Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 17.192
Filtrar
1.
J Environ Manage ; 266: 110545, 2020 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392136

RESUMEN

To determine the contribution of different particulate sources in PM10 mass concentration at semi urban site, source apportionment study was carried out from 7 May 2015 to 9 June 2016. PM10 samples were analyzed for 18 species (NO3-, SO42-, Cl-,Na+, K+, Al, Ti, Mn, Fe, Mg, V, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba, Pb, Cr, Ca). The study was specifically designed to apportion the sources of air pollution where main exposure is from crop residue burning. The particulate matter (PM10) samples were analyzed for mass and chemical composition, with Potassium as biomarker for crop residue burning. Sulfate SO42-) and potassium ion (K+) species dominated the concentration of characterized species. K+ and Cl- were identified as reliable markers for crop residue burning while Zn, Pb, Al, Ni and Cu were identified as markers for vehicular exhaust. The results of Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model gives the five major sources as probable sources of PM10 pollution. The highest contribution in PM10 mass concentration was found to be sulfate (24.39 ± 10.42), and potassium (24.02 ± 09.56) and chloride (07.07 ± 05.47), which combined accounts for nearly 60% of the total PM10 mass fraction. The highest source contribution was from Industrial emission source (22.9%), with almost same contribution from biomass burning (21.2%), and resuspended dust (20.7%) and followed by vehicular emissions (19.0%) and least from secondary aerosols (16.2%).


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Aerosoles , Biomasa , Polvo , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Tamaño de la Partícula , Material Particulado , Emisiones de Vehículos
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344853

RESUMEN

A number of nations were forced to declare a total shutdown due to COVID-19 infection, as extreme measure to cope with dramatic impact of the pandemic, with remarkable consequences both in terms of negative health outcomes and economic loses. However, in many countries a "Phase-2" is approaching and many activities will re-open soon, although with some differences depending on the severity of the outbreak experienced and SARS-COV-2 estimated diffusion in the general population. At the present, possible relapses of the epidemic cannot be excluded until effective vaccines or immunoprophylaxis with human recombinant antibodies will be properly set up and commercialized. COVD-19-related quarantines have triggered serious social challenges, so that decision makers are concerned about the risk of wasting all the sacrifices imposed to the people in these months of quarantine. The availability of possible early predictive indicators of future epidemic relapses would be very useful for public health purposes, and could potentially prevent the suspension of entire national economic systems. On 16 March, a Position Paper launched by the Italian Society of Environmental Medicine (SIMA) hypothesized for the first time a possible link between the dramatic impact of COVID-19 outbreak in Northern Italy and the high concentrations of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) that characterize this area, along with its well-known specific climatic conditions. Thereafter, a survey carried out in the U.S. by the Harvard School of Public Health suggested a strong association between increases in particulate matter concentration and mortality rates due to COVID-19. The presence of SARS-COV-2 RNA on the particulate matter of Bergamo, which is not far from Milan and represents the epicenter of the Italian epidemic, seems to confirm (at least in case of atmospheric stability and high PM concentrations, as it usually occurs in Northern Italy) that the virus can create clusters with the particles and be carried and detected on PM10. Although no assumptions can be made concerning the link between this first experimental finding and COVID-19 outbreak progression or severity, the presence of SARS-COV-2 RNA on PM10 of outdoor air samples in any city of the world could represent a potential early indicator of COVID-19 diffusion. Searching for the viral genome on particulate matter could therefore be explored among the possible strategies for adopting all the necessary preventive measures before future epidemics start.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Material Particulado , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Aerosoles , Betacoronavirus , Brotes de Enfermedades , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Salud Pública , Cuarentena , Recurrencia
4.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(4): 310-316, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233173

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of air purifiers on the concentrations of indoor air pollutants and on asthma control in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized crossover trial, daily use of an air purifier filter was compared with a matched placebo with the filter off. Thirty elementary school students who had asthma were enrolled and randomly allocated to one of two groups. The primary endpoints were changes in indoor air quality, asthma severity, lung function, airway inflammatory, urine microbiome, and phthalate after the installation of air purifiers. PM2.5 and CO2 were measured as indoor air pollutants. Asthma severity was assessed in terms of both symptom and medication scores acquired using a daily questionnaire. The higher the score, the better the symptom or the less frequent the use of medication. Peak expiratory flow rate and fractional exhaled nitric oxide were also measured. RESULTS: The mean age of the enrolled patients was 9.2±1.98 years. The mean concentration of PM2.5 was 17.0 µg/m³ in the filter-off condition, but significantly lower at 9.26 µg/m³ in the filter-on condition. Medication scores were 6.9 for the filter-off and 7.12 for the filter-on conditions, reflecting a statistically significant decrease in the frequency of medications used during air purifier operation. Bacterial richness, as determined using the Chao 1 index, was markedly lower in the filter-on than the filter-off condition. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that air purifiers benefit medication burden in children with asthma by reducing PM2.5 levels.


Asunto(s)
Filtros de Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/prevención & control , Asma/epidemiología , Pulmón/fisiología , Material Particulado/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Contaminación del Aire Interior/efectos adversos , Niño , Estudios Cruzados , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Material Particulado/análisis , Pruebas de Función Respiratoria , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
5.
J Environ Manage ; 265: 110514, 2020 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275242

RESUMEN

As the running time of reservoirs is increasing, a large number of reservoirs are becoming eutrophicated. Organic phosphorus (OP) is a key factor in eutrophication. However, the mechanism and extent to which organic matter degradation affects P recycling in water column of large deep reservoirs are unclear, especially for the newly-built ones. In this study, different forms of carbon (C) and P in the water column of Hongjiadu Reservoir were investigated. The contents of particulate organic carbon (POC) and particulate organic phosphorus (POP) both decreased with depth in summer, indicating that organic matter was degraded during the deposition of particulates. In contrast, the contents of POC and POP varied slightly with depth in winter. This difference may result from the double thermal stratification and the corresponding double oxygen stratification in summer. The POC/POP ratios were lower in the epilimnion and increased with depth, suggesting that P was preferentially regenerated relative to C during organic matter degradation. The contents of particulate inorganic phosphorus (PIP) and POP were significantly negatively correlated, indicating that POP transformed into PIP in deeper water. The double thermoclines and oxyclines in Hongjiadu Reservoir lead to very low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the hypolimnion, which should receive sufficient attention. If water becomes hypoxic, enhanced P release during organic matter degradation will promote phytoplankton growth, leading to higher phytoplankton biomass and more severe DO depletion. Thus, a positive feedback loop may form among hypoxia, enhanced P release, higher primary productivity, and more severe hypoxia, accelerating P recycling in large deep reservoirs. Once if eutrophication occurs in these reservoirs, it will be very difficult to restore the water ecosystem. Thus, it is particularly important to prevent the occurrence of eutrophication and the formation of positive feedback loop as early as possible. This highlights the importance of both reducing external loading and improving DO level in large deep reservoirs.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Fósforo , Ecosistema , Eutrofización , Material Particulado
6.
J Environ Manage ; 262: 110263, 2020 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250779

RESUMEN

This study investigates spatial-temporal variability and trends of ambient PM2.5 in Beijing, China, using data collected from eight urban and four suburban stations. During 2013-2018, the city-wide annual PM2.5 concentrations decreased significantly by 40% (84 µg/m3 in 2013 vs. 50 µg/m3 in 2018). The decreasing PM2.5 trend is more pronounced in winter and during the heating season (November-March), in urban areas, and at the median and upper percentiles of PM2.5 concentrations. The 95th percentile PM2.5 concentrations had decreased by 20 µg/m3/yr in the heating season and 16 µg/m3/yr in the non-heating season. During the six-year study period, there was a significant increase in excellent air quality days (PM2.5 concentration < 35 µg/m3) and a significant decrease in heavy pollution days (PM2.5 concentration > 150 µg/m3). PM2.5 concentrations were strongly correlated across the 12 stations. Urban areas in south Beijing experienced higher PM2.5 levels than suburban sites at every hour-of-day, day-of-week, and month-of-year. PM2.5 levels were higher during winter and the heating season, when PM2.5 emission was high due to space heating and mixing layer heights were low. PM2.5 was higher at weekends than during weekdays, when 20% of private passenger vehicles are prohibited, and higher at night than during the day, when heavy duty delivery vehicles are not permitted. These temporal and spatial trends suggest that Beijing's PM2.5 is strongly impacted by local emissions. Our results indicate, control strategies implemented were successful in Beijing's air quality improvement, but further reduction of PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing could be challenging due to significant contribution from its neighboring cities, calling for comprehensive and collaborative efforts in regional/national scale.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Beijing , China , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Material Particulado , Estaciones del Año
7.
J Environ Manage ; 262: 110341, 2020 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250817

RESUMEN

Serious PM2.5 air pollution has persistently plagued and endangered most urban areas in China in recent years, and targeted policies are necessary to improve urban air quality ranging from macro policy (national level) to medium policy (city level) to micro policy (site specific). However, the macro-pattern study of air pollution between Chinese cities is inadequate, and not conducive to the formulation of macro-policy. To bridge this gap, we applied a sequential pattern mining algorithm to analyze the spatial-temporal patterns of PM2.5 pollution across Chinese cities during the period 2015 to 2018. The sequential patterns were collected from three levels of granularity on geographic areas and ten temporal scenarios covering time intervals from 10 to 100 h. Many underlying associative relationships were revealed between different cities by the mined patterns. The patterns were heterogeneous and presented five characteristics (i.e., clustering, symmetry, imbalance, decay, and stability). Each of the urban areas under investigation at different granularities was analyzed to identify the occurrence of associative relationships between it and other urban areas; moreover, we determined the degree of severity of such relationships. Our research results provide solid data that can be used as a reference by the various levels of Chinese governments for decision-making; overall, they can be used to improve the design of joint policies to prevent and control PM2.5 pollution in Chinese urban areas.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , China , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Material Particulado
8.
J Environ Manage ; 262: 110374, 2020 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250828

RESUMEN

Benzene concentrations covering the three year period 2015-2017, were derived from four background monitoring stations located in Berlin (Germany), Budapest (Hungary), Mons (Belgium) and Torino (Italy), in order to calculate the corresponding Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) of an average adult, associated with the inhalation of benzene. In addition, a cluster analysis of backward air mass trajectories was coupled with Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) model aiming to identify possible exogenous source regions of benzene affecting the four cities and also to allocate the ILCR in atmospheric circulation patterns. A potential health risk (ILCR>10-6) from benzene exposure was estimated in all four cities. In Berlin and Mons, an enhanced fraction of the ILCR was associated with Southeast short range trajectories of slow moving air masses, which were also related to extreme long range transport episodes. Furthermore, increased benzene concentrations in Budapest were observed during the prevalence of short range Southwest airflows, whilst PSCF model isolated the transboundary emission sources in the industrialized North Italy. Long range trajectories of fast moving marine air masses from North Atlantic, not influenced by anthropogenic emissions, improved the benzene related air quality in Berlin and Mons due to dispersion. No long range transport effects were confirmed in Torino.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Neoplasias , Adulto , Bélgica , Benceno , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Europa (Continente) , Alemania , Humanos , Hungría , Italia , Material Particulado
9.
J Environ Manage ; 265: 110532, 2020 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32292171

RESUMEN

The hypothesis of "Pollution Heaven" or "Pollution Halo" has, for some time, been one of the central issues in environmental economics. There is a controversy in the conclusions with regards to China, it thus needs further empirical testing. Based on 2003 to 2016 statistical data on 285 Chinese cities, this paper uses a dynamic spatial panel model to empirically analyze the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on PM2.5 pollution. The results demonstrate that urban PM2.5 pollution shows both significant global spatial autocorrelation and local spatial agglomeration effects. Overall, FDI significantly aggravates China's urban PM2.5 pollution, thus confirming the "Pollution Heaven" hypothesis. This effect, however, depends on the stage of urban economic development. Although FDI has no significant effect on urban PM2.5 pollution in the initial stage of industrialization, it does aggravate urban PM2.5 pollution in the midterm stage. In the later period of industrialization, FDI actually improves urban PM2.5 pollution, but the effect of this improvement is relatively weak. Furthermore, PM2.5 pollution shows significant spatial spillover and dynamic effects. It follows that both joint prevention and control and continuous efforts must be made to control PM2.5 pollution.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , China , Ciudades , Contaminación Ambiental , Inversiones en Salud , Material Particulado
10.
Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci ; 96(3): 122-129, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161210

RESUMEN

Black carbon (BC) particles cause adverse health effects and contribute to the heating of the atmosphere by absorbing visible solar radiation. Efforts have been made to reduce BC emissions, especially in urban areas; however, long-term measurements of BC mass concentration (MBC) are very limited in Japan. We report MBC measurements conducted in Tokyo from 2003 to 2017, showing that MBC decreased by a factor of 3 from 2003 to 2010 and was stable from 2010 to 2017. Fine particulate concentrations (PM2.5) decreased by a much smaller factor during 2003-2010. The diurnal variations of BC size distributions suggest that the BC in Tokyo originates mainly from local sources, even after 2010. Our three-dimensional model calculations show that BC from the Asian continent contributes a small portion (about 20%) of the annual average MBC in the Kanto region of Japan, which includes Tokyo. This indicates that continued reduction of BC emissions inside Japan should be effective in further decreasing MBC.


Asunto(s)
Carbono/química , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Material Particulado/química , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/química , Contaminación del Aire , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Salud Pública , Tokio
11.
Epidemiol Health ; 42: e2020012, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164052

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological evidence of associations between ambient particulate matter (PM) and tuberculosis (TB) risk is accumulating. Two previous studies in Korea found associations between air pollution-especially sulfur dioxide (SO2)-and TB. In this study, we conducted an annual time-series cross-sectional study to assess the effect of PM with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) on TB risk in seven major cities of Korea from 2010 to 2016, taking into account time lag and long-term cumulative exposure. METHODS: Age-standardized TB notification rates were derived using the Korea National TB Surveillance System. Annual average PM10 concentrations were obtained from annual Korean air quality reports. We applied a generalized linear mixed model with unconstrained distributed lags of exposure to PM10. We adjusted for potential confounders such as age, health behaviors, and area-level characteristics. RESULTS: Both average annual PM10 concentrations and age-standardized TB notification rates decreased over time. The association between cumulative exposure to PM10 and TB incidence became stronger as a longer exposure duration was considered. An increase of one standard deviation (5.63 µg/m3) in PM10 exposure for six years was associated with a 1.20 (95% confidence interval, 1.17 to 1.22) times higher TB notification rate. The marginal association of exposure duration with the TB notification rate was highest at four and five years prior to TB notification. This association remained consistent even after adjusting it for exposure to SO2. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that cumulative exposure to PM10 may affect TB risk, with a potential lag effect.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Material Particulado/efectos adversos , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Ciudades , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Incidencia , Persona de Mediana Edad , República de Corea/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 719: 137349, 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114225

RESUMEN

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a serious complication of pregnancy that could cause adverse health effects on both mothers and fetuses, and its prevalence has been increasing worldwide. Experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that air pollution may be an important risk factor of GDM, but conclusions are inconsistent. To provide a comprehensive overview of ambient air pollution on GDM, we summarized existing evidence concerning biological linkages between maternal exposure to air pollutants and GDM based on mechanism studies. We also performed a quantitative meta-analysis based on human epidemiological studies by searching English databases (Pubmed, Web of Science and Embase) and Chinese databases (Wanfang, CNKI). As a result, the limited mechanism studies indicated that ß-cell dysfunction, neurohormonal disturbance, inflammation, oxidative stress, imbalance of gut microbiome and insulin resistance may be involved in air pollution-GDM relationship, but few studies were performed to explore the direct biological linkage. Additionally, a total of 13 epidemiological studies were included in the meta-analysis, and the air pollutants considered included PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3. Most studies were retrospective and mainly conducted in developed regions. The results of meta-analysis indicated that maternal first trimester exposure to SO2 increased the risk of GDM (standardized odds ratio (OR) = 1.392, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.010, 1.773), while pre-pregnancy O3 exposure was inversely associated with GDM risk (standardized OR = 0.981, 95% CI: 0.977, 0.985). No significant effects were observed for PM2.5, PM10 and NO2. In conclusion, additional mechanism studies on the molecular level are needed to provide persuasive rationale underlying the air pollution-GDM relationship. Moreover, other important risk factors of GDM, including maternal lifestyle and road traffic noise exposure that may modify the air pollution-GDM relationship should be considered in future epidemiological studies. More prospective cohort studies are also warranted in developing countries with high levels of air pollution.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Diabetes Gestacional , Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Femenino , Humanos , Material Particulado , Embarazo , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Retrospectivos
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 719: 137243, 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147111

RESUMEN

Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been associated with vascular diseases in epidemiological studies. We have demonstrated previously that exposure to ambient PM2.5 caused pulmonary vascular remodeling in mice and increased vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) viability. Here, we further demonstrated that exposure of mice to ambient PM2.5 increased urinary 8­hydroxy­2'­deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and cytokines concentrations in the broncheoalveolar lavage. The objective of the present study was to identify the PM2.5 components related to vascular dysfunction. Exposure to PM2.5 collected from various areas and seasons in Taiwan significantly increased viability, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokines secretion in VSMCs. The mass concentrations of benz[a]anthracene (BaA), benzo[e]pyrene (BeP), perylene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, molybdenum, zinc (Zn), vanadium (V), and nickel in the PM2.5 were significantly associated with increased viability of VSMCs. These components, except BaA and BeP, also were significantly associated with chemokine (CC motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) concentrations in the VSMCs. The effects of V and Zn on cell viability and CCL5 expression, respectively, were verified. In addition, the mass concentrations of sulfate and manganese (Mn) in PM2.5 were significantly correlated with increased oxidative stress; this correlation was also confirmed. After extraction, the inorganic fraction of PM2.5 increased cell viability and oxidative stress, but the organic fraction of PM2.5 increased only cell viability, which was inhibited by an aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonist. These data suggest that controlling the emission of Zn, V, Mn, sulfate, and PAHs may prevent the occurrence of PM2.5-induced vascular diseases.


Asunto(s)
Material Particulado/toxicidad , Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Animales , Ratones , Músculo Liso Vascular , Estrés Oxidativo , Taiwán
14.
J Environ Manage ; 264: 110429, 2020 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217317

RESUMEN

Intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves can serve as useful tools in risk assessment of extreme environmental events. Thus, this study proposes an IDF approach for evaluating the risk of expected occurrences of extreme air pollution as measured by an air pollution index (API). Hourly data of Klang city in Malaysia from 1997 to 2016 are analyzed. For each year, a block maxima size is determined based on four different monsoon seasons. Generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution is used as a model to represent the probabilistic behavior of maximum intensity of the API, which is derived from each block. Based on the GEV model, the IDF curves are developed to estimate the extreme pollution intensities that correspond to various duration hours and return periods. Considering the IDF curves, we found that for any duration hour, the magnitude of pollution intensity tends to be high in parallel with increasing return periods. In fact, a high-intensity pollution event that poses a high risk of affecting the environment is less frequent than low-intensity pollution. In conclusion, the IDF curves provide a good basis for decision makers to assess the expected risk of extreme pollution events in the future.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Malasia , Material Particulado , Medición de Riesgo
15.
J Environ Manage ; 264: 110451, 2020 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217326

RESUMEN

Straw open burning is common practice in agricultural production, and has been identified as highly relevant to regional haze. A variety of control measures for straw open burning have been adopted in agricultural areas to mitigate air pollution, but their contribution to air quality improvement is difficult to estimate, and has been addressed by few studies. Using Jilin Province during the post-harvest season (PHS) as a study area, we empirically evaluated the contribution of the Straw Open Burning Prohibition Plan (SOBP) to air quality improvement by response surface methodology (RMS) modeling combined with scenario analysis, and constructed and introduced a stagnant index to the RMS model. The results indicated that the adoption of the SOBP by Jilin Province in the 2018 PHS mitigated air pollution effectively. The contribution of the plan to air quality improvement was also evaluated under two scenarios: if the SOBP had been implemented during the 2015 PHS, 2016 PHS, and 2017 PHS, the cumulative PM2.5 concentration would have declined in these years by 23%, 15%, and 22%, respectively, compared with their actual values; if the SOBP had not been implemented in the 2018 PHS, the cumulative PM2.5 concentration would have increased by 10%-14% compared with the actual value. The results can provide decision makers with a reference to assess the environmental performance of the SOBP, and guidance for establishing scientific environmental regulations for cleaner agricultural production and sustainable development.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Material Particulado , Estaciones del Año
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 719: 137445, 2020 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112947

RESUMEN

In recent years, particulate matter (PM) air pollution has become a significant and growing public health problem in China. In this study, the daily PM2.5 exposure level at a spatial resolution of 100 km2 was simulated based on the data of 1328 monitoring sites and the Voronoi Neighborhood Averaging (VNA) interpolation method. The results reveal that the daily mean PM2.5 concentration reduced from 47.82 µg/m3 (2016) to 40.87 µg/m3 (2018), a reduction of 14.53%. We first calculated the heath impacts and economic benefits of this reduction (Scenario 1) by using Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program (BenMAP). The estimated avoided premature mortalities for all-cause, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, and lung cancer were in the range of 7214 to 81,681 cases (total of 154,176 cases). The estimated economic benefits based on willingness to pay (WTP) ranged from 3.96 to 44.85 billion RMB (total of 84.66 billion RMB). Moreover, the PM2.5 concentration in the control scenario was rolled back to the Grade I standards (35 µg/m3, Scenario 2). The avoided deaths are in the range of 58,820 to 590,464 cases (total of 1,217,671 cases). The estimated monetary value of the avoided cases of all health endpoints range from 36.63 to 367.66 billion RMB based on WTP (total of 758.21 billion RMB). In addition, the spatial autocorrelation analysis reveals that the distribution of both avoided premature mortality and economic benefits exhibit a certain spatial aggregation.


Asunto(s)
Salud Pública , Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , China , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Material Particulado
17.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126223, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113098

RESUMEN

Air quality in large cities has worsened in recent years as a consequence people's health is directly affected. Among the toxic compounds released to environmental air are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated PAHs (nitro-PAHs), and oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs). Performant methods to analyze these compounds is necessary to enable adequate monitoring of air quality. Thus, this manuscript presents the development of a highly sensitive method to analyze PAHs, nitro-PAHs, and oxy-PAHs collected from ambient air (PM2.5) and the gas phase for a period of one year in the urban area of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. PAHs and their derivatives were extracted by cold fiber solid phase microextraction (CF-SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The proposed method allows simultaneous analysis of 16 PAHs, nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs, presenting very good limits of detection and quantification, as well as appropriate precision and recovery. The results obtained for the period of one year allowed different studies. The compounds collected simultaneously from gas and particulate phase showed that total concentration of 16 PAHs were higher in the gas phase than in the particulate. On the other hand, nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs presented similar concentration in gas and particulate phases. The potential carcinogenicity of PAHs relative to benzo[a]pyrene showed benzo[a]pyrene equivalents of 0.49 ng m-3. The estimated risk of lifetime lung cancer was 5 × 10-5. Principal component analysis and diagnostic ratio was applied for source distribution indicating that burning of gasoline, diesel and biomass accounted for the PAHs profile in ambient air samples.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Benzo(a)pireno/análisis , Brasil , Respiración de la Célula , Ciudades , Polvo/análisis , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Gasolina/análisis , Humanos , Nitratos/química , Óxidos de Nitrógeno/análisis , Oxígeno/química , Material Particulado/análisis , Microextracción en Fase Sólida
18.
West Afr J Med ; 37(2): 152-158, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150634

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked morbidity and mortality of individuals to exposure to atmospheric gaseous and particulate matter especially fine particles (PM2.5) and coarse particles (PM10).The process of garri (cassava crisps) production (frying with firewood) is associated with production of gaseous and particulate matter which contribute to ambient particulate matter air pollution. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of air quality indices on the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among the garri processing workers in Ogbomoso. METHODOLOGY: A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out among 351 garri processing workers in Ogbomoso as subjects and 351 residents of Ogbomoso metropolis as controls that were age, sex and height-matched. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic profiles and respiratory symptoms of participants and document physical examination findings. Particulate matter counter was used for air quality sampling. RESULTS: The mean age of subjects was 41.7 ± 14.9 years and that of controls was 41.6 ± 14.7 years (p =0.960). The two groups were also matched for socioeconomic status, sex and height. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms was higher at 48.4% among the garri workers than the control group which was 29.1% (p<0.001). Cough was the predominant symptom with a prevalence of 29.3% and 10.5% among the subjects and controls respectively. The mean count of PM1.0 in garri processing locations was significantly higher than that recorded in Ogbomoso metropolis; 73.77±42.08 vs 15.04±6.66mg/m3 (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Garri processing work is associated with significant increase in ambient air pollution and increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms among the workforce compared to the control population. Effective preventive strategies including education and provision of safety masks may reduce the occupational hazards associated with garri processing factory workers in Nigeria.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/estadística & datos numéricos , Material Particulado/análisis , Enfermedades Respiratorias/epidemiología , Adulto , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Estudios Transversales , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria/epidemiología , Prevalencia
19.
Gene ; 740: 144570, 2020 May 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165298

RESUMEN

Recent studies have found multiple single nucleotide variants (SNVs) associated with DNA damage. However, previous association analysis may ignore the potential interaction effects between SNVs. Therefore, we used an improved random forest (RF) analysis to identify the SNVs related to personal DNA damage in exon-focused genome-wide association study (GWAS). A total of 301 subjects from three independent centers (Zhuhai, Wuhan, and Tianjin) were retained for analysis. An improved RF procedure was used to systematically screen key SNVs associated with DNA damage. Furthermore, we used genetic risk score (GRS) and mediation analysis to investigate the integrative effect and potential mechanism of these genetic variants on DNA damage. Besides, gene set enrichment analysis was conducted to identify the pathways enriched by key SNVs using the Data-driven Expression Prioritized Integration for Complex Traits (DEPICT). Finally, a set of 24 SNVs with the lowest mean square errors (MSE) were identified by improved RF analysis. Both weighted and unweighted GRSs were associated with increased DNA damage levels (Pweight < 0.001 and Punweight < 0.001). Gene set enrichment analysis indicated that these loci were significantly enriched in several biological features associated with DNA damage. These findings suggested the role of SNVs in modifying DNA damage levels. It may be convincing that this improved RF analysis can effectively identify SNVs associated with DNA damage levels.


Asunto(s)
Daño del ADN , Material Particulado/toxicidad , China , Daño del ADN/genética , Daño del ADN/fisiología , Interpretación Estadística de Datos , Humanos , Material Particulado/sangre , Material Particulado/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple
20.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126256, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114341

RESUMEN

Nitrated phenols in particulate matters are among the major components of brown carbon, harm plant growth and human health. To understand the size distributions of nitrated phenols in the polluted coastal region and the factors influencing these distributions, size-resolved particulate matters were collected from a rural site in the coastal city of Qingdao, China, in January 2019, and analyzed for the presence of 11 nitrated phenols. The average concentrations of total nitrated phenols in fine- and coarse-mode particles were 123.6 and 37.2 ng m-3, respectively. 4-Nitrophenol was found to be the dominant nitrated phenol, followed by 3-methyl-6-nitrocatechol, 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol, and 4-nitrocatechol. On average, maximum concentrations of nitrated phenols were in condensation-mode particles, whereas a minor concentration peak of nitro-salicylic acids was present in droplet-mode particles. In addition, a minor concentration peak of 4-methyl-2,6-dinitrophenol was noticed in coarse-mode particles. Comparisons of the size distributions under different situations confirmed that both primary emissions and secondary formation had significant effects on the abundances and particle-sizes of nitrated phenols. Coal combustion in residential villages and firework burning during a festival led to a sharp increase of nitrated phenols in condensation-mode particles, whereas dust promoted their heterogeneous formation in coarse-mode particles, and high humidity in the coastal area facilitated their aqueous formation in droplet-mode particles.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Fenoles/análisis , Aerosoles/análisis , Carbono/análisis , Catecoles , Ciudades , Carbón Mineral , Polvo , Humanos , Nitratos , Nitrocompuestos , Óxidos de Nitrógeno , Tamaño de la Partícula , Material Particulado/análisis , Estaciones del Año
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA