysis, glucose level measurement and insulin tolerance test. After euthanasia, adipose tissues were removed and weighed for adiposity index determination. Fragments of epididymal adipose tissue were then embedded for histological analysis or homogenized for tumor necrosis factor alpha level determination using the ELISA method. RESULTS: Ausency of differences in total training volume and blood lactate levels overall emphasize the similarity between the different resistance training protocols. Body weight loss, reduced adipocyte area and lower adiposity index were observed in trained obese mice, regardless of training modality. Different training protocols also improved insulin sensitivity and reduced inflammation levels. CONCLUSION: Resistance training protocols were equally effective in reducing body fat, inflammation levels and insulin resistance in obese mice.


Asunto(s)
Adiposidad/fisiología , Hipertrofia/fisiopatología , Inflamación/fisiopatología , Resistencia a la Insulina/fisiología , Ejercicios de Estiramiento Muscular/métodos , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Condicionamiento Físico Animal/fisiología , Tejido Adiposo Blanco/fisiopatología , Animales , Glucemia/análisis , Peso Corporal/fisiología , Dieta Alta en Grasa , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Obesos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Entrenamiento de Resistencia/métodos , Factores de Tiempo , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/análisis
7.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eRC5063, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553357

RESUMEN

A 65-year-old male with a history of urinary tract trauma requiring cystotomy and chronic bladder catheterization, presenting with chronic and uninvestigated changes in the color of the urine bag system, with no urine color change, and positive urine culture for Proteus mirabilis . These characteristics refer to the purple urine bag syndrome, a not weel-known condition, with a benign course in most cases, and associated with urinary tract infection in patients with chronic bladder catheterization. Although it is characterized by marked changes, it is underdiagnosed by healthcare professionals.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Relacionadas con Catéteres/microbiología , Reservorios Urinarios Continentes/efectos adversos , Infecciones Urinarias/microbiología , Anciano , Infecciones Relacionadas con Catéteres/patología , Humanos , Masculino , Proteus mirabilis/aislamiento & purificación , Factores de Riesgo , Síndrome , Infecciones Urinarias/patología , Orina/microbiología
8.
Gene ; 723: 144133, 2020 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589956

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of the neurodevelopmental and cognitive conditions that involves 1 in 160 children around the world. Several studies showed that there is a relationship between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms with the neurodevelopmental behavioral disorders. In the current study, we aimed to highlight the association of VDR gene polymorphisms (FokI and TaqI) with the risk of autism in Birjand population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this case-control study eighty-one patients recognized with ASD and one hundred-eight healthy controls were recruited to the study from 2017 to 2018. Genotyping was carried out by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique for all subjects. RESULTS: Calculated odds ratio and P-value for the alleles of VDR gene FokI and TaqI variants between autistic patients and controls did not show a significant difference (P > 0.05). However, calculated homozygous recessive (tt) for TaqI polymorphism was statistically significant (P = 0.015) in control group and there was also statistically meaningful difference in both case and control groups in ft haplotype (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: These results provide preliminary evidence that genetic variants of the VDR gene (FokI and TaqI) might have a possible reduced risk of ASD occurrence in children. The additional examination is needed to acquire more decisive and precise results in this area.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista/genética , Polimorfismo de Longitud del Fragmento de Restricción , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Adolescente , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/sangre , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Preescolar , Colecalciferol/sangre , Femenino , Estudios de Asociación Genética , Pruebas Genéticas , Humanos , Irán , Masculino
9.
Gene ; 723: 144120, 2020 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589964

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a vitamin K-dependent, γ-carboxylated protein that was initially found to be a physiological inhibitor of ectopic calcifications affecting mainly cartilage and the vascular system. Mutations in the MGP gene were found to be responsible for a human pathology, the Keutel syndrome, characterized by abnormal calcifications in cartilage, lungs, brain and vascular system. MGP was recently implicated in tumorigenic processes such as angiogenesis and shown to be abnormally regulated in several tumors, including cervical, ovarian, urogenital and breast. This fact has triggered our interest in analyzing the expression of MGP and of its regulator, the transcription factor runt related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), in colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: MGP and RUNX2 expression were analyzed in cancer and non-tumor biopsies samples from 33 CRC patients and 9 healthy controls by RT-qPCR. Consequently, statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the clinical-pathological significance of MGP and RUNX2 in CRC. MGP protein was also detected by immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: Showed an overall overexpression of MGP in the tumor mucosa of patients at mRNA level when compared to adjacent normal mucosa and healthy control tissues. In addition, analysis of the expression of RUNX2 mRNA demonstrated an overexpression in CRC tissue samples and a positive correlation with MGP expression (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.636; p ≤ 0.01) in tumor mucosa. However correlations between MGP gene expression and clinical-pathological characteristics, such as gender, age and pathology classification did not provide relevant information that may shed light towards the differences of MGP expression observed between normal and malignant tissue. CONCLUSIONS: We were able to associate the high levels of MGP mRNA expression with a worse prognosis and survival rate lower than five years. These results contributed to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying MGP deregulation in cancer.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas de Unión al Calcio/genética , Proteínas de Unión al Calcio/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorrectales/patología , Subunidad alfa 1 del Factor de Unión al Sitio Principal/genética , Proteínas de la Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteínas de la Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Regulación hacia Arriba , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Neoplasias Colorrectales/genética , Neoplasias Colorrectales/metabolismo , Femenino , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Pronóstico , Análisis de Supervivencia
10.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eGS4913, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531556

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate indications, results and strategy of retinal exams requested at Primary Care Units. METHODS: A retrospective study that analyzed the indications and results of retinal exams, in the modalities clinical dilated fundus exams and color fundus photographs. In the following situations, patients were considered eligible for color fundus photographs if visual acuity was normal and ocular symptoms were absent: diabetes mellitus and/or hypertension, in use of drugs with potential retinal toxicity, diagnosis or suspicion of glaucoma, stable and asymptomatic retinopathies, except myopia greater than -3.00 diopters. RESULTS: A total of 1,729 patients were evaluated (66% female, age 63.5±15.5 years), and 1,190 underwent clinical dilated fundus exam and 539 underwent color fundus photographs. Diabetes was present in 32.2%. The main indications were diabetes (23.7%) and glaucoma evaluation (23.5%). In 3.4% of patients there was no apparent indication. The main results were a large cup/disc ratio (30.7%) and diabetic retinopathy (13.2%). Exam was normal in 9.6%, detected peripheral changes in 7% and could not be performed in 1%. Considering patients eligible for fundus photographs (22.4%), more than half underwent clinical dilated fundus exams. CONCLUSION: Regarding exam modality, there were no important differences in the distribution of indications or diagnosis. Color fundus photograph is compatible with telemedicine and more cost-effective, and could be considered the strategy of choice in some scenarios. Since there are no clear guidelines for retinal exams indications or the modality of choice, this study may contribute to such standardization, in order to optimize public health resources.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico , Atención Primaria de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Retina , Enfermedades de la Retina/diagnóstico , Anciano , Retinopatía Diabética/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico/economía , Femenino , Fondo de Ojo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fotograbar , Examen Físico , Estudios Retrospectivos , Telemedicina , Agudeza Visual
11.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4739, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553355

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To use magnetic resonance imaging to assess the prevalence of foot and ankle ligament injuries and fractures associated with ankle sprain and not diagnosed by x-ray. METHODS: We included 180 consecutive patients with a history of ankle sprain, assessed at a primary care service in a 12-month period. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were recorded and described. RESULTS: Approximately 92% of patients had some type of injury shown on the magnetic resonance imaging. We found 379 ligament injuries, 9 osteochondral injuries, 19 tendinous injuries and 51 fractures. Only 14 magnetic resonance imaging tests (7.8%) did not show any sort of injury. We observed a positive relation between injuries of the lateral complex, syndesmosis and medial ligaments. However, there was a negative correlation between ankle ligament injuries and midfoot injuries. CONCLUSION: There was a high rate of injuries secondary to ankle sprains. We found correlation between lateral ligament injuries and syndesmosis and deltoid injuries. We did not observe a relation between deltoid and syndesmosis injuries or between lateral ligamentous and subtalar injuries. Similarly, no relation was found between ankle and midfoot injuries.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos del Tobillo/epidemiología , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Traumatismos del Tobillo/diagnóstico por imagen , Brasil/epidemiología , Cartílago Articular/lesiones , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Ligamentos Laterales del Tobillo/lesiones , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven
12.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 20192803. 59 p. ilus, tab.
Tesis en Portugués | Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-1016793

RESUMEN

Introdução: As avaliações usando tecnologia estão presentes nas escolas em vários países, e seu uso se popularizou nas últimas duas décadas, sendo utilizadas no exame para licença médica nos Estados Unidos desde 1999. O potencial que as avaliações aprimoradas por tecnologia trazem para o mundo acadêmico foi o que motivou a realização deste estudo, e o conhecimento advindo de uma conferência específica sobre essas tecnologias trouxe o incentivo para persistir nessa linha de pesquisa. Método: Este estudo tem por objetivo comparar o estresse, a satisfação e o desempenho dos acadêmicos durante o primeiro semestre de 2018, ao realizarem provas escritas convencionais e provas no computador na disciplina de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia do curso de Medicina da Universidade José do Rosário Vellano, campus Alfenas. Foram avaliadas as turmas do décimo segundo período e sétimo período, totalizando uma amostra de 135 alunos. Tratou-se de um estudo experimental randomizado em que os alunos foram divididos em dois grupos para as avaliações e foram-lhes aplicados questionários pré-definidos e presenciais. Antes da prova, foram entregues aos alunos perguntas específicas para avaliar o estresse envolvido em sua realização. Ao término da prova, foram aplicadas as questões que avaliaram a satisfação com o tipo de prova realizada. Foram ainda registradas as notas obtidas nos dois tipos de avaliação. Cada aluno fez uma avaliação escrita convencional e uma avaliação via computador. Resultados: Os acadêmicos avaliados demonstraram maior estresse e menor satisfação com a prova no computador, comparando-a com a prova escrita convencional. O tipo de prova não esteve associado ao desempenho acadêmico. Conclusão: A falta de familiaridade e treinamento com a metodologia, antes da aplicação das avaliações, causou aumento no estresse nos acadêmicos envolvidos no presente estudo, o que interferiu na satisfação, ao fazer a prova usando tecnologia, embora não tenha havido diferença nos escores de desempenho. As informações coletadas serão utilizadas para reestruturação do formato dos testes oferecidos no departamento de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia da UNIFENAS, campus Alfenas, com o intuito de aprimorar a avaliação teórica que se realiza na Universidade.


