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3.
J Homosex ; 68(1): 88-111, 2021 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241421

RESUMEN

In June 2015, the U.S. Supreme Court made a landmark decision to legalize marriage for same-sex couples amid nationwide debate and media coverage of this controversial issue. Using a content analysis of newspaper articles and television transcripts (N = 286) from top news outlets, this study examines the frames used in news coverage of same-sex marriage before and after the decision and tone of coverage by frame and medium. Findings suggest that frames and tone differed by medium, with television generally presenting more negative coverage and print more positive coverage. Results also suggest that some coverage frames were more negative than others and that the dominant frames of coverage differed from pre- to post-decision. This study helps improve our understanding of how the public was informed before and after a historic decision and illuminates the differences between frame and tone of coverage by medium, and by medium over time.


Asunto(s)
Medios de Comunicación , Matrimonio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Decisiones de la Corte Suprema , Derechos Civiles , Composición Familiar , Humanos , Política , Religión y Sexo , Estados Unidos
4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244014, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320894

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Globally, divorce is a common phenomenon in couples' marital life. As a result, many divorced couples and their children face several social, economic, and health problems after dissolution. There is little information on the magnitude and determinants of divorce in developing countries including Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence of divorce from the first union and its predictors among reproductive-age women in Ethiopia. METHODS: We used the 2016 Ethiopia demographic and health survey data for this analysis. The survey was a community-based cross-sectional study conducted from January 18 to June 27, 2016. The survey employed a two-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. A total of 11,646 ever-married women were included in the analysis. Bivariate and multivariable logistics regression was done to identify the determinants of divorce from the first marriage. A p-value < 0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. RESULTS: About 25% (95%CI: 23.4% - 26.6%) ever-married women were divorced from their first marital relationship. Women who were married at age < 15 years (AOR = 1.34; 95%CI: 1.07-1.68), urban women (AOR = 1.69; 95%CI: 1.22-2.35), women who did not attend formal education (AOR = 4.36; 95%CI: 3.14-6.05), women who were employed (AOR = 1.51; 95%CI: 1.31-1.73), and being childless (AOR = 1.34; 95%CI: 1.07-1.69) had higher odds of experiencing a divorce. Similarly, women who experienced partner violence, women with no house ownership, and women in the Amhara region had higher odds of divorce from their first marital union. Conversely, women in Oromia, SNNPR, the metropolis, and the pastoral regions had lower odds of divorce from their first marital union. CONCLUSION: Divorce from the first marriage is high in Ethiopia. Preventing early marriage and partner violence and promoting girls' education would reduce the divorce rate in Ethiopia.


Asunto(s)
Divorcio/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Etiopía , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Matrimonio/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242876, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370321

RESUMEN

This paper examines recent changes in the life trajectories of Indian women. We use data from four major national population surveys that span the years 1998-2016. We look at several cohorts of women across the states and regions. We compare decisions related to education, marriage, childbearing and participation in the labor force. Though there is considerable diversity across states and regions, as well as religious groups, we find some consistent patterns that emerge everywhere. First, educational attainment and the age at marriage have been steadily increasing. Women who do not complete secondary school are more likely to marry early. Second, caste and religion (rather than education) play a significant role in decisions after marriage, such as the timing of births, the use of contraception and labor force participation. Third, women from disadvantaged communities continue to have very different life trajectories than other social groups. They are more likely to use contraception and participate in the labor force. Lower levels of schooling also appear to exacerbate the disadvantages of social identity. The pace of these changes varies sharply across states as well as regions of the country.


Asunto(s)
Escolaridad , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Matrimonio/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , India , Religión , Clase Social , Adulto Joven
6.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243733, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378386

RESUMEN

Within the span of almost ten years, phone dating apps have transformed the dating scene by normalizing and, according to some voices, gamifying the digital quest for a partner. Despite amplified discussion on how swipe-based apps damage the fabric of intimate ties, scientific accounts on whether they have led to different relationship patterns are missing. Using 2018 survey data from Switzerland, this study provides a rich overview of couples who met through dating apps by addressing three main themes: 1) family formation intentions, 2) relationship satisfaction and individual well-being, and 3) assortative mating. The data indicate that in Switzerland, dating apps have recently taken over as main online dating context. Results further show that couples formed through mobile dating have stronger cohabiting intentions than those formed in non-digital settings. Women who found their partner through a dating app also have stronger fertility desires and intentions than those who found their partner offline. Generally, there are no differences between couples initiated through dating apps and those initiated elsewhere regarding relationship and life satisfaction. Though more data are needed to capture the full range of users' romantic and sexual experiences, current results mitigate some of the concerns regarding the short-term orientation or the poor quality of relationships formed through mobile dating. Findings finally suggest that dating apps play an important role in altering couple composition by allowing for more educationally diverse and geographically distant couples.


