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1.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1195-1214, out.-dez. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-994984

RESUMEN

O período de 1870 a 1920 é conhecido como aquele no qual diversos teóricos da psicologia estadunidense estabelecem as diretrizes teóricas e políticas da independência da disciplina frente às demais ciências e às reflexões filosóficas. A psicologia comparada proposta por Robert Mearns Yerkes é uma das mais importantes do final do século XIX e das duas primeiras décadas do século seguinte. As obras do autor referentes à evolução do sistema nervoso central e periférico e suas relações com a inteligência, em conjunto com a psicologia militar e a eugenia, possibilitam, ao menos em parte, a concretização da engenharia humana e de suas futuras aplicações em diversos setores da sociedade estadunidense como instrumento de dominação da classe dominante. Como se trata de uma obra vasta e variadas aplicações na vida cotidiana, pensamos que essa primeira aproximação seja aprofundada em futuras investigações acerca dos movimentos da classe trabalhadora durante o processo de modernização da indústria e da grande reforma social pela qual a sociedade estadunidense à época. Movimentos amplamente desprezados pela historiografia da psicologia estadunidense.(AU)


The period from 1870 to 1920 is known as the one in which several theorists of American psychology establish the theoretical and political guidelines of the discipline's independence from other sciences and philosophical domain. The comparative psychology proposed by Robert Mearns Yerkes is one of the most important of the late nineteenth century and the first two decades of the following century. The author's works on the evolution of the central and peripheral nervous system and its relations with intelligence, taken together with military psychology and eugenics, enable, at least in part, the concretization of human engineering and its future applications in various sectors of the American society as an instrument of domination of the ruling class. As it is a vast work and of varied applications in everyday life, we think that this first approximation will be deepened in future investigations about the movements of the working class during the process of modernization of the industry and of the great social reform by which the American society happened to the time. These movements were widely neglected by the historiography of American psychology.(AU)


El período de 1870 a 1920 es conocido como aquel en el cual diversos teóricos de la psicología estadounidense establecen las directrices teóricas y políticas de la independencia de la disciplina frente a las demás ciencias y reflexiones filosóficas. La psicología comparada propuesta por Robert Mearns Yerkes es una de las más importantes del fin del siglo XIX y de las dos primeras décadas del siglo siguiente. Las obras del autor referentes a la evolución del sistema nervioso central y periférico y sus relaciones con la inteligencia, en conjunto con la psicología militar y la eugenesia, posibilitan, al menos en parte, la concreción de la ingeniería humana y de sus futuras aplicaciones en diversos sectores de la sociedad estadounidense como instrumento de dominación de la clase dominante. Como se trata de una obra vasta y de variadas aplicaciones en la vida cotidiana, esperamos que esa primera aproximación sea profundizada en futuras investigaciones acerca de los movimientos de la clase trabajadora durante el proceso de modernización de la industria y de la gran reforma social por la que la sociedad estadounidense pasaba en esa época. Estos movimientos fueron ampliamente despreciados por la historiografía de la psicología estadounidense.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Psicología/historia , Ergonomía , Psicología Comparada , Psicología Militar , Eugenia , Sistema Nervioso
2.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 64(8): 469-476, 2019.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479601

RESUMEN

As part of the work, an assessment was made of the state of the metabolic characteristics of sperm plasma in various morphofunctional ejaculate pathologies. Physico-chemical, metabolic and morphological parameters of the ejaculate were evaluated. The diagnostic protocol included a standard sperm analysis with classification of ejaculate parameters and determination of biochemical parameters of sperm plasma on an automatic biochemical analyzer. The study of the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of metabolic parameters. The total number of surveyed was XX people. After studying the morphological features of the cell composition, the obtained samples were divided into four groups: samples with normospermia, samples with oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, samples with azoospermia, and samples with cryptozoospermia. In each group, the parameters of protein, carbohydrate, lipid and mineral metabolism were studied. As a result, it was found that with the progression of pathology, the catabolic mechanism of energy consumption begins to prevail, due to a decrease in the concentration in the sperm plasma of protein components, transaminases, as well as the growth of non-protein nitrogenous inclusions. It is noted that the growth of glucose, despite the inhibition of transmembrane routes of intake by reducing the concentration of alkaline phosphatase and lipid-transport systems, is associated with the forced inclusion of insulating mechanisms for the penetration of glucose into the sperm plasma from the blood through the hemato-sperm barrier. At the same time, an increase in the content of lipids in the sperm plasma, as well as the growth of creatinine in the initial stages of the development of pathology, can be characterized by a compensatory response aimed at maintaining the viability of minimal amounts of spermatozoa. Well, the disorder of mineral metabolism in general characterizes the violation of metabolic processes in all forms of ejaculate pathology. Identified features of the metabolism in the sperm plasma may further allow to identify more informative laboratory markers of male infertility.


Asunto(s)
Infertilidad Masculina , Semen/química , Humanos , Masculino , Espermatozoides
3.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 64(8): 507-512, 2019.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479609

RESUMEN

The purpose of the work is to determine the spectrum, quantity and frequency of occurrence of microorganisms in the oral fluid and large intestine in healthy young men under changes of living conditions. A survey was conducted of 14 nonresident young men, students of the 1st and 2nd courses, studying at Tver State Medical University, which included questions about the place of birth, living conditions, the presence of chronic diseases and the frequency of their exacerbations over the past year, water and food regimes, physical exertion, the presence of bad habits and emotional stress, etc. The oral fluid and feces were examined to determine the spectrum and amount of microbiota of the upper and lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract. As the result of the survey, it was found that the living conditions of all young men significantly worsened among second-year students than freshmen. It was revealed that colon microbiota in sophomores characterized by less diverse than those of first-year, despite of a marked increase in the number of opportunistic pathogens (Stаphylocоccus spp., Strерtocoсcus spp., Clоstridium spp., Васillus spp., Кlebsiеlla spp.) over resident microbes. It was found the decrease in the number and frequency of occurrence of all microbial representatives in the oral microbiota of 2nd year students in comparison with first-year. It was proved that the deterioration of living conditions of nonresident students led to the increase in the number of second-year students with dysbiotic changes in the intestinal microbiota from 86% to 100%, mainly due to the increase in the number of persons with dysbiosis of II and III degree.


Asunto(s)
Intestino Grueso/microbiología , Microbiota , Boca/microbiología , Disbiosis , Heces , Humanos , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Masculino , Características de la Residencia
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1148: 255-277, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482503

RESUMEN

Hyaluronidases are enzymes that degrade hyaluronic acid, which constitutes an essential part of the extracellular matrix. Initially discovered in bacteria, hyaluronidases are known to be widely distributed in nature and have been found in many classes including insects, snakes, fish and mammals. In the human, six different hyaluronidases, HYAL1-4, HYAL-P1 and PH-20, have been identified. PH-20 exerts the strongest biologic activity, is found in high concentrations in the testicles and can be localized on the head and the acrosome of human spermatozoa. Today, animal-derived bovine or ovine testicular hyaluronidases as well as synthetic hyaluronidases are clinically applied as adjuncts to increase the bioavailability of drugs, for the therapy of extravasations, or for the management of complications associated with the aesthetic injection of hyaluronic acid-based fillers. Further applications in the fields of surgery, aesthetic medicine, immunology, oncology, and many others can be expected for years to come. Here, we give an overview over the molecular and cellular mode of action of hyaluronidase and the hyaluronic acid metabolism, as well as over current and potential future clinical applications of hyaluronidase.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Hialurónico/metabolismo , Hialuronoglucosaminidasa/farmacología , Animales , Bovinos , Matriz Extracelular , Humanos , Inyecciones , Masculino , Ovinos , Testículo/enzimología
5.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 48(3): 275-281, 2019 May 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496159