Introduction: Evaluations using technology are present in schools in several countries and have become popular in the last two decades and have been used in the United States medical license examination since 1999. The potential that improved technology assessments bring to the academic world motivated the carrying out of this study, and the knowledge from a specific conference on these technologies brought the incentive to persist in this research line. Method: This study aims to compare the stress, satisfaction and performance of academics during the first semester of 2018, when conducting conventional written tests and computer tests in the course of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the medical program of the University of José do Rosário Vellano, Alfenas campus, a total sample of 135 students. It was a randomized experimental study in which the students were divided for the evaluations and pre-defined and class-based questionnaires were applied. Prior to the test, specific questions were given to students to assess the stress involved in their achievement. At the end of the test, the questions were answered to evaluate the satisfaction with the type of the test they took. Each student did a conventional written assessment and a computer assessment. Results: The evaluated students showed greater stress and less satisfaction with the computer-based test compared to the conventional written test, although there was no statistical difference in performance when comparing both. Conclusion: Lack of familiarity and training with the methodology prior to test application resulted an increase in students' stress in the present study, which interfered in the satisfaction with the test using technology, even though there was no difference in the performance scores. The collected information will be used to restructure the format of the tests offered in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of UNIFENAS, Campus Alfenas, in order to improve the theoretical evaluation performed at the University.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Educación Médica , Estudiantes de Medicina , Computadores , Evaluación Educacional , Rendimiento Académico
13.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 13-27, July-Dec. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019274

RESUMEN

Abstract The current approach to the health-illness process requires, in addition to disease control, the preservation of the person's quality of life. This study has the purpose of identifying the relationship between gaudiebility and the perception of health status in a Mexican sample, as well as comparing these variables by gender. A cross-sectional and correlational study was conducted for such purposes. Gaudiebility was measured with the Gaudiebility Scale and the perception of health status with the MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). The sample consisted of 285 people between the ages of 14 and 78 (M = 32.13, SD = 13.38), who were recruited with the snowball sampling method, forming a non-probability sample. Results indicate a statistically significant positive and moderate relationship between gaudiebility and the General Health of people (p = .433, p < .001). Thus, people with high gaudiebility perceive less risks to their General Health compared with people who have low and moderate gaudiebility (RM = 4.527, 2.434 - 8.419). Furthermore, a statistically significant difference was identified by gender regarding Physical Functioning (z = -2.293, p = .022) and Mental Health (z = -2.243, p = .025) on the SF-36, where men reported a higher level in both cases. It was concluded that gaudiebility has a relevant influence on the perception of health status.


Resumo Na atualidade, para a abordagem do processo saúde-doença requer-se, além de controlar a doença, preservar, na medida do possível, a qualidade de vida da pessoa. Nesse sentido, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar a relação entre a gaudibilidade e a percepção do estado de saúde em uma amostra de mexicanos e comparar tais variáveis de acordo com o gênero dos participantes. Para isso, utilizou-se um desenho transversal e correlacional com a aplicação da Escala de Gaudibilidade e a versão curta do Questionário de Saúde (SF-36). No total, participaram 285 pessoas com idades entre 14 e 78 anos (M = 32.13, DP = 13.38) recrutados por meio da técnica de bola de neve, com quem se formou uma amostra não probabilística. Os resultados indicaram uma relação estatisticamente significativa, positiva e moderada entre a gaudibilidade e a saúde geral dos participantes (p = .407, p < .001), devido ao fato de que as pessoas com alta gaudibilidade perceberam menos riscos em saúde geral em comparação com as pessoas com gaudibilidade baixa e moderada (RM = 4.527, 2.434 - 8.419). Igualmente, identificou-se uma diferença estatisticamente significativa com respeito ao gênero nos fatores funcionamento físico (z = -2.293, p = .022) e saúde mental (z = -2.243, p = .025) do SF-36, já que os homens indicaram um maior nível em ambos os casos. Conclui-se que a gaudibilidade tem uma influência relevante sobre a percepção do estado de saúde.


Resumen En la actualidad, para el abordaje del proceso salud-enfermedad se requiere, además de controlar la enfermedad, preservar en lo posible la calidad de vida de la persona. En este sentido, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue identificar la relación entre la gaudibilidad y la percepción del estado de salud en una muestra de mexicanos, y comparar dichas variables según el género de los participantes. Para esto, se utilizó un diseño transversal y correlacional con la aplicación de la Escala de Gaudibilidad y la versión corta del Cuestionario de Salud (SF-36). En total, participaron 285 personas de entre 14 y 78 años (M = 32.13, DE = 13.38), reclutados por medio de la técnica de bola de nieve, con quienes se formó una muestra no probabilística. Los resultados indicaron una relación estadísticamente significativa, positiva y moderada entre la gaudibilidad y la salud general de los participantes (p = .407, p < .001), debido a que las personas con alta gaudibilidad percibieron menos riesgos en salud general en comparación con las personas con baja y moderada gaudibilidad (RM = 4.527, 2.434 - 8.419). Asimismo, se identificó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa en cuanto al género en los factores funcionamiento físico (z = -2.293, p = .022) y salud mental (z = -2.243, p = .025) del SF-36, ya que los hombres refirieron un nivel mayor en ambos casos. Se concluye que la gaudibilidad tiene una influencia relevante sobre la percepción del estado de salud.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Psicología Social , Calidad de Vida , Estado de Salud
14.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 28-52, July-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019275

RESUMEN

Abstract Neurological Soft Signs (NSS) are indicative of generalized disruptions in neurological networks of cortico-subcortical areas. Their presence leads to problems in children's cognitive development with future academic repercussions. The presence of NSS was assessed and compared in 144 children aged 6 to 11 years of low-medium socioeconomic status from Mexico City and the metropolitan area through the Infant Neuropsychological Maturity Questionnaire (CUMANIN, for its Spanish acronym) and the School Neuropsychological Maturity Questionnaire (CUMANES, for its Spanish acronym). Results indicate significant differences by sex. Girls showed better performance in word articulation. In groups by age, significant differences were found in leximetric-comprehension, visual perception and executive function-errors. Participants showed the presence of developmental NSS which include: language (articulation disorders, oral and written language disturbances, difficulty finding words), psychomotricity, visual perception and other cognitive functions. There are several factors related to those impairments such as age, socioeconomic context and critical stages in child's development. Identification and early diagnosis can reduce the risk of school failure.


Resumo Os Sinais Neurológico Sutis (SNS) são indicadores de interrupções generalizadas nas redes de trabalho neural de áreas córtico-subcorticais, cuja presença leva a problemas no desenvolvimento neurocognitivo da criança que representam repercussões acadêmicas negativas. Na presente pesquisa, foi avaliada e comparada a presença de SNS com os processos cognitivos de 144 participantes mexicanos de estrato socioeconómico médio-baixo com idades entre 6 e 11 anos, sem antecedentes neurológicos ou psiquiátricos, por meio dos Cuestionarios de Madurez Neuropsicológica (CUMANIN) e Madurez Neuropsicológica Escolar (CUMANES). Os resultados indicaram diferenças significativas por gênero, já que as meninas apresentaram melhor desempenho na articulação de palavras. Nos grupos por idade, as diferenças significativas foram encontradas na velocidade de leitura e compreensão, visuopercepção e função executiva e erros. Em geral, os participantes mostraram presença de SNS de desenvolvimento, que incluem interferências na linguagem (problemas articulatórios, alterações da linguagem oral e escrita, dificuldade para encontrar palavras), psicomotricidade, visuopercepção e outras funções cognitivas. Ao final, conclui-se que a identificação e o diagnóstico precoce dos SNS permite diminuir o risco de fracasso escolar.


Resumen Los Signos Neurológicos Blandos (SNB) son indicativos de interrupciones generalizadas en las redes de trabajo neuronal de áreas cortico-subcorticales, cuya presencia conlleva a problemas en el desarrollo neurocognitivo del niño que representan repercusiones académicas negativas. En la presente investigación se evaluó y comparó la presencia de SNB con los procesos cognitivos de 144 participantes mexicanos de estrato socioeconómico medio-bajo con edades entre los 6 y 11 años sin antecedentes neurológicos o psiquiátricos por medio de los Cuestionarios de Madurez Neuropsicológica (CUMANIN) y Madurez Neuropsicológica Escolar (CUMANES). Los resultados indicaron diferencias significativas por sexo, ya que las niñas presentaron mejor desempeño en la articulación de palabras. En los grupos por edad, las diferencias significativas se encontraron en leximetría-comprensión, visopercepción y función ejecutiva-errores; y, en general, los participantes mostraron presencia de SNB de desarrollo, que incluyen afectaciones en: lenguaje (problemas articulatorios, alteraciones del lenguaje oral y escrito, dificultad para encontrar palabras), psicomotricidad, visopercepción y otras funciones cognitivas. Al final, se concluye que la identificación y diagnóstico temprano de los SNB permite disminuir el riesgo de fracaso escolar.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Escolaridad , Manifestaciones Neurológicas , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas
15.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 53-69, July-Dec. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019276

RESUMEN

Abstract Different studies with university students show the presence of a negative image about the elderly and an absence of positive stereotypes regarding this age group. With the increase of the older population, these stereotypes must disappear in order to work with aged people without a negative view of them. The aim of this paper was to identify the existence of negative stereotypes towards old age in students who are pursuing health-related and not related university degree courses. A total of 262 students were assessed with the CENVE questionnaire. In order to find out whether there were differences between students with respect to negative stereotypes, an ANOVA and a post-hoc comparison test were carried out. Results were significant at the 5% level. These show evidence of the existence of negative stereotypes about old age in students pursuing university degrees related and not related to the field of health. ANOVAs showed differences in total CENVE (F3 259 = 3.574; p = 0.015; r2 = 0.040), Social Motivation dimension (F3259 = 3.697; p = 0.012; rf = 0.042), and Personality dimension (F3259 = 5.157; p = 0.002; r2 = 0.057). The post-hoc tests show the existence of differences in stereotypes depending on the course that is being studied, where the health related courses show the lower level of negative stereotypes.