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Interpersonales , Aplicaciones Móviles/estadística & datos numéricos , Satisfacción Personal , Conducta Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Parejas Sexuales/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Matrimonio/psicología , Matrimonio/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Suiza , Adulto Joven
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(45): 1686-1690, 2020 Nov 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180752

RESUMEN

Large indoor gatherings pose a high risk for transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and have the potential to be super-spreading events (1,2). Such events are associated with explosive growth, followed by sustained transmission (3). During August 7-September 14, 2020, the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention (MeCDC) investigated a COVID-19 outbreak linked to a wedding reception attended by 55 persons in a rural Maine town. In addition to the community outbreak, secondary and tertiary transmission led to outbreaks at a long-term care facility 100 miles away and at a correctional facility approximately 200 miles away. Overall, 177 COVID-19 cases were epidemiologically linked to the event, including seven hospitalizations and seven deaths (four in hospitalized persons). Investigation revealed noncompliance with CDC's recommended mitigation measures. To reduce transmission, persons should avoid large gatherings, practice physical distancing, wear masks, stay home when ill, and self-quarantine after exposure to a person with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Persons can work with local health officials to increase COVID-19 awareness and determine the best policies for organizing social events to prevent outbreaks in their communities.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Prisiones/estadística & datos numéricos , Instituciones Residenciales/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Trazado de Contacto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Femenino , Humanos , Maine/epidemiología , Masculino , Matrimonio , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Adulto Joven
9.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240034, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064722

RESUMEN

The influence of the health-related behavior of one spouse on that of the other is an important research question with public policy reprecussions. Yet, we are unaware of any previous study, which considered endogeneity problems between couples. Moreover, only a few studies considered ethnic origin differences among couples. Based on the 2016 wave of the Israeli longitudinal survey, we observe the cross-sectional correlation between the married couples' BMI, age, and accumulated wealth. The BMI (= [Formula: see text]) is a conventional measure of obesity, where BMI≥25 is considered overweight. Using a 3SLS methodology (in an effort to correct the endogeneity problem associated with BMI couples), the analysis tests the mutual obesity hypothesis among married couples. This hypothesis states that the BMI of the male influences that of a female and vice versa. Results indicate that on the one hand, a one-percent BMI increase among Arab Israeli males is associated with a projected 0.969 percent BMI increase among Arab Israeli females (p = 0.017); and in the case that an Arab Israeli male suffers from overweight, the projected probability of his Arab Israeli female counterpart to suffer from overweight as well rises (p = 0.050). On the other hand, one cannot reject the null hypothesis that projected BMI of the Arab Israeli male is unaffected by that of his Arab Israeli female counterpart (p = 0.907 and p = 0.853). As for the Jewish Israeli population, in the case that the 3SLS methodology is employed, so that the endogeneity problem among couples is considered, a one-percent BMI increase among Jewish Israeli females is associated with a projected 0.639 percent BMI increase among Jewish Israeli males (p = 0.091). Unlike Arab Israeli couples, no support is found to indicate the influence in the other direction, namely, the BMI of the male influences that of the female spouse. Research findings may thus be of relevance to public health and policy planners. Two limitations of this research lie in: 1) the self-reported BMI (which might be different from the measured BMI); and 2) missing confounders, such as regional dummies, which are not available in the dataset.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Obesidad/epidemiología , Adulto , Árabes , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiología , Judíos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Matrimonio , Sobrepeso/epidemiología
11.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239523, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027256

RESUMEN

Individuals from small populations face challenges to initiating reproduction because stochastic demographic processes create local mate scarcity. In response, flexible dispersal patterns that facilitate the movement of individuals across groups have been argued to reduce mate search costs and inbreeding depression. Furthermore, factors that aggregate dispersed peoples, such as rural schools, could lower mate search costs through expansion of mating markets. However, research suggests that dispersal and school attendance are costly to fertility, causing individuals to delay marriage and reproduction. Here, we investigate the role of dispersal and school attendance on marriage and reproductive outcomes using a sample of 54 married couples from four small, dispersed ranching communities in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Our analyses yield three sets of results that challenge conventional expectations. First, we find no evidence that dispersal is associated with later age at marriage or first reproduction for women. For men, dispersal is associated with younger ages of marriage than those who stay in their natal area. Second, in contrast to research suggesting that dispersal decreases inbreeding, we find that female dispersal is associated with an increase in genetic relatedness among marriage partners. This finding suggests that human dispersal promotes female social support from genetic kin in novel locales for raising offspring. Third, counter to typical results on the role of education on reproductive timing, school attendance is associated with younger age at marriage for men and younger age at first birth for women. While we temper causal interpretations and claims of generalizability beyond our study site given our small sample sizes (a feature of small populations), we nonetheless argue that factors like dispersal and school attendance, which are typically associated with delayed reproduction in large population, may actually lower mate search costs in small, dispersed populations with minimal access to labor markets.


Asunto(s)
Escolaridad , Dinámica Poblacional , Factores de Edad , Ambiente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Matrimonio , México , Población Rural
13.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 164-166, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890383

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: It seems important to understand how was the life of young people during the Antiquity, in the Greek cities and in Rome. Furthermore, it can be useful to find if there is a stage that marks the transition to adulthood. Finally, as the Romans are considerate to be great codifiers of laws, it seems important to study the Roman law to understand the legal conception of adolescence at this period. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A literature review has been done about studies published between 1962 and 2015. Those publications were found in some historical databases (as Persée, Cairns, J-Stor, OpenEdition) and in academic libraries. RESULTS: In the Greek cities, the adolescent, at 18 years old, has to do a military service called the ephebia. At the end of this formation, the young man, aged of 20 years old, comes back to his city. However, he has to continue his (intellectual) training until about his 30 years old. Generally, at this age, a man marries a young girl and becomes a respected adult. In the Roman law, there is no conception of legal age for the majority: the young people stay under the authority of the pater familias (father of the family) until the death of the father. If the father is dead: the boy becomes a pupil and has a specific juridical status until his 25 years. Two important stages exist for the young Romans: wearing the toga virilis (toga of manhood) and the wedding. CONCLUSIONS: There is an evolution in the perception of the adolescence during the Antiquity: for the Greeks, the adolescence ends at 20 years old with an important stage, the ephebia. In the Roman law, there is no legal age because everyone lives under the authority of the pater familias.


Asunto(s)
Historia Antigua , Psicología del Adolescente , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Grecia , Humanos , Masculino , Matrimonio , Adulto Joven
14.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 99, 2020 Sep 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962764

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy as a sensitive period of a woman's life can be affected by various psychological factors that can have adverse effects on the woman, her fetus and future baby. Since COVID-19 is a new phenomenon with limited information available, it may have adverse psychological effects on pregnant women. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the status of depression, stress, anxiety and their predictors in Iranian pregnant women during the outbreak of COVID-19. METHODS: This descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was performed on 205 pregnant women covered by Tabriz health centers in Iran. The sampling method used was cluster sampling. The data collection tool was the socio-demographic characteristics questionnaire and the DASS-21 (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21), which were completed online by pregnant women. The general linear model was used to determine the predictive factors of depression, anxiety and stress. RESULTS: The mean (SD) score of depression, stress, and anxiety were 3.91 (3.9), 6.22 (4.25), and 3.79 (3.39), respectively; the score range of 0 to 21. Depression, stress, and anxiety symptoms were observed in 32.7, 32.7, and 43.9% of the participants, respectively, with varying degrees from mild to very severe. Based on the adjusted general linear model, variables of education level, spouse's job and marital life satisfaction were the predictors of depressive symptoms. Variables of spouse's education level, spouse's support, marital life satisfaction and the number of pregnancies were the predictive factors of anxiety symptoms and the variables of spouse's education level, household income sufficiency, spouse's support and marital life satisfaction were predictors of stress symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the role of marital life satisfaction, high level of spouse's education and income in reducing symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression in pregnant women in critical situations such as the prevalence of COVID-19, it seems that using strategies to promote marital life satisfaction and socio-economic status can play an effective role in controlling anxiety and reducing stress and depression in pregnant women.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Depresión , Matrimonio , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Complicaciones del Embarazo , Estrés Psicológico , Adulto , Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/diagnóstico , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Embarazo , Complicaciones del Embarazo/epidemiología , Complicaciones del Embarazo/prevención & control , Complicaciones del Embarazo/psicología , Prevalencia , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estrés Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/prevención & control
15.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e926602, 2020 Sep 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966271

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND This study aimed to use online questionnaires to evaluate the factors associated with anxiety and depression in Chinese visiting scholars in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS Using a cross-sectional design, 311 Chinese scholars visiting 41 states in the United States were interviewed on 20 and 21 April 2020 through WeChat using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) questionnaire. RESULTS Of these 311 visiting scholars, 69 (22.2%) reported no symptoms of anxiety or depression, whereas 63 (20.3%) reported severe anxiety and 67 (21.5%) reported severe depression. Risk of anxiety was 93% higher in visiting scholars with than without accompanying parents in the US (odds ratio [OR], 1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-3.68) and was 1.72-fold (95% CI, 1.04-2.84) higher in those experiencing stress about family members with COVID-19. Stresses about personal security and return to China on schedule were associated with 1.73-fold (95% CI, 1.03-2.92) and 3.00-fold (95% CI, 1.51-5.95) higher risks of anxiety, respectively. Risks of depression were 1.86-fold (95% CI, 1.14-3.05), 1.84-fold (95% CI, 1.10-3.07), and 3.45-fold (95% CI, 1.72-6.92) higher in visiting Chinese scholars who were than were not experiencing stresses about financial support, personal security and return to China on schedule, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Chinese scholars visiting the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic experienced severe psychological distress. Surveys that include larger numbers of visiting scholars are warranted.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/etiología , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Depresión/etiología , Intercambio Educacional Internacional , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Adulto , Ansiedad/etnología , China/etnología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/etnología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Matrimonio , Padres , Pruebas Psicológicas , Riesgo , Estrés Psicológico/etnología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238346, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966292

RESUMEN

Global efforts to eradicate 'child marriage' (<18 years) increasingly target governments, the private sector and the general public as agents of change. However, understanding of child marriage may be subject to popular misconceptions, particularly because of ambiguity in the age threshold implied by the term 'child', and because awareness campaigns routinely emphasize extreme scenarios of very young girls forcibly married to much older men. Here, we ascertain public knowledge of child marriage via an online survey. Half of those surveyed mistakenly believed that the cut-off for child marriage is younger than the threshold of 18 years, and nearly three-quarters incorrectly believed that most child marriages occur at 15 years or below (it primarily occurs in later adolescence). Most participants also incorrectly believed that child marriage is illegal throughout the USA (it's illegal in only 4/50 states), substantially overestimated its global prevalence, and mistakenly believed that it primarily takes place among Muslim-majority world regions. Our results highlight important popular misconceptions of child marriage that may ultimately undermine global health goals and perpetuate harmful stereotypes. Organizations seeking to empower women by reducing child marriage should be cautious of these misunderstandings, and wary of the potential for their own activities to seed misinformation.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Matrimonio/estadística & datos numéricos , Matrimonio/tendencias , Opinión Pública , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Niño , Familia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
17.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 2): 273-280, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970647

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Researches to date had indicated that socioeconomic status is a strong predictor of health behavior but also it has two-way effect with alcohol use disorder. This study examines social factors and their impact on alcohol use disorder and places individual alcohol use in the context of the status and conditions in which people live. To determine the distribution and characteristics of social factor in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) in the area of the Tuzla Canton (TC) in the period 01.01.2011 - 31.12.2015, in relation to: age, sex, marital status, level of education, municipality of residence, home ownership status, family structure, employment status, and monthly monetary income. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Retrospective research was conducted using a systematic sample of 1863 patients with AUD, using documentation from the Psychiatry clinic of the University Clinical Centre (UCC) and the protocols of Health Centres. RESULTS: The sample was composed 1808 (97.05%) men and 55 (2.95%) women; the ratio of men to women was 33:1. the ages of the patients in the sample were 54.4±9.79 years - men 54.49±9.74 years; women 51.45±10.94 years. Most of the men in the sample were married (71.1%) and most of the women were widowed (54.5%). The largest number of patients had elementary school education (66.5%), were unemployed (56.8%), with a monthly monetary income less than 300 convertible marks (KM) (62.2%), owned their own home (78.2%), and 36.1% of them lived with a partner or their own children. CONCLUSIONS: There are significantly more men being treated for AUD; most of them are married, and most of the women are widowed. The largest number of patients treated for AUD have elementary school education, are unemployed, have monthly monetary income less than 300 km, own their own house, and a little more than one third of them lived with their partner or their own children.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Alcoholismo/psicología , Adulto , Bosnia y Herzegovina/epidemiología , Empleo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Matrimonio , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores Socioeconómicos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238957, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915880

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Anemia in women of reproductive age is a major public health challenge for low- and middle-income countries with a long-term negative impact on the health of women, their children, and the economic growth of the society. Even though the world health organization targeted a 50% global reduction of anemia among women of reproductive age by 2025, with the current trend it is unlikely to achieve this goal. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of anemia among women of reproductive age in eastern Africa. METHODS: A secondary data analysis, using demographic and health survey (DHS) data of 10 eastern African countries, was conducted. For our study, a total weighted sample of 101524 women of reproductive age was used. We employed a multilevel mixed-effects generalized linear model (using Poisson regression with robust error variance). Both unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios with their 95% confidence interval were reported. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia in eastern Africa was 34.85 (95%CI: 34.56-35.14) ranging from 19.23% in Rwanda to 53.98% in Mozambique. In the multivariable multilevel analysis, being older age, having primary and above education, being from households with second to highest wealth quantiles, being currently working, not perceiving distance as a big problem, use of modern contraceptive methods, and rural residence was associated with a lower prevalence of anemia. While, being married and divorced/separated/widowed, women from female-headed households, women from households with unimproved toilet facility and unimproved water source, ever had of a terminated pregnancy, having high parity, and being from large household size was associated with a higher prevalence of anemia. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anemia in eastern Africa was relatively high. Both individual level and community level factors were associated with the prevalence of anemia in women of reproductive age. Therefore, giving special attention to those women who are at a higher prevalence of anemia such as younger women, those who are from households with low socioeconomic status, unimproved toilet facility, and source of drinking water, as well as pregnant women could decrease anemia in women of reproductive age.


Asunto(s)
Anemia/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , África Oriental/epidemiología , Factores de Edad , Agua Potable , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Estado Civil , Matrimonio , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis Multinivel , Paridad , Embarazo , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Clase Social , Cuartos de Baño , Mujeres Trabajadoras , Adulto Joven
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 20063-20069, 2020 08 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747577

RESUMEN

In human populations, the relative levels of neutral diversity on the X and autosomes differ markedly from each other and from the naïve theoretical expectation of 3/4. Here we propose an explanation for these differences based on new theory about the effects of sex-specific life history and given pedigree-based estimates of the dependence of human mutation rates on sex and age. We demonstrate that life history effects, particularly longer generation times in males than in females, are expected to have had multiple effects on human X-to-autosome (X:A) diversity ratios, as a result of male-biased mutation rates, the equilibrium X:A ratio of effective population sizes, and the differential responses to changes in population size. We also show that the standard approach of using divergence between species to correct for male mutation bias results in biased estimates of X:A effective population size ratios. We obtain alternative estimates using pedigree-based estimates of the male mutation bias, which reveal that X:A ratios of effective population sizes are considerably greater than previously appreciated. Finally, we find that the joint effects of historical changes in life history and population size can explain the observed X:A diversity ratios in extant human populations. Our results suggest that ancestral human populations were highly polygynous, that non-African populations experienced a substantial reduction in polygyny and/or increase in the male-to-female ratio of generation times around the Out-of-Africa bottleneck, and that current diversity levels were affected by fairly recent changes in sex-specific life history.


Asunto(s)
Cromosomas Humanos X/genética , Genética Humana , Densidad de Población , Biodiversidad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Matrimonio , Modelos Genéticos , Tasa de Mutación
20.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e149, 2020 Aug 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744212

RESUMEN

AIMS: Widowed people have increased mortality compared to married people of the same age. Although most widowed people are of older age, few studies include the oldest old. As life expectancy is increasing, knowledge of widowhood into older age is needed. This study aimed to examine mortality and widowhood in older age by comparing mortality in widowed and married people by sex, age, time since spousal loss and cause of death. METHODS: A Danish register-based matched cohort study of 10% of widowed persons ⩾65 years in the years 2000-2009. For each randomly drawn widowed person, five married persons were matched on sex and age. Mortality rate ratios (MRR) were calculated using Poisson regression, and stratified according to sex and 5-year age intervals. MRRs were furthermore calculated by time since spousal loss and by specific cause of death. RESULTS: The study included 82 130 persons contributing with 642 914.8 person-years. The overall MRR between widowed and married persons with up to 16 years of follow-up was 1.25 (95% CI 1.23-1.28). At age ⩾95 years for men, and ⩾90 years for women, no differences in mortality rates were seen between widowed and married persons. Mortality in widowed persons was increased for most specific causes of death, with the highest MRR from external causes (MRR 1.53 [1.35-1.74]) and endocrine diseases (MRR 1.51 [1.34-1.70]). CONCLUSIONS: Widowhood was associated with increased mortality in older age for both men and women until age ⩾95 and ⩾90 years, respectively. Increased mortality was observed for almost all causes of death.


Asunto(s)
Aflicción , Matrimonio , Viudez/psicología , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios de Cohortes , Dinamarca/epidemiología , Femenino , Pesar , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidad
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