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features and implication of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in ischemic stroke patients. METHODS: A total of 199 ischemic stroke patients were enrolled and assessed by polysomnography (PSG). RLS was identified according to criteria of International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) were used to evaluate the sleep quality, cognitive function and post-stroke depression, respectively. The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was used to evaluate the neurological function 3 months after stroke onset. Gender-and age-matched non-ischemic stroke patients with RLS (primary PLS) were selected as controls. RESULTS: Twenty-two cases of RLS were identified among 199 ischemic stroke patients (11.1%). Generalized linear model and logistic regression showed that low serum ferritin level (ß=-133.3 mg/L, 95%CI:-200.4--0.1, P<0.01), subcortical infarction (OR=4.05, 95%CI:1.15-14.18, P<0.05) and female (OR=2.54, 95%CI:1.04-6.23, P<0.05) were identified as the risk factors of RLS in ischemic stroke patients. Compared with ischemic stroke patients without RLS, ESS increased by 4.37 (95%CI:2.33-6.41, P<0.01), PHQ-9 increased by 2.17 (95%CI:0.39--3.94, P<0.05), and reduced NIHSS from the baseline deceased by 0.97 (95%CI:-1.79--0.15, P<0.05) in ischemic stroke patients with RLS. In addition, the incidence of moderate-severe depression increased (OR=4.27, 95%CI:1.40-13.10, P<0.05) in ischemic stroke patients with RLS. The index of periodic leg movements of sleep (PLMS) with arousal in ischemic stroke patients with RLS was significantly higher than that in patients with primary RLS (ß=12.85, 95%CI:2.04-23.67, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: RLS is common in ischemic stroke patients and has adverse influences on patients.


Asunto(s)
Isquemia Encefálica , Síndrome de las Piernas Inquietas , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Isquemia Encefálica/complicaciones , Isquemia Encefálica/patología , Depresión/complicaciones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Polisomnografía , Síndrome de las Piernas Inquietas/complicaciones , Síndrome de las Piernas Inquietas/patología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/complicaciones , Accidente Cerebrovascular/patología
6.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 46(8): 1219-1225, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501360

RESUMEN

Although local tumor controls in various cancers by radiation therapy(RT)are dose dependent, dose-volume effects on late toxicities of surrounding normal tissues have been also observed. Particle beam therapy(PBT)using protons and carbonions have physical advantages in RT for the treatment of various cancers because they can create a desirable dose distribution to the target volume using fewer portals compared with photon-based RT. Thus, dose-escalation using charged particles is a reasonable approach in RT, theoretically. Based on accumulation of the evidences that PBT shows the efficacy in treatment for several cancers, the number of particle therapy facilities have been rapidly increasing worldwide. The Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology organized a joint effort among research groups to establish standardized treatment policies of particle therapy according to disease through systematic reviews. Furthermore, multicenter prospective studies have been conducted for hepatocellular carcinoma and prostate cancer. At the present, PBT for pediatric tumors, prostate cancer, unresectable bone and soft tissue sarcomas, head and neck non-squamous cell carcinomas is covered by the Japanese national health insurance system. Boron neutron capture therapy(BNCT)is also a promising modality as biochemically targeted RT, but it has been performed in only limited facilities. Recent advances in technology, accelerator-based neutron sources will increase in BNCT facilities and lead to wider application of BNCT for various cancers.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Captura de Neutrón de Boro , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Dosificación Radioterapéutica
7.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 46(8): 1259-1263, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501367