Resumo Diversos estudos sobre estereótipos com estudantes universitários mostram que as pessoas idosas são percebidas mais frequentemente a partir de uma imagem negativa do que com estereótipos positivos. Levando em consideração o crescente aumento da população idosa na atualidade e como o fim de trabalhar com pessoas mais velhas a partir de uma visão positiva de si mesmos, é preciso que esses estereótipos desapareçam. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar se existem estereótipos negativos com respeito à velhice em estudantes de cursos universitários relacionados e não relacionados com o campo da saúde. No total, 262 estudantes foram avaliados com o questionário CENVE e, para saber se existiam diferenças de estereótipos negativos entre os estudantes de acordo com sua habilitação, foi realizada uma análise ANOVA, além de comparações post hoc. Os resultados foram significativos com um nível de 5% e evidenciaram a existência de estereótipos negativos com respeito à velhice em estudantes de habilitações universitárias relacionadas e não relacionadas com o campo da saúde. Os ANOVA mostraram diferenças para o CENVE total (F3259 = 3.574; p = .015; n2 = .040), para a dimensão de motivação social (F3259 = 3.697; p = .012; n2 = .042) e para a dimensão de personalidade (F3259 = 5.157; p = .002; n2 = .057). As provas post hoc mostraram a existência de diferenças no grau de estereótipos negativos de acordo com as habilitações em curso, sendo que as habilitações de saúde mostraram menor grau em comparação com as demais.


Resumen Diversos estudios sobre estereotipos con estudiantes universitarios muestran que las personas mayores son percibidas más desde una imagen negativa que con estereotipos positivos. Teniendo en cuenta el creciente aumento de la población mayor en la actualidad, y con el fin de trabajar con personas mayores desde una visión positiva de sí mismos, es necesario que estos estereotipos desaparezcan. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar si existen estereotipos negativos hacia la vejez en estudiantes de carreras universitarias relacionadas y no relacionadas con el campo de la salud. En total, se evaluó a 262 estudiantes con el cuestionario CENVE, y, para saber si existían diferencias de estereotipos negativos entre los estudiantes según su titulación, se realizó un análisis ANOVA, además de comparaciones post hoc. Los resultados fueron significativos al nivel del 5 % y evidenciaron la existencia de estereotipos negativos hacia la vejez en estudiantes de títulos universitarios relacionados y no relacionados con el campo de la salud. Los ANOVA mostraron diferencias para el CENVE total (F3259 = 3.574; p = .015; η 2 = .040), para la dimensión de motivación social (F3259 = 3.697; p = .012; η2 = .042) y para la dimensión de personalidad (F3259 = 5.157; p = .002; η 2 = .057). Las pruebas post hoc mostraron la existencia de diferencias en el grado de estereotipos negativos según las titulaciones en curso, donde las titulaciones sanitarias mostraron menor grado en comparación con las demás.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Ageísmo
16.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 70-98, July-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019277

RESUMEN

Abstract Resources are distributed unequally depending on the social status (SS) of people. Researchers have often used experiments to explain the role of SS in economic decisions. However, the diverse ways of inducing SS has produced contradictory results. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of SS on the distribution of monetary resources in students aged 18 to 25 years from Córdoba (Argentina). Three experiments using mixed factorial designs were conducted. Different ways of inducing SS and the effect on decisions in different games were examined. In Experiment 1, the effect of two SS induction techniques on the decisions of the Ultimatum Game (UG) and Dictator Game (DG) was compared. In Experiment 2, the effect of SS on the same games, including Social Value Orientation (SVO) and Subjective Social Status (SSS) as covariates was analyzed. In Experiment 3, the role of SS, SVO and SSS in the DG and the Dictator Game Taking (DGT) was examined. In the three experiments, it was not found that SS had any effect on the decisions of the games. However, more rejection and negative valence was observed (Exp. 1: p < .001, n 2 p =.72; Exp. 2: p < .001, n 2 p = .65) for unfair offers than for fair ones (Exp. 2: p < .001). Also, pro-social individuals made fairer offers in the DG (Exp. 2: p < .05) and participants offered more money in the DGT than in the DG (Exp. 3: p = .01). Those findings showed that the effect of SS on behavioral responses is not robust, which highlights the need to obtain new experimental evidence to investigate its role in those decisions.


Resumo Os recursos são normalmente distribuídos de maneira desigual em função do status social (SS) das pessoas, razão pela qual diversos pesquisadores utilizam experimentos para explicar o papel do SS nas decisões econômicas. No entanto, as diversas formas de induzir o SS geraram resultados contraditórios. No presente trabalho, investigou-se o efeito do SS na distribuição dos recursos monetários em estudantes de 18 a 25 anos da cidade de Córdoba, na Argentina, por meio de três experimentos com desenhos experimentais mistos. Especificamente, foram avaliadas diferentes técnicas para manipular o SS e seu efeito nas decisões econômicas: no Experimento 1 comparou-se o efeito de duas técnicas de manipulação do SS nas decisões do Jogo do Ultimato (JU) e do Ditador (JD); no Experimento 2 analisou-se o efeito do SS nos mesmos jogos, incluindo a orientação de valores sociais (SVO) e o status social subjetivo (SES) como covariáveis e, no Experimento 3, indagou-se o papel do SS, da SVO e do SES no JD e no Ditador de Tomar (do inglês, Dictator Taking Game). Nos três experimentos observou-se que o SS não teve efeito nas decisões dos jogos. Não obstante, evidenciou-se maior rejeição (Exp. 1: p < .001, n 2 p = .72; Exp. 2: p < .001, n 2 p = .65) e valência negativa para as ofertas injustas do que para as justas (Exp. 2: p < .001). Além disso, descobriu-se que quanto maior a pró-socialidade, maior a quantidade ofertada no JD (Exp. 2: p < .05) e que no JDT se oferece mais dinheiro do que no JD (Exp. 3: p = .01). Os resultados observados evidenciam que o efeito do SS nas respostas comportamentais não é robusto, por isso se destaca a importância de continuar investigando seu papel em tais decisões.


Resumen Los recursos son usualmente distribuidos de manera inequitativa en función del estatus social (ES) de las personas, razón por la cual diversos investigadores utilizan experimentos para explicar el rol del ES en las decisiones económicas; sin embargo, las diversas formas de inducir el ES han generado resultados contradictorios. En el presente trabajo se investigó el efecto del ES en la distribución de los recursos monetarios en estudiantes de 18 a 25 años de la ciudad de Córdoba, Argentina, por medio de tres experimentos con diseños experimentales mixtos. Específicamente, se evaluaron distintas técnicas para manipular el ES y su efecto en las decisiones económicas: en el Experimento 1 se comparó el efecto de dos técnicas de manipulación del ES en las decisiones del Juego del Ultimátum (JU) y del Dictador (JD); en el Experimento 2 se analizó el efecto del ES en los mismos juegos, incluyendo la orientación de valores sociales (SVO) y el estatus social subjetivo (SES) como covariables; y en el Experimento 3 se indagó el rol del ES, de la SVO y del ESS en el JD y en el Dictador de Tomar (JDT). En los tres experimentos se observó que el ES no tuvo efecto en las decisiones de los juegos. No obstante, se evidenció mayor rechazo (Exp. 1: p < .001, n 2 p = .72; Exp. 2: p < .001, n 2 p = .65) y valencia negativa para las ofertas injustas que para las justas (Exp. 2: p < .001). Además, se encontró que a mayor prosocialidad, mayor cantidad ofertada en el JD (Exp. 2: p < .05), y que en el JDT se ofrece más dinero que en el JD (Exp. 3: p = .01). Los resultados observados evidencian que el efecto del ES en las respuestas comportamentales no es robusto, por lo que se destaca la importancia de continuar investigando su rol en dichas decisiones.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Constitución y Estatutos , Juegos Recreacionales , Jerarquia Social
17.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 99-124, July-Dec. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019278

RESUMEN

Abstract The objective of this study was to establish the relationship between dysfunctional parenting styles and empathy in Nursing, Human Medicine and Psychology students. The study's sample consisted of 599 students, from both genders, and from different cycles of their university studies. Their ages ranged between 21 and 25 years. To assess them, the Dysfunctional Parenting Styles Scale by Parker, et al. (1979) was used, previously adapted to Peruvian population. The participants were also evaluated with the Personal and Professional Empathy Scale designed by Yaraskavitch (2009), and completed a socio-demographic data sheet created ad hoc. General results showed no significant relationships between the dysfunctional parenting styles and empathy total scores. In contrast, considering the father figure, an inverse relationship between the authoritarian-controlling dysfunctional parenting style and the personal and professional cognitive empathy was found, while the indifference - negligence dysfunctional parenting style was inversely associated with the emotive personal empathy. As to the mother figure, there is a significant and direct relationship between authoritarian-controlling dysfunctional parenting style and personal and professional emotive empathy. It was also found that regarding gender, women have higher levels of empathy. With respect to professional degree courses, Nursing students have a higher level of empathy than Medicine and Psychology students, while Medicine students have more dysfunctional parenting styles than the Nursing and Psychology groups. Finally, students that had taken personal development courses showed a higher level of empathy.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo estabelecer a relação entre os estilos parentais disfuncionais e a empatia em estudantes universitários de Lima, além de comparações de acordo com a carreira profissional (Enfermagem, Medicina Humana e Psicologia). A amostra foi composta por 599 estudantes de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 21 e 25 anos, a quem foi aplicada a Escala de Estilos Parentais Disfuncionais -de Parker et a. (1979)-, a Escala de Empatia Pessoal e Profissional -desenhada por Yaraskavitch et al. (2009)-, ambas adaptadas para os fins do estudo, e uma ficha sociodemográfica elaborada pelos autores. Os resultados mostram uma relação não significativa entre as pontuações totais de estilos parentais disfuncionais e de empatia, mas obteve-se uma relação inversa entre a subescala de estilo disfuncional paterno "autoritário-controlador" com as dimensões "empatia pessoal cognitiva" e "empatia profissional cognitiva", e uma relação direta entre a subescala de estilo disfuncional materno com as dimensões "empatia pessoal emotiva" e "empatia profissional emotiva". Além disso, com respeito ao gênero, as mulheres apresentaram maior nível de empatia e, de acordo com o curso, os estudantes de Enfermaria apresentaram maiores níveis de empatia, enquanto os de Medicina mostraram mais estilos parentais disfuncionais. Finalmente, os estudantes que fizeram cursos de desenvolvimento pessoal em sua formação profissional apresentaram maior nível de empatia.


