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1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243495, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320876

RESUMEN

The maintenance of postural balance can be influenced by the lifestyle of a population. This study aimed to determine the electromyographic activity of the masseter and temporalis muscles during mandibular tasks and habitual and non-habitual chewing in indigenous individuals to reveal the differences among white Brazilian individuals. Sixty Brazilians (18 and 28 years) were divided into two groups: 30 Xingu indigenous individuals and 30 white Brazilian individuals, with 20 men and 10 women in each group. The individuals were assessed using the normalized electromyographic activity of mandibular tasks (rest, protrusion, right and left laterality) and electromyographic activity of masticatory cycles in habitual (peanuts and raisins) and non-habitual (Parafilm M) chewing. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test (p < .05). Comparisons between the groups demonstrated significant differences. Indigenous individuals group presented a decrease in the normalized electromyographic activity of the masticatory muscles during mandibular rest [right masseter (p = .002) and left masseter (p = .004) muscles]. There was increase in the normalized electromyographic activity during protrusion [left temporal (p = .03) muscle]. There was increase in the electromyographic activity during chewing: peanuts [right masseter (p = .001), left masseter (p = .001) and right temporal (p = .01) muscles], raisins [right masseter (p = .001), left masseter (p = .002), right temporal (p = .008), left temporal (p = .01) muscles] and Parafilm M [left masseter muscle (p = .05)]. From the findings of this study, we concluded that in the comparison between indigenous and white individuals, positive changes were observed in the electromyographic pattern of the masticatory muscles in the mandibular postural conditions, with greater masticatory efficiency in the indigenous group.


Asunto(s)
Electromiografía , Músculo Masetero/fisiología , Músculo Temporal/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Pueblos Indígenas , Masculino , Masticación/fisiología , Adulto Joven
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237872, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817680

RESUMEN

Recent results have established that masticatory function plays a role not only in the balance of the stomatognathic system and in the central motor control, but also in the trophism of the hippocampus and in the cognitive activity. These implications have been shown in clinical studies and in animal researches as well, by means of histological, biochemical and behavioural techniques. This systematic review describes the effects of three forms of experimentally altered mastication, namely soft-diet feeding, molar extraction and bite-raising, on the trophism and function of the hippocampus in animal models. Through a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, OpenGray and GrayMatters, 645 articles were identified, 33 full text articles were assessed for eligibility and 28 articles were included in the review process. The comprehensiveness of reporting was evaluated with the ARRIVE guidelines and the risk of bias with the SYRCLE RoB tool. The literature reviewed agrees that a disturbed mastication is significantly associated with a reduced number of hippocampal pyramidal neurons in Cornu Ammonis (CA)1 and CA3, downregulation of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), reduced synaptic activity, reduced neurogenesis in the Dentate Gyrus (DG), glial proliferation, and reduced performances in behavioural tests, indicating memory impairment and reduced spatial orientation. Moreover, while the bite-raised condition, characterized by occlusal instability, is known to be a source of stress, soft-diet feeding and molar extractions were not consistently associated with a stress response. More research is needed to clarify this topic. The emerging role of chewing in the preservation of hippocampal trophism, neurogenesis and synaptic activity is worthy of interest and may contribute to the study of neurodegenerative diseases in new and potentially relevant ways.


Asunto(s)
Cognición/fisiología , Hipocampo/crecimiento & desarrollo , Masticación/fisiología , Neuronas/fisiología , Animales , Giro Dentado/crecimiento & desarrollo , Humanos , Trastornos de la Memoria/fisiopatología , Modelos Animales , Neurogénesis/fisiología
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238036, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853244

RESUMEN

The aging process affects the entire human body, including the stomatognathic system, and can trigger not only occlusal but also postural imbalances involving other muscular chains. Hippotherapy has been used to promote cervical, postural, and balance control in individuals with diverse impairments. The present study used electromyography to evaluate the masseter and temporal muscles in an elderly population pre- and post-hippotherapy. Participants included 17 individuals, mean age 66,5±7 years. Electromyographic recording of the bilateral masseter and temporal muscles was performed during the postural resting condition and activities that involved the active participation of these muscles in different conditions. The practitioner performed no other type of activity or exercise during the intervention because the objective is to evaluate the effect of the three-dimensional movement provided by the horse. Raw electromyographic data were tabulated using commercially available software (IBM® SPSS® Statistics 234.0) and subjected to statistical analysis, in which p ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Post-hippotherapy, there was lower electromyographic activity for the masseter and temporalis muscles in all the static mandibular tasks, with significant effect for time for the right temporal muscle (p = 0.038), the left temporal muscle (p = 0.028) and in the all dynamic mandibular tasks for the left temporal muscle (p = 0.025) and the left masseter muscle (p = 0.027). Hippotherapy promotes a reduction in the myoelectric activity of the masticatory muscles of elderly individuals.


Asunto(s)
Electromiografía , Terapía Asistida por Caballos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiología , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Masticación/fisiología , Persona de Mediana Edad
5.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4719-4727, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727798

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIM: We investigated whether mastication affects microglia, whose activity is thought to be associated with cognition and brain tumor progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We kept mice by feeding either a hard or soft diet for 2, 4 or 8 months. After each period, we removed the whole brains and isolated microglia. The total RNA extracted from each brain's microglia was subjected to DNA microarray analysis. RESULTS: Many genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed between hard- and soft-diet-fed mice in each group of the same feeding period. The expression of several genes involved in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton was down-regulated in the soft-diet-fed mice. CONCLUSION: Mastication may affect microglia's roles in cognition as well as their neuroimmune activity through their activity of patrolling the brain.


Asunto(s)
Masticación/fisiología , Microglía/fisiología , Transcriptoma/fisiología , Animales , Encéfalo/fisiología , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C3H
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646041

RESUMEN

This study is aimed at investigating the effects of synchronized neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and chewing exercises on bite force and the masseter muscle thickness in community-dwelling older adults. Material and methods: Forty older adults were enrolled in South Korea and randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group. The experimental group performed chewing exercises using the No-Sick Exerciser equipment synchronized with NMES applied to the bilateral masseter muscles, while the control group performed only chewing exercises. Both groups received interventions for 20 min/day, 5 days/week, for 6 weeks. Bite force was measured using the OCCLUZER device, and masseter muscle thickness was measured using a portable ultrasound. Results: Both groups showed a significant increase in bite force and masseter muscle thickness compared to baseline measurements (p < 0.05). The experimental group showed a significantly higher increase in bite force and masseter muscle thickness than the control group after combined intervention (p < 0.05). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that NMES synchronized with chewing exercises is more efficient in increasing bite force and masseter muscle thickness than chewing exercises alone in community-dwelling older adults.


Asunto(s)
Fuerza de la Mordida , Estimulación Eléctrica , Músculo Masetero , Masticación/fisiología , Músculos Masticadores/fisiopatología , Anciano , Electromiografía , Femenino , Humanos , Vida Independiente , Masculino , Músculo Masetero/anatomía & histología , Músculo Masetero/diagnóstico por imagen , República de Corea , Ultrasonografía
7.
Braz Oral Res ; 34: e059, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578802

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of malocclusion, nutritive and non-nutritive sucking habits and dental caries in the masticatory function of preschool children. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 384 children aged 3-5 years. A single examiner calibrated for oral clinical examinations performed all the evaluations (kappa > 0.82). Presence of malocclusion was recorded using Foster and Hamilton criteria. The number of masticatory units and of posterior teeth cavitated by dental caries was also recorded. The parents answered a questionnaire in the form of an interview, addressing questions about the child's nutritive and non-nutritive sucking habits. The masticatory function was evaluated using Optocal test material, and was based on the median particle size in the masticatory performance, on the swallowing threshold, and on the number of masticatory cycles during the swallowing threshold. Data analysis involved simple and multiple linear regression analyses, and the confidence level adopted was 95%. The sample consisted of 206 children in the malocclusion group and 178 in the non-malocclusion group. In the multiple regression analysis, the masticatory performance was associated with age (p = 0.025), bottle feeding (p = 0.004), presence of malocclusion (p = 0.048) and number of cavitated posterior teeth (p = 0.030). The swallowing threshold was associated with age (p = 0.025), bottle feeding (p = 0.001) and posterior malocclusion (p = 0.017). The number of masticatory cycles during the swallowing threshold was associated with the number of cavitated posterior teeth (p = 0.001). In conclusion, posterior malocclusion, bottle feeding and dental caries may interfere in the masticatory function of preschool children.


Asunto(s)
Deglución/fisiología , Caries Dental/fisiopatología , Maloclusión/fisiopatología , Masticación/fisiología , Conducta en la Lactancia/fisiología , Alimentación Artificial , Lactancia Materna , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Succión del Dedo , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Tamaño de la Partícula , Valores de Referencia , Factores Sexuales , Estadísticas no Paramétricas
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(23): e20653, 2020 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502052

RESUMEN

Currently, a few of studies revealed that there is an association between mastication and cognitive impairment. There is no study of Korean adult representative samples in relation to mastication and cognitive decline. This study was to investigate the relationship between mastication and mild cognitive impairment in Korean adults.A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in which a total of 7029 subjects (2987 men and 4042 women) over 45 years old were surveyed from the Korea Longitudinal Study on Aging (KLoSA), Round 5th survey. Logistic regression analysis was performed for the study data controlling for confounding factors such as age, gender, education, income, smoking, drinking, exercise, wearing denture, and the number of chronic diseases.Decreased chewing function is associated with mild cognitive impairment (odds ratio [OR] = 3.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.67-3.93) after controlling for confounding variables. In the participants who did not wear dentures, the reduction of chewing function was strongly correlated with mild cognitive impairment (OR = 3.97, 95% CI = 3.11-5.08).Mastication was associated with mild cognitive impairment. To prevent cognitive decline, health specialists should pay more attention to the decline of the mastication in people without dentures.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Masticación/fisiología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Dentaduras/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , República de Corea
9.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(2): 198-204, June 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090675

RESUMEN

La masticación se ha estudiado desde diferentes puntos de vista, utilizando alimentos de prueba naturales y artificiales. La evidencia es escasa cuando se analizan alimentos a base de cereales, que van desde cereales para el desayuno hasta barras de granola. El investigar este tipo de alimentos, se vuelve importante para entender el comportamiento de la masticación frente a alimentos con diferentes composiciones y texturas, y como estas características pueden influir en el proceso masticatorio. Se analizó la masticación desde un punto de vista cinemático, en sujetos jóvenes dentados. El alimento de prueba utilizado fue granola prototipo y maní, este último se ha estudiado en sujetos con rehabilitación protésica y su consumo se recomienda en esta población. Se analizaron las características cinemáticas de la masticación como numero de ciclos, frecuencia masticatoria, velocidad de masticación de ascenso y descenso, y el área de masticación en los tres planos del espacio. Se relacionaron los movimientos masticatorios con los movimientos mandibulares bordeantes que conformaron el polígono de Posselt, este también se analizó en los tres planos espaciales. En todas las variables analizadas la granola presento valores mayores, excepto en el número de ciclos masticatorios, sólo se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p= 0,03) al comparar la velocidad (ascenso y descenso) y el área de masticación en el plano horizontal.


Chewing has been studied from different points of view, using natural and artificial foods test. When analyzing cereal-based foods, from breakfast cereals to granola bars, the evidence is scarce. Investigate this type of food is important to understand the behavior of chewing, with foods of different compositions and textures, and how these characteristics can influence the chewing process. Chewing was analyzed from a cinematic point of view, in young subjects complete dental. The test food used was prototype granola and peanuts, last one has been studied in subjects with prosthetic rehabilitation and its consumption is recommended in this population. The kinematic characteristics of chewing were analyzed: number of cycles, chewing frequency, ascent and descent chewing speed, and the chewing area in the three planes of space. The masticatory movements were related to the bordering mandibular movements, that formed the Posselt polygon, which was also analyzed in the three spatial planes. In all the variables analyzed, granola showed higher values, except in the number of chewing cycles, only statistically significant differences (p = 0.03) were found when comparing speed (ascent and descent) and the chewing area in the horizontal plane.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Mandíbula/fisiología , Masticación/fisiología , Arachis , Grano Comestible , Fenómenos Electromagnéticos
10.
Eat Behav ; 37: 101388, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413733

RESUMEN

Chew and Spit (CHSP) is a prevalent disordered eating symptom and has been thought to be associated with a number of adverse effects. In the current study, 18 participants (>90% female, aged between 18 and 51) took part in answering questions about their experiences, struggles, concerns, methods of coping, and personal meaning of CHSP and how it has impacted their lives. Data collection and analysis were conducted in accordance with Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) methodology. Findings revealed 7 primary themes of CHSP, which highlighted that CHSP may be: (1) associated with negative emotions - primarily shame; (2) exacerbated by stress and may be a mechanism to help regain control; (3) temporarily provides pleasure; (4) a distraction or form of escapism; (5) a self-soothing or coping mechanism; (6) addictive, ritualistic, and similar to other eating disorders in that it can become part of an individual's self-identity; and (7) adversely impacting psychological, physiological, and social health. Some of the identified superordinate themes were in line with previous studies hypotheses. However, overall the findings indicated that individuals who CHSP are often embroiled in what they may perceive as a struggle, with no specific, efficacious, approach to helping them control the behavior. Future studies should focus on the treatment of CHSP, including treatment of CHSP as a potential primary symptom of pathological eating. Moreover, the perceived implications of engaging in CHSP should be examined more closely, with clinicians screening for the behavior and carefully considering their approach when attempting to treat patients for CHSP.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Masticación/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
11.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 21, 2020 May 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446309

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The role of saliva composition and dietary sugar in development of infundibular caries in equine cheek teeth is not fully understood. This study analysed electrolyte and urea concentrations in saliva in relation to different forage and measured pH changes after sucrose application in vivo in sound and carious cheek teeth. RESULTS: Forage type had no effect on the equine saliva electrolyte concentrations, which varied considerably both intra- and inter-individually. Chewing resulted in increased values for all electrolytes except bicarbonate. Compared with stimulated human saliva, horse saliva after mastication, contained higher amounts of potassium, calcium and bicarbonate, and less phosphate. The in vivo pH measurements showed a lower resting pH and a more pronounced pH drop after sucrose application in carious teeth compared to sound teeth. CONCLUSIONS: No large differences were found between the composition of equine saliva and human saliva. A more pronounced acidogenicity was found for the carious than sound teeth. Thus, the caries process in equine cheek teeth seems to follow the same pattern as in human teeth, caused by acid production by oral microorganisms after sugar consumption.


Asunto(s)
Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Caries Dental/microbiología , Caballos/fisiología , Masticación/fisiología , Saliva/química , Sacarosa/farmacología , Diente/microbiología , Animales , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Microbiota/efectos de los fármacos
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6793, 2020 04 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322020

RESUMEN

An on-going debate concerning the dietary adaptations of archaic hominins and early Homo has been fuelled by contradictory inferences obtained using different methodologies. This work presents an extensive comparative sample of 30 extant primate species that was assembled to perform a morpho-functional comparison of these taxa with 12 models corresponding to eight fossil hominin species. Finite Element Analysis and Geometric Morphometrics were employed to analyse chewing biomechanics and mandible morphology to, firstly, establish the variation of this clade, secondly, relate stress and shape variables, and finally, to classify fossil individuals into broad ingesta related hardness categories using a support vector machine algorithm. Our results suggest that some hominins previously assigned as hard food consumers (e.g. the members of the Paranthropus clade) in fact seem to rely more strongly on soft foods, which is consistent with most recent studies using either microwear or stable isotope analyses. By analysing morphometric and stress results in the context of the comparative framework, we conclude that in the hominin clade there were probably no hard-food specialists. Nonetheless, the biomechanical ability to comminute harder items, if required as fallback option, adds to their strategy of increased flexibility.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Fisiológica/fisiología , Dieta , Alimentos , Fósiles , Mandíbula/anatomía & histología , Masticación/fisiología , Animales , Evolución Biológica , Análisis de Elementos Finitos , Hominidae , Maxilares/anatomía & histología , Maxilares/fisiología , Mandíbula/fisiología , Primates/anatomía & histología , Primates/clasificación , Primates/fisiología , Cráneo/anatomía & histología , Cráneo/fisiología , Máquina de Vectores de Soporte
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6410, 2020 04 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286442

RESUMEN

Jaw-muscle architecture is a key determinant of jaw movements and bite force. While static length-force and force-velocity relationships are well documented in mammals, architecture dynamics of the chewing muscles and their impact on muscle performance are largely unknown. We provide novel data on how fiber architecture of the superficial anterior temporalis (SAT) varies dynamically during naturalistic feeding in tufted capuchins (Sapajus apella). We collected data on architecture dynamics (changes in muscle shape or the architectural gear ratio) during the gape cycle while subjects fed on foods of different mechanical properties. Architecture of the SAT varied with phases of the gape cycle, but gape distance accounted for the majority of dynamic changes in architecture. In addition, lower gear ratios (low muscle velocity relative to fascicle velocity) were observed when animals chewed on more mechanically resistant foods. At lower gear ratios, fibers rotated less during shortening resulting in smaller pinnation angles, a configuration that favors increased force production. Our results suggest that architectural dynamics may influence jaw-muscle performance by enabling the production of higher bite forces during the occlusal phase of the gape cycle and while processing mechanically challenging foods.


Asunto(s)
Masticación/fisiología , Músculo Temporal/anatomía & histología , Músculo Temporal/fisiología , Animales , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Cebus , Femenino
14.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 24(3): 262-268, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115606

RESUMEN

AIM: The aim of the study was to examine whether a combination of self-reported masticatory ability and regular dental care is linked to mortality and issuance of new long-term care insurance (LTCI) service certifications. METHODS: Older residents in institutions or in need of LTCI certification requirements were excluded, and self-administered questionnaires were sent to 5,400 older adults in 2013; these participants were followed for 5 years. The total response rate was 94.3%, and our final sample comprised 4,824 older adults (89.3%). We used 3 items to assess self-reported masticatory ability and regular dental care. These included (1) decline in chewing abilities of the posterior teeth on either side, (2) not brushing one's own teeth or dentures at least once a day, and (3) not visiting the dentist at least once a year. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants at baseline was 75.9 years, and 58.4% of them were women. Main outcomes included mortality (n = 562) or new LTCI certification requirements (n = 1187) during the 5-year period. Multivariate analyses revealed that a poor score on masticatory ability and on regular dental care produced significant adverse health outcomes leading to earlier negative outcomes. The score is considered poor as it increases relative to the 0-point reference. DISCUSSION: Regular dental care (both self-and professional care) and maintaining masticatory ability are both important. Hence, public activities focusing on preventive oral health from middle age onward is important.


Asunto(s)
Atención Odontológica/métodos , Masticación/fisiología , Salud Bucal/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidad , Autoinforme , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(1): e2175, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126483

RESUMEN

RESUMO Introdução: O uso de próteses totais tem impacto na qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal e os idosos são uma parcela da população a ser pesquisada sob essa perspectiva. Objetivo: Avaliar a autopercepção do impacto do uso de próteses totais na qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal de idosos institucionalizados. Métodos: Participaram 20 idosos do Lar dos Idosos Recanto do Tarumã, Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil. Foram avaliados aspectos demográficos, econômicos, de hábitos e clínicos, juntamente com aplicação do questionário Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index. Os dados foram submetidos à análise descritiva e bivariada (Teste do Qui-Quadrado), com significância de 5 porcento. Resultados: A média de idade foi de 75,2 anos (DP= 8,8) e o tempo médio de uso de prótese foi de 27,9 anos (DP= 18,5). Renda inferior a um salário mínimo foi indicada por 80,0 porcento, e visitas ao cirurgião-dentista pela última vez há mais de um ano, por 70,0 porcento. Os piores relatos foram referentes à mastigação, representados por problemas para mastigar alimentos e desconforto ao comer, com 25 porcento de respostas positivas em cada questão; a soma das frequências das respostas "às vezes" e "sempre" quanto à insatisfação ou à infelicidade com a aparência da boca foi reportada 60 porcento dos pesquisados. A retenção insatisfatória da prótese inferior se deu em 50,0 porcento casos, enquanto os problemas com oclusão estiveram presentes também em metade da amostra. Os defeitos estiveram presentes em 70,0 porcento das próteses superiores e 45,0 porcento das inferiores. Não foi encontrada associação significativa (p> 0,05) entre as variáveis independentes e o desfecho. Conclusões: Os idosos avaliados, independentemente das condições das próteses totais, relataram qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde bucal satisfatória(AU)


RESUMEN Introducción: El uso de prótesis totales tiene un impacto en la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud bucal, y los ancianos son parte de la población que se investigará desde esta perspectiva. Objetivo: Evaluar la autopercepción del impacto del uso de prótesis totales en la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud bucal de ancianos institucionalizados. Métodos: Participaron 20 ancianos de "Lar dos Idosos Recanto do Tarumã", Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil. Los aspectos demográficos, económicos, de hábitos y clínicos se evaluaron junto con la aplicación del cuestionario Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index. Los datos fueron sometidos a análisis descriptivo y bivariado (prueba de chi cuadrado), con significación del 5 por ciento. Resultados: La edad media fue de 75,2 años (DE= 8,8) y el tiempo medio de uso de la prótesis fue de 27,9 años (DE= 18,5). Los ingresos menores a un salario mínimo se indicaron en el 80,0 por ciento, y las visitas al cirujano dental la última vez, hace más de un año, en el 70, 0 por ciento. Los peores informes estaban relacionados con la masticación, representados por problemas para masticar los alimentos y la incomodidad al comer, con el 25 por ciento de respuestas positivas en cada pregunta. La suma de las frecuencias de las respuestas "a veces" y "siempre" sobre la insatisfacción o la infelicidad con la apariencia de la boca se informó en el 60 por ciento de los encuestados. La retención insatisfactoria de la prótesis inferior se produjo en el 50 por ciento de los casos, mientras que la oclusión también presentó problemas en la mitad de la muestra. Los defectos estuvieron presentes en el 70,0 por ciento de las prótesis superiores y en el 45,0 por ciento de las inferiores. No se encontró asociación significativa (p> 0,05) entre las variables independientes y el desenlace. Conclusiones: Los ancianos evaluados, independientemente de las condiciones de las prótesis totales, informaron una calidad de vida relacionada con la salud bucal satisfactoria(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of complete dentures has an impact on oral health-related quality of life. Elderly people are the population sector to be researched into from this perspective. Objective: Evaluate the self-perception of the impact of the use of complete dentures on the oral health-related quality of life of institutionalized elderly people. Methods: The study sample was 20 elderly people from Lar dos Idosos Recanto do Tarumã, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Evaluation of demographic and economic details, habits and clinical aspects was based on the information collected with the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index questionnaire. The data were subjected to descriptive and bivariate analysis (Chi-squared test), with a significance of 5 percent. Results: Mean age was 75.2 (SD = 8.8) years and mean time of denture use was 27.9 (SD = 18.5) years. Income was below minimum wage in 80.0 percent of the participants, whereas the last visit to the dentist had occurred more than a year ago in 70.0 percent. The worst reports had to do with chewing, represented by problems to chew food and discomfort when eating, with 25 percent positive answers to each question. The sum of the frequencies of the answers "sometimes" and "always" about dissatisfaction with or unhappiness about the appearance of the mouth was reported by 60 percent of the respondents. Unsatisfactory retention of the lower denture occurred in 50.0 percent of the cases, whereas occlusion problems were present in half of the sample. Defects were present in 70.0 percent of the upper dentures and 45.0 percent of the lower dentures. No significant association (p> 0.05) was found between independent variables and outcome. Conclusions: The elderly people evaluated, regardless of the conditions of their complete dentures, reported satisfactory oral health-related quality of life(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Anciano , Calidad de Vida , Autoimagen , Salud Bucal , Dentadura Completa/efectos adversos , Masticación/fisiología
16.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 247: 61-65, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070847

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The amount of chewing might be relevant in reducing hyperglycaemia in diabetic patients. The study assessed the impact of enhanced chewing on glycaemic control in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: As an open-label, mono-centre randomized controlled trial, 59 women with recent diagnosis of GDM were included. They received either routine care or additional chewing gum intervention. SMBG was performed for five days. RESULTS: No significant impact on mean values of postprandial glucose levels were observed. The estimated mean differences (intervention vs. control group) were: 4.9 mg/dl, 98.4 %CI -7.2-17.1 (breakfast); -4.5 mg/dl, 98.4 %CI -15.1-6.0 (lunch); -3.8 mg/dl, 98.4 %CI -15.9 to 8.4 (dinner). OGTT levels at 60 and 120 min. were associated with glucose levels after breakfast. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, no significant differences in blood glucose levels were observed between the groups and therefore major effects of chewing on hyperglycaemia in women with GDM could be excluded. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT03961542, Date of registration: 20.01.2019. Retrospectively registered.


Asunto(s)
Glucemia/análisis , Goma de Mascar , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Masticación/fisiología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Hiperglucemia/metabolismo , Embarazo
17.
Dis Esophagus ; 33(1)2020 Jan 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907526

RESUMEN

Although eating problems have been described as long-term morbidities of esophageal atresia (EA), there have been few studies exploring eating outcomes in children born with EA as primary aim. Parents of children operated on for EA in our Institution from January 2012 to January 2016, answered a telephone structured interview developed specifically to conduct the present study, assessing eating skills at 3 years of age. Clinical data were collected from children's medical records. Parents (45 mothers and 6 fathers) of 51 children (male = 34; female = 17) with a median age of 3.5 years form the object of the study. Considering eating problems, parents reported that 23 children (45%) still have episodes of choking during meals at 3 years of age, 9 (45%) of these have more than one episode a week, and 19 parents (39%) reported higher levels of anxiety during mealtimes. Forty-four children (86%) were described by their parents as able to eat alone, 32 (65%) accepted all food textures and 45 (90%) was described as curious about food (3 years). Forty-three (86%) parents let their children eat with other people. Correlations showed that weaning age was significantly associated with number of dilatations (rs = 0.35, P = 0.012), days of mechanical ventilation (rs = 0.40, P < 0.001), and presence of gastrostomy tube at discharge (rs = 0.45, P < 0.001). Chewing age resulted associated with number of dilatations (rs = 0.34, P < 0.01) and days of mechanical ventilation (rs = 0.38, P < 0.01). Presence of choking episodes was associated with curiosity about food (rs = 0.29, P < 0.05), while frequent choking episodes were associated with higher parental anxiety during mealtimes (rs = 0.45, P < 0.05). In order to prevent delay in the achievement of eating developmental milestones in children operated on of EA, we advocate a dedicated preventive intervention from birth to follow-up.


Asunto(s)
Obstrucción de las Vías Aéreas/epidemiología , Atresia Esofágica/fisiopatología , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/epidemiología , Obstrucción de las Vías Aéreas/etiología , Preescolar , Atresia Esofágica/complicaciones , Atresia Esofágica/terapia , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Masticación/fisiología , Padres , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin ; 23(6): 224-231, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910647

RESUMEN

This study evaluated the bone microstrain, displacement, and stress distribution according to the surgical technique (conventional or Socket-shield) and evaluation period (immediately after implant installation or after healing). Each condition was modeled for the finite element analysis, totaling four groups, with a morse-taper implant and a cemented prosthesis. The maximum displacement, von Mises stress, and bone microstrain yielded higher values during the immediate stage, without a difference between Socket-shield and conventional treatments. The use of the Socket-shield technique does not negatively impact the biomechanical behavior of an implant-supported prosthesis immediately after healing from the implant installation.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Diseño de Prótesis Dental , Análisis de Elementos Finitos , Imagenología Tridimensional , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Huesos/fisiología , Humanos , Masticación/fisiología , Estrés Mecánico
19.
Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin ; 23(7): 261-270, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965827

RESUMEN

Computational models of the masticatory system can provide estimates of occlusal loading during (static) biting or (dynamic) chewing and therefore can be used to evaluate and optimize functional performance of prosthodontic devices and guide dental surgery planning. The modelling assumptions, however, need to be chosen carefully in order to obtain meaningful predictions. The objectives of this study were two-fold: (i) develop a computational model to calculate the stress response of the first molar during biting of a rubber sample and (ii) evaluate the influence of different occlusal load models on the stress response of dental structures. A three-dimensional finite element model was developed comprising the mandible, first molar, associated dental structures, and the articular fossa and discs. Simulations of a maximum force bite on a rubber sample were performed by applying muscle forces as boundary conditions on the mandible and computing the contact between the rubber and molars (GS case). The molar occlusal force was then modelled as a single point force (CF1 case), four point forces (CF2 case), and as a sphere compressing against the occlusal surface (SL case). The peak enamel stress for the GS case was 110 MPa and 677 MPa, 270 MPa and 305 MPa for the CF1, CF2 and SL cases, respectively. Peak dentin stress for the GS case was 44 MPa and 46 MPa, 50 MPa and 63 MPa for the CF1, CF2 and SL cases, respectively. Furthermore, the enamel stress distribution was also strongly correlated to the occlusal load model. The way in which occlusal load is modelled has a substantial influence on the stress response of enamel during biting, but has relatively little impact on the behavior of dentin. The use of point forces or sphere contact to model occlusal loading during mastication overestimates enamel stress magnitude and also influences enamel stress distribution.


Asunto(s)
Simulación por Computador , Oclusión Dental , Análisis del Estrés Dental , Masticación/fisiología , Diente/patología , Adulto , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Fuerza de la Mordida , Análisis de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula/fisiología , Estrés Mecánico
20.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 131: 109883, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968274

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the eating behavior, orofacial, speech myofunctional conditions, and facial temperature of children with congenital heart disease. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional and analytical study. The sample consisted of 30 children with heart disease (cyanotic or acyanotic; mean of 5.48 ± 0.84 years old) and 28 healthy children (4.98 ± 0.64 years old). Parents were given a questionnaire to assess eating behaviors (Montreal Children's Hospital Feeding Scale). The orofacial myofunctional assessment protocol (OMES-E), the Child Language Test (ABFW), and thermography infrared of facial temperature were used. Data analysis was conducted by student's t-tests, Chi-square, logistic regression, and correlation analysis. RESULTS: Eating behavior in Parents did not perceive eating behavior differences between the heart disease and control groups. However, the percentage of children with some feeding difficulty was higher in the heart disease group. There was a difference between groups regarding the appearance and posture of structures, the mobility of the mandibular and cheek, swallowing function, and the total function score. Thermographic variables did not differ between the groups, but better performance in orofacial functions correlated with the temperature of the labial commissure and lower lip points. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of children with eating difficulties was higher among those with congenital heart disease, as was the increased facial temperature at the medial eyelid commissions point when submitted to interventional procedures. The orofacial myofunctional aspects showed changes in posture and position, mobility, and orofacial functions among children with heart disease as compared to the control group. There was a correlation between the temperature of the thermo-anatomical points of the labial commissure and the lower lip as well as the OMES-E function score.


Asunto(s)
Deglución/fisiología , Cara , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Cardiopatías Congénitas/fisiopatología , Masticación/fisiología , Temperatura Cutánea , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Cardiopatías Congénitas/complicaciones , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula/fisiopatología , Postura/fisiología
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