RESUMEN

We retrospectively analyzed adverse effects(AEs), overall survival(OS), and progression-free survival(PFS)in 15 consecutive patients treated with FOLFIRINOX as the first-line treatment for recurrent or unresectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma( PDAC)between February 2014 and December 2017 in our hospital. Eleven patients were treated for unresectable PDAC with distant metastases(UR-M), and 4 were treated for locally advanced unresectable PDAC(UR-LA). The median age was 56(range: 40-75)years. Nine patients were male, and 6 were female. The performance status was 0 or 1 in all patients. Tumors were located in the pancreas head in 8 cases and in the body-tail in 7 cases. Grade 5 AEs were observed in 1 case in which liver abscess causing sepsis resulted in mortality. The response rate was 20.0%, and the disease control rate was 66.7%. Two patients underwent conversion surgery after FOLFIRINOX treatment. Seven patients received a nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine regimen as second-line treatment. The median OS and PFS were 17.0 and 8.4 months, respectively, and the 1-year survival rate was 66.7%. FOLFIRINOX for recurrent and unresectable PDAC showed relatively good tumor control. However, strict attention is required for severe AEs. Conversion surgery might be effective in patients who are good responders even if they have metastatic disease.


Asunto(s)
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Adulto , Anciano , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Femenino , Fluorouracilo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamiento farmacológico , Estudios Retrospectivos
8.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 46(8): 1295-1297, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501373

RESUMEN

Herein, we report a case of lymph node recurrence 7 years after curative esophagectomy for T1a(LPM)upper thoracic esophageal cancer. A 70's man underwent radical esophagectomy by using video-assisted thoracic surgery and hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery(VATS and HALS)with gastric tube reconstruction via a posterior mediastinal route for upper thoracic esophageal cancer cT1bN0M0, cStageⅠ in August 2010. The pathological diagnosis was pT1a(LPM), w/d, scc, ly0, v0, ie (+), inf b, pIM0, pPM0, pDM0, pRM0, pN0, pM0, pStage 0. Moreover, he was followed-up without treatment after surgery. In November 2017, 7 years after esophagectomy, follow-up CT revealed left supraclavicular lymph node swelling. FDG-PET revealed high uptake of FDG, and lymph node recurrence was suspected. In January 2018, we performed lymph node biopsy. We could not remove the lymph node completely, because the lt common carotid artery and lt jugular vein were associated with the metastatic lymph node. The pathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma. Chemoradiation therapy was performed after surgery, and patient recovery was uneventful.


Asunto(s)
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias Esofágicas , Anciano , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirugía , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirugía , Esofagectomía , Humanos , Escisión del Ganglio Linfático , Ganglios Linfáticos , Masculino , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia
9.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 46(8): 1299-1302, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501374

RESUMEN

A 74-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of a gastric tumor. A Borrmann type 2 gastric tumor was found on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, but tissue biopsy indicated only necrotic tissue and the preoperative diagnosis was difficult. Contrast CT and FDG-PET revealed lymphadenopathy at multiple sites accompanied by high accumulation of FDG in the perigastric lymph nodes, left upper collarbicular fossa, bilateral hilar ganglia, and longitudinal cauda. Because the tumor was strongly suspected to be gastric cancer or malignant lymphoma, distal gastrectomy was performed. The tumor was finally diagnosed as a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with multiple lymph node metastasis. S-1 plus cisplatin therapy was administered as first-line chemotherapy, and paclitaxel(PTX)plus ramucirumab(RAM)therapy was administered as secondline chemotherapy. PTX plus RAM therapy was effective, and the patient achieved complete remission(CR), as observed on imaging. However, because adverse events such as numbness in the periphery of the limbs were noted, PTX plus RAM therapy was discontinued per the patient's request. Currently, 13 months since the interruption of treatment, the CR has been maintained, as determined on imaging.


Asunto(s)
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias Gástricas , Anciano , Anticuerpos Monoclonales , Gastrectomía , Humanos , Masculino , Paclitaxel , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamiento farmacológico
10.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 46(8): 1319-1321, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501379

RESUMEN

A66 -year-old man was diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia(CML). Imatinib treatment had been initiated, and a major molecular response(MMR)was achieved. The patient had anemia and was diagnosed with descending colon cancer. The patient was surgically treated, and then received postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with UFT/LV. However, imatinib was not administered during that period. The patient could undergo postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for 6 months without acute exacerbation of the CML.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias del Colon , Leucemia Mielógena Crónica BCR-ABL Positiva , Anciano , Antineoplásicos , Quimioterapia Adyuvante , Colon Descendente , Neoplasias del Colon/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias del Colon/cirugía , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib , Leucemia Mielógena Crónica BCR-ABL Positiva/tratamiento farmacológico , Leucemia Mielógena Crónica BCR-ABL Positiva/cirugía , Masculino , Resultado del Tratamiento
11.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 46(8): 1330-1333, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501382

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: T4 is one of the high-risk factors, but the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy for T4-Stage Ⅱ colon cancer are unclear. METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed 211 patients with primary pStage Ⅱ colon cancer who underwent radical resection between 2004 and 2015. RESULTS: The 5-year overall survival rate(OS)of Stage ⅡA/ⅡB/ⅡC were 90.2/83.4/ 59.2%, and the 5-year recurrence-free survival rate(RFS)were 87.3/73.3/42.8%. Multivariate analysis of OS as a high-risk factor of T4 revealed male, ly2/3, no adjuvant chemotherapy, and in RFS, male, ly2/3. However, compared the cases with or without adjuvant chemotherapy, 5-year OS was no difference. There were no cases used oxaliplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: An adjuvant chemotherapy without oxaliplatin were not enough to improve the prognoses of T4-Stage Ⅱcolon cancer, so the oxaliplatin based regimen might be recommended.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias del Colon , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Quimioterapia Adyuvante , Neoplasias del Colon/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Compuestos Organoplatinos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
12.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho ; 46(8): 1337-1339, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501384

RESUMEN

We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the efficacy and the problem of the neoadjuvant chemotherapy using DCF for cStage Ⅲ/Ⅳ(squamous cell)esophageal cancer. Eleven patients from January 2017 to December 2018 were enrolled into this study. The median age was 67 years old, male/female ratio was 9:2, performance status was 0 in all patients, and UICC cStage Ⅲ/Ⅳa was 7:4. Cycles of chemotherapy was 2 in 1 patients, 3 in 5 patients and additional 2 courses in 1 patient. Four patients switched to FP therapy after a course of DCF. The efficacy of chemotherapy was evaluated by the clinical response rate, average tumor reduction rate, and histological therapeutic effect rate over Grade 2 which was 63.6%, 48.3%, and 40%, respectively. Neutropenia over Grade 3 was observed in all patients and Grade 4 was observed in 6 patients. In conclusion, preoperative chemotherapy with DCF therapy is useful for the treatment of cStage Ⅲ/Ⅳ(squamous cell) esophageal cancer as long as bone marrow suppression is managed.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Esofágicas , Anciano , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Docetaxel , Femenino , Fluorouracilo , Humanos , Masculino , Terapia Neoadyuvante , Estudios Retrospectivos , Taxoides , Resultado del Tratamiento
13.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(4): eAO4742, 2019 Sep 09.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508660

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the induction of DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with sickle cell disease, SS and SC genotypes, treated with hydroxyurea. METHODS: The study subjects were divided into two groups: one group of 22 patients with sickle cell disease, SS and SC genotypes, treated with hydroxyurea, and a Control Group composed of 24 patients with sickle cell disease who were not treated with hydroxyurea. Peripheral blood samples were submitted to peripheral blood mononuclear cell isolation to assess genotoxicity by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay, in which DNA damage biomarkers - micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds - were counted. RESULTS: Patients with sickle cell disease treated with hydroxyurea had a mean age of 25.4 years, whereas patients with sickle cell disease not treated with hydroxyurea had a mean age of 17.6 years. The mean dose of hydroxyurea used by the patients was 12.8mg/kg/day, for a mean period of 44 months. The mean micronucleus frequency per 1,000 cells of 8.591±1.568 was observed in the Hydroxyurea Group and 10.040±1.003 in the Control Group. The mean frequency of nucleoplasmic bridges per 1,000 cells and nuclear buds per 1,000 cells for the hydroxyurea and Control Groups were 0.4545±0.1707 versus 0.5833±0.2078, and 0.8182±0.2430 versus 0.9583±0.1853, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between groups. CONCLUSION: In the study population, patients with sickle cell disease treated with the standard dose of hydroxyurea treatment did not show evidence of DNA damage induction.


Asunto(s)
Anemia de Células Falciformes/genética , Daño del ADN/efectos de los fármacos , Hidroxiurea/farmacología , Inhibidores de la Síntesis del Ácido Nucleico/farmacología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia de Células Falciformes/tratamiento farmacológico , Niño , Preescolar , Citocinesis , Daño del ADN/genética , Femenino , Humanos , Hidroxiurea/efectos adversos , Hidroxiurea/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Pruebas de Micronúcleos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pruebas de Mutagenicidad , Mutación/efectos de los fármacos , Inhibidores de la Síntesis del Ácido Nucleico/efectos adversos , Inhibidores de la Síntesis del Ácido Nucleico/uso terapéutico , Adulto Joven
14.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 010412, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489183

RESUMEN

Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) driven by antibiotic consumption is a growing global health threat. However, data on antimicrobial consumption patterns in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is sparse. Here, we investigate the patterns of antibiotic sales in humans and livestock in urban Nairobi, Kenya, and evaluate the level of awareness and common behaviours related to antibiotic use and AMR amongst human and veterinary pharmacists. Methods: A total of 40 human and 19 veterinary drug store pharmacists were interviewed in Nairobi in 2018 using a standard questionnaire. Data recorded included demographic variables, types of antibiotics sold, antibiotic customers, antibiotic prescribing practices and knowledge of antibiotic use and AMR. Results: Our study shows that at the retail level, there is a considerable overlap between antibiotic classes (10/15) sold for use in both human and veterinary medicine. Whilst in our study, clinical training significantly influenced knowledge on issues related to antibiotic use and AMR and respondents had a relatively adequate level of knowledge about AMR, several inappropriate prescribing practices were identified. For example, we found that most veterinary and human drug stores (100% and 52% respectively) sold antibiotics without a prescription and noted that customer preference was an important factor when prescribing antibiotics in half of the drug stores. Conclusion: Although more research is needed to understand the drivers of antibiotic consumption in both human and animal populations, these findings highlight the need for immediate strategies to improve prescribing practices across the pharmacists in Nairobi and by extension other low- and middle-income country settings.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Farmacéuticos/psicología , Adulto , Animales , Estudios Transversales , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Femenino , Humanos , Prescripción Inadecuada/estadística & datos numéricos , Kenia , Masculino , Farmacéuticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020403, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489186

RESUMEN

Background: There is a need to develop sustainable emergency health care systems in low-resource settings, but data that analyses emergency health care needs in these settings are scarce. We aimed at assessing presenting complaints (PCs) and post-discharge mortality in a large emergency department population in Nepal. Methods: Characteristics of adult patients who entered the emergency department (ED) in a hospital in Nepal were prospectively recorded in the local emergency registry from September 2013 until December 2016. To assess post-ED mortality, patient households were followed-up by telephone interviews at 90 days. Results: In 21892 included adults, the major PC categories were injuries (29%), abdominal complaints (23%), and infections (16%). Median age was 40 years and sex distribution was balanced. Among 3793 patients followed at 90 days, 8% had died. For respiratory and cardiovascular PCs, 90-day mortality were 25% and 23%. The highest mortality was in individuals with known chronic lung disease, in this group 32% had died by 90 days of ED discharge, regardless of PC. In women, illiteracy compared to literacy (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 7.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.1-23.6) and being both exposed to tobacco-smoking and traditional cooking stove compared to no smoke (aOR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.6-4.9) were associated with mortality. The mortality was much higher among family-initiated discharged patients (17%, aOR = 5.4, 95% CI = 3.3-8.9) compared to doctor-initiated discharged (3%). Conclusions: Our report suggests that nearly one in ten patients seeking emergency health care died within 90 days. This finding is alarming and novel. Post-discharge studies need to be replicated and appropriate follow-up programs in low-resource settings where primary health care is underdeveloped are urgently needed.


Asunto(s)
Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Mortalidad/tendencias , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Hospitales Universitarios , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nepal/epidemiología , Estudios Prospectivos
16.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020404, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489187

RESUMEN

Background: Displacement after a war or an armed conflict always leads to unexpected health problems, both among migrating people and in places to which new people have migrated. This study aimed to determine the health care needs and trends of Syrian patients. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in a secondary care hospital in the city of Nevsehir, in central Turkey, between January 2013 and December 2017. All Syrian patients who visited the outpatient clinics and emergency department (ED) were enrolled in the study. Results: Over a span of five years, 41 723 Syrian patients visited the hospital's outpatient clinics and ED. The patients' median age was 23 (inter-quartile range (IQR) = 7-34), and 57.7% of them were female. In 2017, one-third of the Syrian patients visited the ED, a rate that was higher than that found among local patients (30.3% vs 25.0%, P < 0.001, respectively). The rate of pediatric clinic admissions among Syrian patients was about four times greater than the rate of local patients (20.1% vs 5.2%, P < 0.001, respectively), and Syrians' rate of admission to the obstetrics and gynecology clinic was about three times greater than the rate of local patients' admissions (12.3% vs 4.3%, P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: This study showed that Syrian patients' visits to the hospital, and especially the ED, are increasing. Further, the needs and expectations of these patients in terms of health care are different from local demands. New approaches should be applied to provide an appropriate use of health care facilities.


Asunto(s)
Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Refugiados/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Siria/etnología , Turquia , Adulto Joven
17.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 65(3): 224-238, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476994

RESUMEN

App-controlled feedback devices can support sustainability of weight loss. Multicentre QUANT-study shows additional weight loss and gain of QoL via multiple feedback-devices in OPTIFAST®52-program Objective: Are three app-controlled feedback devices, tested against a simple pedometer in a weight reduction program, supporting sustainable therapy success and quality of life (QoL)? Methods: In this multi-centre randomised controlled study adults with obesity (n = 89, m = 46.5 years, women n = 54), achieved high weight loss (from 42.7 kg/m² to 35.2 kg/m²) while completing the first three month of the OPTIFAST®52-program. Thereafter the intervention group (IG) used feedback devices (BIA scale, blood pressure monitor, step counter), the control group a mechanical pedometer without app for another year. Intention-to-treat analysis (ITT) and As-treated analysis (AT) were carried out. Results: Feedback devices had a positive effect on fat-loss and secondary study objectives like QoL, leading to a better sustainability of these improvements. Participants in IG (AT for t2-t0) had improvements for Waist-to-Height-ratio (WHtR) and physically and mentally quality of life. Conclusion: The results are presumably based on an increase in self-efficacy and the experience of control. Future studies should be preceded by a pilot study to analyse acceptance problems.


Asunto(s)
Mantenimiento del Peso Corporal , Retroalimentación , Aplicaciones Móviles , Obesidad/terapia , Calidad de Vida , Pérdida de Peso , Programas de Reducción de Peso/métodos , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
18.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 68(6): 540-554, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480949

RESUMEN

German Military Families: A Qualitative Inquiry of Strategies of Coping with the Fathers' Absence Military families with experiences of deployment are subject to multiple stressors. In this research an explorative qualitative design was used to identify specific challenges, resources and strategies of coping within the families, focusing on the children's perspective. Results show that the fathers' absence causes vital changes in the family system, which demand specific strategies to deal with the abrupt emotional and social challenges. Four of these coping strategies will be presented in this article. Furthermore, resources embedded in the social environment as well as supportive structures provided by the German military will be discussed. Two hypotheses were formulated to outline the findings that the preparation for a deployment as well as patterns of communication about the father's absence are the most crucial factors for the children's resilience in the case of military families.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Padre , Familia Militar/psicología , Niño , Emociones , Humanos , Masculino , Investigación Cualitativa
19.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20171028, 2019 Sep 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482992

RESUMEN

Aplectana hylambatis is a nematode with a wide geographic distribution and low host specificity. In spite of numerous reports, until this moment, the morphological variations between different hosts and localities have not been studied. We studied 401 specimens collected from five host species from seven localities in Argentina, and examined the following morphological characters: mamelon-like cuticular protuberances anterior to the vulva, structure of the gubernaculum and the spicules, number and arrangement of caudal papillae, and the measurements of twelve characters in females and eleven characters in males. The results showed that mamelon-like protuberances and caudal papillae varied in number and arrangement between different hosts and localities. The metrical study revealed that five characters in males and six in females contributed to variability; nine characters showed significant differences between host species and localities. Specimens of A. hylambatis collected from R. arenarum formed a group clearly differentiated from the rest of the specimens. The results from this study highlight the importance of examining as many specimens as possible from different host samples and from several localities to cover the intraspecific variations.


Asunto(s)
Anuros/parasitología , Nematodos/anatomía & histología , Nematodos/clasificación , Animales , Anuros/clasificación , Argentina , Femenino , Geografía , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos , Masculino
20.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 44(8): 547-53, 2019 Aug 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475486

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) combined with rehabilitation training on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and angiogenesis in rats with acute cerebral ischemia (ACI), so as to explore its mechanisms underlying improvement of ACI. METHODS: A total of 135 male SD rats were divided into 5 groups: sham-operation (sham), model, EA, rehabilitation training and EA+rehabilitation training (combined treatment) groups (n=27 rats in each group). The ACI model was established by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery with thread embolus. EA (2 Hz/20 Hz, 3-5 V) was applied to "Baihui" (GV20), "Shuigou" (GV26) and bilateral "Neiguan" (PC6) for 20 min, once daily for 14 days. The rehabilitation training including hair-brushing in an enriched environment (10 min), round wooden-stick turning (10 min), grid-board climbing (10 min), and treadmill running (30 min/d) was condacted once daily for 14 days. The rCBF was measured by Doppler ultrasound. The cerebral infarct volume (CIV) was measured after 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The expression of CD34+ in the ischemic penumbra region of brain tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the expressions of angiogenesis-related factors as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) proteins in the ischemic brain tissue were detected by Western blot. RESULTS: Following modeling, the rCBF levels at the 5 min, 3rd, 7th and 14th day were significantly decreased in the model group relevant to the sham group (P<0.01). After the intervention, the rCBF levels were significantly increased on day 3, 7 and 14 in the combined treatment group and on day 7 and 14 in both the EA and rehabilitation training groups in comparison with the model group (P<0.01). The CIV was obvious in the model group in comparison with the sham group (P<0.01), but was markedly smaller in the EA, rehabilitation training and combined treatment groups on day 3,7 and 14 than in the model group (P<0.01). The number of CD34+ positive cells, and the expression levels of VEGF, VEGFR2, and bFGF proteins in ischemic brain tissues were significantly higher on day 3, 7 and 14 in the model group than in the sham group (P<0.01, P<0.05), and were further up-regulated considerably at the 3 time-points in the 3 treatment groups (P<0.01, P<0.05). The therapeutic effect of EA+rehabilitation training was significantly superior to that of simple EA and simple rehabilitation training in up-regulating rCBF, CD34+ positive cell number, and expression levels of VEGF, VEGFR2 and bFGF, and in down-regulating the CIV on day 3,7 and 14 (P<0.05, P<0.01). No significant differences were found between the EA and rehabilitation groups in the above-mentioned 6 indexes (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: EA combined with rehabilitation training can reduce the infarct volume and increase rCBF in ACI rats, which is probably associated with its effects in promoting the expression of angiogenesis-related factors of ischemic brain tissues. The effect of EA combined with rehabilitation training is markedly better than that of EA and rehabilitation training alone.


Asunto(s)
Isquemia Encefálica , Electroacupuntura , Inductores de la Angiogénesis , Animales , Circulación Cerebrovascular , Masculino , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular
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