Resumen El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo establecer la relación entre los estilos parentales disfuncionales y la empatía en estudiantes universitarios de Lima, además de comparaciones según su carrera profesional (Enfermería, Medicina Humana y Psicología). La muestra estuvo compuesta por 599 estudiantes de ambos sexos, con edades entre los 21 y 25 años, a quienes se les aplicó la Escala de Estilos Parentales Disfuncionales -de Parker et al. (1979)-, la Escala de Empatía Personal y Profesional -diseñada por Yaraskavitch et al. (2009)-, ambas adaptadas para los fines del estudio, y una ficha sociodemográfica elaborada por los autores. Los resultados muestran una relación no significativa entre los puntajes totales de estilos parentales disfuncionales y de empatía, aunque se obtuvo una relación inversa entre la subescala de estilo disfuncional paterno "autoritario-controlador" con las dimensiones "empatía personal cognitiva" y "empatía profesional cognitiva", y una relación directa entre la subescala de estilo disfuncional materno con las dimensiones "empatía personal emotiva" y "empatía profesional emotiva"; además de que, respecto al género, las mujeres presentaron mayor nivel de empatía, y, según carrera, los estudiantes de Enfermería presentaron mayores niveles de empatía, mientras que los de Medicina mostraron más estilos parentales disfuncionales. Finalmente, los estudiantes que llevaron a cabo cursos de desarrollo personal en su formación profesional presentaron un mayor nivel de empatía.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Empatía , Ciencias de la Salud , Relaciones Familiares
18.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 125-147, July-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019279

RESUMEN

Abstract The objective of the present study was to analyze whether there are differences between men and women in terms of the influence of personality dimensions on academic procrastination. Participants were 986 students aged between 16 and 40 years (69.8 % women, Mage = 20.81 years), students of different professional careers from two universities located in Lima. The Academic Procrastination Scale (APS) and the Big Five Inventory-15P (BFI-15P) were the instruments administered. An invariance analysis of a structural regression model that indicates the influence of personality on academic procrastination was implemented. The results show that personality explains a significant percentage of the variability of the dimensions of academic procrastination. However, the influence of two dimensions, consciousness and neuroticism, is greater in women. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed, as well as the need to strengthen curricular plans aimed at enhancing resources and reducing those aspects that could negatively affect the academic behavior of the student.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a existência de diferenças entre homens e mulheres com respeito à influência das dimensões de personalidade sobre a procrastinação acadêmica em 986 alunos de 16 a 40 anos (69,8 % mulheres; Midade = 20,81 anos) de diferentes carreiras profissionais de duas universidades localizadas em Lima. Para isso, administrou-se a Escala de Procrastinação Acadêmica (EPA) e o Big Five Inventory-15P (BFI-15P) e implementou-se uma análise de invariância de um modelo de regressão estrutural. Os resultados mostraram que a personalidade explica uma porcentagem significativa da variabilidade das dimensões da procrastinação acadêmica e que a influência das dimensões responsabilidade e neuroticismo foi maior nas mulheres. São discutidas as implicâncias teóricas e práticas das descobertas, bem como a necessidade de fortalecer planos curriculares orientados para potencializar recursos e reduzir os aspectos que poderiam afetar negativamente a conduta acadêmica do estudante.


Resumen El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la existencia de diferencias entre hombres y mujeres en cuanto a la influencia de las dimensiones de personalidad sobre la procrastinación académica en 986 alumnos de entre 16 y 40 años (69.8 % mujeres; Medad = 20.81 años) de distintas carreras profesionales de dos universidades ubicadas en Lima. Para esto, se administró la Escala de Procrastinación Académica (EPA) y el Big Five Inventory-15P (BFI-15P), y se implementó un análisis de invarianza de un modelo regresión estructural. Los resultados mostraron que la personalidad explica un porcentaje significativo de la variabilidad de las dimensiones de la procrastinación académica, y que la influencia de las dimensiones responsabilidad y neuroticismo fue mayor en las mujeres. Se discuten las implicancias teóricas y prácticas de los hallazgos, así como la necesidad de fortalecer planes curriculares orientados a potenciar recursos y reducir los aspectos que podrían afectar negativamente la conducta académica del estudiante.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Personalidad , Procrastinación
19.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 178-193, July-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019281

RESUMEN

Abstract Developing programs to prevent alcohol consumption whose impact goes beyond cultural borders represents a challenge since it is necessary to recognize cultural differences that determine consumption. This cross-cultural comparative study was aimed to find the differences in beliefs related to alcohol consumption in a non-randomized stratified sample of 1602 educated teenage men and women and youth (870 Chileans and 732 Colombians) with ages between 14 and 25 years. The instruments used were the Belief Questionnaire Regarding Alcohol Consumption and the Audit Consumption Test. The ANOVA statistic was used to compare the means between countries. Results indicated that Colombians have higher consumption triggers, higher perception of risk and vulnerability, and the highest perception of perceived benefits of consumption. On the other hand, Chileans present significantly greater beliefs regarding the consumption barriers with lower averages in all factors. However, in both populations the averages found indicate moderate and high risk.


