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1.
Homeopathy ; 110(3): 206-211, 2021 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853177

RESUMEN

The current COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) epidemic has proved challenging due to its high impact on physical and mental health. According to Hahnemann, the founder of homeopathy, in an epidemic the most severe symptoms of the clinical condition presented by the population in question should be the basis for selecting the medication that is as similar as possible to them, and which should be administered to individuals who have been exposed to the disease but have not yet developed it. This medicine is called the genus epidemicus. This study aims to demonstrate the reasoning used to propose the homeopathic medicine Antimonium tartaricum (Ant-t) as a genus epidemicus in the COVID-19 epidemic. It was decided to develop the reasoning based on the respiratory symptoms described in the epidemiological bulletins presented by the Health Surveillance Secretariat of the Ministry of Health of Brazil, as these symptoms are the most serious of the disease. After repertorization, it was confirmed in the Materia Medica that Ant-t has a high degree of similarity with these respiratory symptoms, including the most serious situations, of COVID-19. Homeopathic Ant-t is thus a possible prophylactic genus epidemicus in the COVID-19 epidemic; further studies are needed to test this conclusion.


Asunto(s)
Tartrato de Antimonio y Potasio/uso terapéutico , COVID-19/tratamiento farmacológico , COVID-19/epidemiología , Epidemias/prevención & control , Homeopatía/métodos , Materia Medica/uso terapéutico , Evaluación de Síntomas , Brasil/epidemiología , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Homeopatía/historia , Humanos , Materia Medica/historia , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113115, 2021 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891812

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ancient Egyptian texts only offer glimpses into their conceptual understandings of the inner-body and illness manifestation. Explanations of how prescribed materia medica were believed to work are rare and obscure, often resulting in modern approximations for ancient terminology such as 'ra-ib'-an ancient Egyptian classification predominantly translated as 'stomach'-leading to misunderstandings of historical texts, and therefore their use of pharmacology. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the ra-ib and the explanatory models of illness from the Egyptian perspective, and to explore the link between these and the prescribed selection of materia medica. To then compare the conceptual mechanics of these treatment strategies with those of another non-Western tradition-namely Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)-to provide further insight into potential conceptual frameworks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a case study of a unit of Ancient Egyptian texts focusing on the ra-ib. Totalling 34 prescriptions, the first stage lexicographically analysed the texts using cognitive linguistic and translation theories to produce our new understanding. This enabled our comparison of the mechanics of materia medica usage within these texts with those found in TCM outlined by the Pharmacopoeia of the Peoples Republic of Pharmacopeia of the People's Republic of China 2015 for the relevant ingredients. RESULTS: the study demonstrated that-rather than denoting the organ 'stomach'-ra-ib instead constitutes a system running from the mouth, downward to the anus. This is best translated as 'inner thoroughfare', and changes the way in which we attempt to understand potential motivations in the selection of ingredients. By exploring common themes in the use of eleven securely translated ingredients from the Egyptian corpus and the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China-representing a modern traditional system which understands the body via a series of interconnected systems-we were able to highlight certain themes which might be 'universal' to system-based traditions; this provided new insights into the Egyptian motivations for treatment selection. CONCLUSIONS: Having gained the ancient view of the body and illness, cultural comparisons are important for providing further potential insights and clarifications of a discontinued historical healing tradition. The new understanding of the ra-ib from our study greatly changes the way in which we understand the dynamics of Egyptian ethnopharmacological source material from this period.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Materia Medica/historia , Medicina China Tradicional/métodos , Antiguo Egipto , Etnofarmacología , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Materia Medica/farmacología , Farmacopeas como Asunto
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 269: 113714, 2021 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352236

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional Chinese Medicine is subject to changes over time: product names, botanical ingredients, processing methods and uses have varied throughout the course of history. Historic collections of Chinese materia medica (CMM) are of great value for research on the evolvement, development and variability of Chinese herbal medicine over time. These changes may have a significant influence on the safety and efficiency of nowadays' clinical practice. Here we investigate a historic collection of Chinese medicinal products purchased in Indonesia in c. 1870, containing about 395 specimens. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study compares the specimens contained in late 19th century collection of CMM with contemporary marketed materials by investigating changes in vernacular names, botanical identity and processing methods which are important aspects for safety and clinical practice today. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The contents and associated documentation of the CMM collection of Dr. C.H.A. Westhoff (University Museum Utrecht) were revised by means of morphological identification and study of the associated historic documentation. We compared this Westhoff collection with contemporary CMM, information from literature and various quality standards, including the official Chinese pharmacopoeia. RESULTS: The Westhoff collection represents a unique, well preserved collection of Chinese materia medica, with original uniform bottles, Chinese labels and a partly intact handwritten catalogue. Among the 395 specimens (bottles) of CMM surveyed, there are 387 contain a single component drug, while eight contain multiple components drugs. A total of 293 of the 395 specimens are mentioned in the modern Chinese pharmacopoeia. Ca. 25% of the specimens had been processed, such as stir-fried with or without adjuvants. Our analysis of local Chinese names, botanical content and processing methods indicate that this collection originates from southern part of China, possibly including in the region of Taiwan and was meant as a showcase for pharmaceutical education and/or as curiosity object. CONCLUSION: Differences in vernacular names, plant parts and processing methods between the Westhoff collection and the current Chinese pharmacopoeia illustrate the regional variety of CMM and changes in CMM in the course of time. This work contributes to the understanding of the evolvement of CMM from a historic perspective.


Asunto(s)
Etnofarmacología/historia , Materia Medica/historia , Medicina China Tradicional/historia , Fitoterapia/historia , Plantas Medicinales/clasificación , Contaminación de Medicamentos , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Indonesia , Farmacopeas Homeopáticas como Asunto
4.
Homeopathy ; 108(4): 270-276, 2019 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330560

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: There are two types of bilirubin: conjugated bilirubin, prevalent in cholestatic jaundice, and unconjugated bilirubin, prevalent in hematologic jaundice. Conjugated bilirubin is water soluble and is excreted in urine, whereas unconjugated bilirubin is neither water soluble nor excreted in urine. Homeopathic repertories published prior to the discovery of the two types of bilirubin in 1913 present an opportunity to test the reliability of homeopathic repertories and associated materia medica. If procedures involved in the collecting of homeopathic observations are reliable, then in repertories published prior to 1913, medicines listed for cholestatic jaundice should exhibit a stronger association with urine bile than medicines listed for hematologic jaundice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In three repertories published prior to 1913, medicines associated with jaundice were further classified into groups labeled "Cholestatic" or "Infant, mostly hematologic". Medicines were identified as "Cholestatic" if associated with both white/clay-colored stool and liver/gallbladder symptoms. Medicines were identified as "Infant, mostly hematologic" if associated with infant jaundice without meeting criteria for the "Cholestatic" group. Controls were medicines appearing in Hahnemann's Materia Medica Pura. Each category was assessed for green urine-usually reflective of bile in urine. RESULTS: In Knerr's repertory, the "Cholestatic" group demonstrated a significantly greater association with green urine than controls (p < 0.05, Fisher's exact test), whereas the "Infant, mostly hematologic" group did not differ significantly from controls. For Lippe's and Boenninghausen's repertories, statistical significance was not demonstrated. Across repertories, the overall weighted pooled odds ratio (OR) demonstrated significance in the association between the "Cholestatic" group and green urine (OR, 2.384; 95% confidence interval, 1.234 to 4.607), whereas the "Infant, mostly hematologic" group was similar to that of controls (OR, 0.754; 95% confidence interval, 0.226 to 2.514). CONCLUSIONS: Based on the presence or absence of bile in the urine, homeopathic repertories from the 19th century can distinguish between disease processes involving conjugated bilirubin and disease processes involving unconjugated bilirubin.


Asunto(s)
Bilirrubina/orina , Homeopatía/historia , Homeopatía/métodos , Ictericia Obstructiva/terapia , Ictericia Obstructiva/orina , Materia Medica/historia , Materia Medica/uso terapéutico , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Lactante
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 237: 236-244, 2019 Jun 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905789

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Around 1800, Amsterdam was a global trade hub for materia medica of Dutch, European and exotic origin. Contemporary knowledge on medicinal plants in academic circles has been well documented in local pharmacopoeia, illustrated herbals and catalogues of botanic gardens. Until the end of the ancient regime, physicians, surgeons and apothecaries were trained how to use plants in their specific guild or Collegium Medicum. Little is known, however, on how the plant collectors and merchants that provided the pharmaceutical substances to apothecaries learnt to recognise the variety of medicinal products. AIM OF THE STUDY: To analyse the content, origin, purpose and scientific importance of an anonymous, undated, hand-written Dutch manuscript on materia medica, entitled Corpora ex Regno Vegetabili/Animali (Bodies of the Plant/Animal kingdom) kept by the Artis Library of the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We digitised the entire manuscript and dated the paper by means of its watermark. We identified the plant and animal species using the historic Dutch and Latin names, the illustrations and historic literature. We compared the plant properties and uses to contemporary literature to check whether the information in the manuscript was original or copied from another source. RESULTS: The paper was produced between 1759 and 1816 in Zaandam, the Netherlands. The manuscript contains 19 substances of animal origin, one mineral and 273 plants and plant-derived products, which belong to ca. 260 species. While most plants are native or cultivated in the Netherlands, 111 plant entries (105 spp.) represent exotic products, imported from as far as Madagascar and Australia. A total of 134 illustrations were cut out from a 1549 Dutch edition of the New Herbal by Leonhard Fuchs (1543), but only 69% correspond to the correct species. The manuscript contains detailed descriptions on growth locations, field characteristics, flowering season, provenance and quality of the medicinal products, including methods to detect forgery. The author mostly described humoral properties of the plants rather than listing medicinal recipes. We did not find evidence that he copied his texts from other sources, but the Dutch and Latin names correspond largely with the Amsterdam pharmacopoeia from 1795. CONCLUSIONS: The author's extensive knowledge on trade names, quality and origin of materia medica and his refrain from using literature suggests he could have been a merchant, an intermediary between herb cultivators, overseas traders and apothecaries. This manuscript offers a unique insight in the global trade in medicinal products and the circulation of knowledge in non-academic circles around 1800.


Asunto(s)
Etnofarmacología/historia , Materia Medica/historia , Fitoterapia/historia , Animales , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Países Bajos , Plantas Medicinales
6.
J Altern Complement Med ; 25(1): 107-120, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30403493

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Assess whether an ancient text on herbal medicine accurately characterizes a class of herbal diuretics. DESIGN: The Greek text of Dioscorides De materia medica was assessed for herbs stated to have diuretic activity, and then modern research was sought to determine how accurate the ancient assessment of these herbs was. RESULTS: Of the 105 plants cited as having diuretic activity by Dioscorides, 56 (53.3%) genuses are confirmed as being diuretic in animal or human research. For another 38 (36.2%) genuses, no research related to diuresis could be identified. Six (5.7%) genuses had mixed results in modern research, whereas a mere 5 (4.8%) genuses were shown to not have diuretic activity. Considering the 67 genuses that were investigated, 56 (83.6%) were confirmed. CONCLUSION: This analysis confirms that Dioscorides was accurate in determining the diuretic nature of herbs, raising the possibility that he was right about other therapeutic suggestions concerning herbs he made. For the remaining herbs that have not been assessed for diuretic effect, it is not yet known if Dioscorides was accurate. Our findings suggest that the 38 herbs Dioscorides categorized as diuretics that have not been studied for diuretic function are candidates for research in this regard.


Asunto(s)
Diuréticos/historia , Medicina de Hierbas/historia , Materia Medica/historia , Preparaciones de Plantas/historia , Plantas Medicinales , Animales , Etnobotánica/historia , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Fitoquímicos
7.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 48(3): 158-163, 2018 May 28.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30317826

RESUMEN

Michel Boym was a 17th-century missionary who came to China from Poland. He was the first man who introduce Chinese herbal medicine to Europe by writing Flora Sinensis (Chinese Flora) and Medicamenta Simplicia quae Chinensibus ad usum medicum adhibentur. This article reveals that which Chinese herbal medicine books may have been consulted in the Medicamenta Simplicia quae Chinensibus ad usum medicum adhibentur by analyzing its content and comparing it with the Chinese herbal medicine books. We believed that in order to write this book, he consulted many Chinese books, collected a variety of herbal samples and consulted Chinese people who knew about herbals, and added his own understanding. As a western pharmacology book, his book structure, content and characteristics are the closest to Chinese herbal medicine books. And which Chinese books he has consulted, may include, but is not limited to BenCao GangMu(Compendium of Materia Medica)《》, Lei Gong Pao Zhi Yao Xing Jie 《》, Ben Cao Meng Quan《》 and Xin Kan Lei Gong Pao Zhi Bian Lan 《》.


Asunto(s)
Materia Medica , Misioneros , Libros , China , Historia del Siglo XVII , Materia Medica/historia , Polonia
8.
Med Arch ; 71(3): 219-225, 2017 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28974838

RESUMEN

The Arab cultural heritage was an era of invaluable preservation and development of numerous teachings, including biomedical sciences. The golden period of Arab medicine deserves special attention in the history of medicine and pharmacy, as it was the period of rapid translation of works from Greek and Persian cultures into Arabic. They preserved their culture, and science from decay, and then adopted them to continue building their science on theirs as a basis. After the fall of Arabian Caliphate, Arabian pharmacy, continued to persevere, and spread through Turkish Caliphate until its fall in the First World War. That way, Arabian pharmacy will be spread to new areas that had benefited from it, including the area of occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina. Because of the vast territorial scope of the Ottoman Empire, the focus of this paper is description of developing pharmacy in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the time of Ottoman reign.


Asunto(s)
Materia Medica/historia , Medicina Arábiga/historia , Farmacología Clínica/historia , Bosnia y Herzegovina , Historia del Siglo XV , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Imperio Otomano
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 42(9): 1659-1667, 2017 May.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29082686

RESUMEN

This paper collected and analyzed literatures about starting of traditional medicine and trading of different medicine from Chunqiu Zhanguo to Ming and Qing Dynasties, in order to preliminarily explore on an overview of specie of chinese exotic traditional medicine and trade of different country in different dynasty(from Chunqiu to Ming and Qing Dynasties), as well as the amount of exotic medicine over two thousand years. (remove repeating and doubtful species), find peculiarity of exotic medicine, sreen species that used to develop the Silk Route and establish quality standards.Finally, We get conclusions are as follows. First, primary,.prosperous and declining stages of development of exotic traditional medicine are Qin and Han, Song-Jin-Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, respectively. Second, according to literature, the stage that has the most species of exotic medicine is song dynasty,approximately have 300. Removing repeating and doubtful species, the believable species are approximate 230 to 250. Meanwhile, the unknown species are approximate 30, which may be different name of one medicine or processed goods, now these medicines are named as "doubtful species". Third, the medicinal parts of exotic medicine are different from Chinese medicine of Han nation. The number of Resin, fruits and seeds kind are more than root and rhizomes kind,mineral medicines are more than animal. Fourth, the major producing area of exotic medicine is some countries and territories related to the Silk Route in the history. Ultimately, this paper preliminarily figure out basic information of exotic medicine of different dynasty in China,that provide reference for learning study and decision of industrial development.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/historia , Materia Medica/historia , Medicina China Tradicional/historia , Plantas Medicinales/clasificación , China , Historia Antigua
10.
Bull Hist Med ; 91(2): 233-273, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28757496

RESUMEN

This article examines the role of testing and innovation in sixteenthcentury Italian pharmacy. I argue that apothecaries were less concerned with testing drugs for efficacy or creating novel products than with reactivating an older Mediterranean pharmacological tradition and studying the materials on which it relied. Their practice was not driven by radical experimentation but by a "culture of tweaking"-of minute operational changes to existing recipes and accommodation of their textual variants-which was rooted in the guild economy fostering incremental over radical innovation and in a humanist reevaluation of past autorities. Workshop practice was also increasingly driven by a new ideal of staying true to nature fostered by the period's botanical renaissance. This led to an emphasis on ingredients over processes in the shop, and found clearest expression in the elaboration of a taxonomic "language of truth" that helped apothecaries discern between authentic and inauthentic materia medica and harness their sincerity in lieu of testing effectiveness.


Asunto(s)
Historia de la Farmacia , Materia Medica/historia , Historia del Siglo XVI , Humanos , Italia , Lenguaje
11.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 47(3): 149-151, 2017 May 28.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28810344

RESUMEN

By sorting out the literature on materiamedica, it is found that medicinal history of ClinopodiumHerba is rather long which can be traced back to caoxuejiein Lüchan yan ben cao (Mountainous Materia Medica) with definite efficacy and usage; it is generally believed that the original plant of ClinopodiumHerba is Clinopodiumpolycephalum (Vaniot) C. Y. Wu et Hsuan and C. chinensis (Benth.) O. Kuntze are two separate species, also some scholarsclaim that C. polycephalum and C. chinensisare the same plant. But I think C. polycephalum is the main origin of ClinopodiumHerba, and the relationship of C. polycephalum and C. chinensis maybe a species and its variety.


Asunto(s)
Materia Medica/historia , Tracheophyta , Historia del Siglo XX
12.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 47(2): 70-72, 2017 Mar 28.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28468106

RESUMEN

The first material recorded about hair charcoal is seen in Nei jing (Inner Canon). It has a history of over 2 000 years for the carbonization of Chinese materia medica. There were controversies on this matter and its clinical application was seldom seen and underdeveloped. After the Yuan Dynasty, the main theory of carbonic herbs for hemostasis, and keeping the nature of the medicines after carbonization was gradually formed, and physicians of generations began to conduct in-depth research. Through repeated practice and verification, people summed up the suitable species of Chinese materia medica and its principle for carbonization. The methods and degree of carbonization of Chinese materia medica are reasonably discussed, with its principle and basis for application primarily interpreted.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/historia , Materia Medica/historia , Medicina China Tradicional/historia , Carbón Orgánico , China , Historia Antigua , Historia Medieval , Humanos
13.
Planta Med ; 83(14-15): 1110-1116, 2017 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28486742

RESUMEN

For centuries, pharmacognosy was essential for the identification, quality, purity, and, until the end of the 18th century, even for the efficacy of medicinal plants. Since the 19th century, it concentrated on authenticity, purity, quality and the analysis of active substances, and was established as an academic branch discipline within pharmacy and continuously developed into a modern, highly sophisticated science. Even though the paradigm in pharmacy changed in the 19th century with the discovery of morphine and concentrated on single substances that could be synthesized fast by the upcoming industry, medicinal plants always remained an important element of the Materia medica, and during the last decades, medicinal plants continue to be a source of remedies, and natural products are an inspiration for new medicine. In this research, pharmacognostic skills remain an essential element, both with regards to identity, quality assurance of botanicals (both herbal medicines and supplements), and the discovery and development of new medicines. Over the years, the specific pharmacognostical tools have changed dramatically, and most recently, DNA-based techniques have become another element of our spectrum of scientific methods.


Asunto(s)
Productos Biológicos/historia , Materia Medica/historia , Farmacognosia/historia , Plantas Medicinales/clasificación , Productos Biológicos/normas , Código de Barras del ADN Taxonómico/historia , ADN de Plantas/genética , ADN de Plantas/historia , Suplementos Dietéticos/historia , Europa (Continente) , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Materia Medica/normas , Farmacognosia/normas , Control de Calidad
14.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 47(6): 373-376, 2017 Nov 28.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29374953

RESUMEN

Japanese physicians of Edo Period (1603-1867) wrote many dietetic books, by combining the knowledge system (content and compiling style) and thoughts of diet therapy from China with local condition in Japan. Among them, the Pao chu bei yong wo ming ben cao(Japanese Materia Medica Prepared for Kitchen), written by Mukai Genshou, a physician in the early Edo, is the earliest comprehensive work of dietetic materia medica. In this book, the choice and usage of Japanese dietetic materia medica reveals obvious Japanese local color, including the name, morphology, cultivation, collection, identification, nature and flavor, and indication etc., reflecting the sprouting idea of edible herbal plant at the beginning of Edo period and the characteristic of absorbing Chinese diet thoughts by Japanese physician. This is the important first-hand historical material to understand the development of Japanese dietetic herbalism in early Edo and its dietotherapy culture.


Asunto(s)
Dietoterapia/historia , Dieta/historia , Materia Medica/historia , Obras Médicas de Referencia , Historia del Siglo XVII , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Japón
15.
Phytomedicine ; 23(10): 1043-52, 2016 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27444350

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: De Materia Medica written by Pedanios Dioscorides (1 century CE) has shaped European and Mediterranean herbal medicine to a large extent. Despite its fundamental importance for modern medico-botanical traditions the content of this work has never been systematically assessed. PURPOSE: We present a quantitative survey of the botanical drugs described in De Materia Medica (ex Matthioli, 1568) and identify overall therapeutic, diachronic and botanical patterns. The extracted data may serve as a baseline and help to better contextualize research on herbal drugs and phytotherapy. METHODS: Therapeutic uses of herbal drugs were extracted through line-by-line reading of a digitized version of the treatise. For each plant usage mentioned in the text we recorded (I) the chapter number, (II) the putative botanical identity, (III) the plant part, (IV) the symptoms or disease, (V) the mode of administration, (VI) our biomedical interpretation of the ancient ailment or disease description as well as (VII) the organ- and symptom-defined category under which the use was filed. SECTIONS: An introduction to Dioscorides' De Materia Medica and Matthioli's Renaissance commentary is followed by a description of the employed methodology. The results and discussion section introduces the generated database comprising 5314 unique therapeutic uses of 536 plant taxa and 924 herbal drugs. Separate subsections address salient patterns such as the frequent recommendation of Fabaceae seeds for dermatology, Apiaceae seeds as antidotes and Apiaceae exudates for neurology and psychosomatic disorders as well as the heavy reliance on subterranean parts as drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The therapeutic knowledge described in De Materia Medica (ex Matthioli, 1568) offers unique insights into classical Mediterranean epidemiology and herbal medicine. Drugs that lost importance over time as well as remedies used for diseases now controlled by preventive medicine and industrially produced drugs may be interesting starting points for research on herbal medicine and drug discovery. Apart from promoting future data mining, the study may also help to prove the tradition of use, which is required for the regulatory approval of certain herbal products.


Asunto(s)
Materia Medica/historia , Medicina Tradicional/historia , Fitoterapia/historia , Extractos Vegetales/historia , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Plantas Medicinales/química , Europa (Continente) , Historia del Siglo XVI , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Extractos Vegetales/química
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 187: 293-301, 2016 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27132716

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Historical medical sources can be still queried for forgotten cures and remedies. Traditional Chinese medicine has dealt with lues venerea (syphilis) since the Five Dynasties period (10th century). Chinese indigenous materia medica and remedies recorded, studied or imported by the Europeans can reveal known or quite unknown medicinal plants. The studied Jean Astruc's work is a published ethnopharmacological survey carried out in Beijing in the 1730s and it deserves a modern interpretation. AIM OF THE STUDY: This is the first proposal to identify historical Chinese medicinal plants listed in a scarcely known medical treatise De Morbis venereis… ('On venereal diseases…') by Jean Astruc from 1740. I searched for the current uses and position of the taxonomically identified herbal stock in both traditional Chinese and official medical knowledge, with special attention to syphilis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Chinese names of drugs and their botanical identities (originally expressed by means of pre-Linnaean polynomials, and now interpreted as accepted binomials) were independently cross-checked with younger till most recent taxonomical and ethnopharmacological sources. Plants and drugs identified this way were queried for their modern applications in traditional Chinese and official medicine with special attention to sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and other uses which are similar to the 18th-century understanding of venereology. RESULTS: For 24 items of medicinal stock, 34 medicinal plants have been identified or suspected: Acacia catechu, Achyranthes bidentata, Akebia quinata, Angelica dahurica, A. sinensis, Aquilaria sinensis, Aralia cordata, Aristolochia fangchi, Chaenomeles sinensis, Ch. speciosa, Clematis vitalba, Coix lacryma-jobi, Commiphora myrrha, Cydonia oblonga, Daemonorops draco, D. jenkinsiana, Dictamnus dasycarpus, Dryobalanops sumatrensis, Forsythia suspensa, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Lonicera confusa, L. hypoglauca, L. japonica, Ligusticum striatum (=L. chuanxiong), Piper kadsura, Pterocarpus officinalis, Saposhnikovia divaricata, Sassafras tzumu, Smilax china, S. glabra, Stephania tetrandra, Styphnolobium japonicum, Trichosanthes japonica, T. kirilowii; China wax is also mentioned. Out of them, only Lonicera japonica is being used in China in late syphilis, Achyranthes bidentata in gonorrhoea, and Dictamnus dasycarpus in gynaecological problems. In the Astruc's study, 3 medicinal plant species and 5 further plant genera are correctly determined; other plant parts were misidentified. CONCLUSIONS: Antisyphilitic actions ascribed to the Chinese medical formulas and their constituents studied by Astruc, seem to have come from Hg or As compounds rather than from vegetative materia medica. The formulas contained only one species still known in TCM as a remedy for syphilis.


Asunto(s)
Medicina China Tradicional/historia , Fitoterapia/historia , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/historia , Tesis Académicas como Asunto , Etnofarmacología/historia , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Humanos , Materia Medica/historia , Plantas Medicinales
17.
N Engl J Med ; 374(3): 201-3, 2016 Jan 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26789866

RESUMEN

In 2015, U.S. government agencies began considering greater regulation of both homeopathic drugs and the advertising of such products. These actions came after more than a century of missed opportunities to regulate homeopathic medicines.


Asunto(s)
Homeopatía/historia , Legislación de Medicamentos/historia , Materia Medica/historia , Regulación Gubernamental/historia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Materia Medica/normas , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration/historia
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 41(5): 764-768, 2016 Mar.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28875625

RESUMEN

As an important reference index to evaluate the quality of Chinese medicinal materials, the commodity specification and grade of traditional Chinese medicine has an effect on the medicinal material's price, can promote "high quality and high price" of the traditional Chinese medicine, prompt market transactions more convenient and standard, and has a great significance to the development of the whole traditional Chinese medicine industry. The formation of traditional Chinese medicine specifications and grades experienced a long historical development process. In order to provide the reference for modification of the product specifications and grades standards and management of traditional Chinese medicine products, the author consulted a large number of materia medica books and related references, sorted and analyzed the historical development process. The author divided the formation and development process into four stages, including germination stage before the Southern and Northern Dynasties, development stage of Tang and Song Dynasty, mature period of the Ming and Qing Dynasties and the inheritance development stage since the foundation of the People's Republic. The author believes that the clinical curative effect is the driving force to promote the development of commodity specifications and grades. In addition, the national pharmaceutical policy, international status, the level of science and technology also influence the development of commodity specifications and grades in some extents. Finally, the author provides three piece of suggestions for the modification of the product specifications and grades standards, according to the historical development rule.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/economía , Materia Medica/economía , Medicina China Tradicional/economía , China , Comercio/historia , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/análisis , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/historia , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/normas , Historia Antigua , Humanos , Materia Medica/química , Materia Medica/historia , Materia Medica/normas , Medicina en la Literatura/historia , Medicina China Tradicional/historia , Medicina China Tradicional/normas
19.
Rev Hist Pharm (Paris) ; 64(390): 241-248, 2016 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés, Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29485781

RESUMEN

A pharmacist facinated by materia medica Henri Bocquillon-Limousin (1856-1917) get married with the daughter of Stanislas Limousin in 1885. After being graduated from pharmacy high school of Paris, he joined the laboratory of Jungfleisch. Afterwards, he briefly worked in the municipal laboratory of Paris and then he turned to a pharmacy activity. He took up the pharmacy of his father in law in 1887. His research was mainly directed to materia medica and valorization of colonial medicinal plants. Thanks to a well expanded network of associates, he managed to obtain an important collection of medicinal plants which is actually preserved in "Francois Tillequin museum - Collections of materia medica" in the faculty of pharmacy of Paris. H. Bocquillon-Limousin is also well known for his numerous editions of Formulaire des medicaments nouveaux and his books in the field of material medica.


Asunto(s)
Materia Medica/historia , Farmacéuticos , Francia , Historia de la Farmacia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Paris
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