Resumo O desenvolvimento de programas de prevenção do consumo de álcool cujo impacto sobrepasse fronteiras culturais representa um desafio importante devido ao fato de que é preciso reconhecer as diferenças culturais determinantes do consumo. O presente estudo comparativo transcultural teve como objetivo conhecer as diferenças nas crenças relacionadas com o consumo de álcool em uma amostra estratificada não aleatorizada de 1602 adolescentes e jovens (870 chilenos e 732 colombianos), homens e mulheres escolarizados com idades entre 14 e 25 anos. Para isso, fez-se uso do Cuestionario de Creencias Referidas al Consumo de Alcohol e o teste AUDIT de consumo. Para comparar as médias entre países, utilizou-se o estatístico ANOVA. Os resultados indicaram que os colombianos têm mais altos gatilhos de consumo, maior percepção de risco e vulnerabilidade, e percepção mais alta de benefícios percebidos com o consumo. Por sua vez, os chilenos apresentaram crenças significativamente maiores com respeito às barreiras de consumo, com menores médias em todos os fatores. Em ambas as populações, as médias reportadas indicaram um risco moderado e alto para o consumo de álcool.


Resumen El desarrollo de programas de prevención del consumo de alcohol cuyo impacto sobrepase fronteras culturales representa un reto importante debido a que se hace necesario reconocer las diferencias culturales determinantes del consumo. El presente estudio comparativo transcultural tuvo como objetivo conocer las diferencias en las creencias relacionadas con el consumo de alcohol en una muestra estratificada no aleatorizada de 1602 adolescentes y jóvenes (870 chilenos y 732 colombianos), hombres y mujeres escolarizados con edades entre los 14 y los 25 años. Para esto, se hizo uso del Cuestionario de Creencias Referidas al Consumo de Alcohol y el test AUDIT de consumo. Para comparar las medias entre países se utilizó el estadístico ANOVA. Los resultados indicaron que los colombianos tienen más altas claves disparadoras de consumo, mayor percepción de riesgo y vulnerabilidad, y percepción más alta de beneficios percibidos con el consumo. Por su parte, los chilenos presentaron creencias significativamente mayores respecto a las barreras de consumo, con menores promedios en todos los factores. En ambas poblaciones las medias reportadas indicaron un riesgo moderado y alto para el consumo de alcohol.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adolescente , Alcoholismo , Adulto Joven
20.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 194-217, July-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019282

RESUMEN

Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyze the divergences in perception of parental practices, positive behavior and problems between parents and children. The participants, parents and adolescents, collaborated voluntarily and were examined in the following dyads: 248 fathers-sons, 241fathers-daughters, 237 mothers-sons, and 241 mothers-daughters. The psychometric instruments used were the Strengths and Difficulties Scale and the Parental Practices Scale for mothers and fathers. To achieve the main objective, correlation analysis, path analysis and differences of means with related samples were performed. The results showed correlations, from moderate to low, between parental practices, problems and prosocial behavior. In addition, different predictive factors of the children's behaviors were obtained, according to the sex of the parents and the parental practices they implemented. Finally, there were divergences between reports of parental practices, prosocial behavior and problems between parents and their children. Therefore, it is concluded that parental behavior is oriented according to the sexual role of their children, which involves social desirability.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como finalidade analisar as divergências na percepção das práticas parentais, no comportamento positivo e nas problemáticas entre pais e filhos. Os participantes, pais e adolescentes, colaboraram de maneira voluntária e foram avaliados nas seguintes díades: 248 pais-filhos, 241 pais-filhas, 237 mães-filhos e 241 mães-filhas. Os instrumentos utilizados foram a Escala de Capacidades e Dificuldades e a Escala de Práticas Parentais para mães e pais. Para alcançar o objetivo principal, realizaram-se análises de correlação, análises de caminhos e diferenças de médias com amostras relacionadas. Os resultados mostraram correlações - de moderadas a baixas - entre as práticas parentais, os problemas e a conduta pró-social, além de diferentes fatores preditivos das condutas dos filhos a partir do gênero dos pais e das práticas parentais exercidas. Houve divergências entre os relatórios de práticas parentais, conduta pró-social e problemas entre os pais e seus filhos. Conclui-se que a conduta parental é orientada de acordo com o gênero dos filhos, o que implica certa desejabilidade social relacionada com seu papel como homens ou como mulheres.


Resumen El presente estudio tuvo como finalidad analizar las divergencias en la percepción de las prácticas parentales, el comportamiento positivo y las problemáticas entre padres e hijos. Los participantes, padres y adolescentes, colaboraron de manera voluntaria y se evaluaron en las siguientes díadas: 248 padres-hijos, 241 padres-hijas, 237 madres-hijos, y 241 madres-hijas. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron la Escala de Capacidades y Dificultades y la Escala de Prácticas Parentales para madres y padres. Para lograr el objetivo principal se realizaron análisis de correlación, análisis de senderos y diferencias de medias con muestras relacionadas. Los resultados mostraron correlaciones -de moderadas a bajas- entre las prácticas parentales, los problemas y la conducta prosocial, además de diferentes factores predictores de las conductas de los hijos a partir del sexo de los padres y las prácticas parentales ejercidas. Se presentaron divergencias entre los reportes de prácticas parentales, conducta prosocial y problemas entre los padres y sus hijos. Se concluye que la conducta parental se orienta según el sexo de los hijos, lo cual implica cierta deseabilidad social relacionada con su rol como hombres o como mujeres.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Conducta , Familia , Comunicación
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA