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2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353034

RESUMEN

The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitors use among cancer patients from the medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) cohort of the University of Messina. We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients with either intravenous bisphosphonates or denosumab-related MRONJ reported in the electronic health records of the Unit of Oral Surgery, School of Dentistry, University of Messina between the first quarter of 2018 and the first quarter 2020 to identify eligible patients. We observed six cases of MRONJ associated with CDK4/6 inhibitors concomitantly with intravenous bisphosphonates and/or denosumab in breast cancer patients. The CDK4/6 inhibitors registered were palbociclib (n = 5) and abemaciclib (n = 1). Data of cancer patients diagnosed with MRONJ in the same period (n = 10) were extracted for comparison. The comparative assessment with this group of patients showed a similar distribution of MRONJ stage ranged and clinical course after treatment. The degree of risk for osteonecrosis in patients taking these new classes of drugs is uncertain but warrants awareness and close monitoring. The role of premedication dental evaluation as a prevention strategy has been acknowledged for cancer patients about to initiate intravenous bisphosphonates and/or denosumab for treatment of bone metastasis, but additional attention should be paid to whom are assuming CDK4/6 inhibitors because of their oral adverse events.


Asunto(s)
Osteonecrosis de los Maxilares Asociada a Difosfonatos/metabolismo , Quinasa 4 Dependiente de la Ciclina/metabolismo , Osteonecrosis de los Maxilares Asociada a Difosfonatos/epidemiología , Osteonecrosis de los Maxilares Asociada a Difosfonatos/etiología , Conservadores de la Densidad Ósea/efectos adversos , Difosfonatos/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Maxilares , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372024

RESUMEN

Ossifying fibroma (OF) is a rare, benign, fibro-osseous lesion of the jawbone characterised by replacement of the normal bone with fibrous tissue. The fibrous tissue shows varying amount of calcified structures resembling bone and/or cementum. The central variant of OF is rare, and shows predilection for mandible among the jawbone. Although it is classified as fibro-osseous lesion, it clinically behaves as a benign tumour and can grow to large size, causing bony swelling and facial asymmetry. This paper reports a case of large central OF of mandible in a 40-year-old male patient. The lesion was treated by segmental resection of mandible. Reconstruction of the surgical defect was done using avascular fibula bone graft. Role of three-dimensional printing of jaw and its benefits in surgical planning and reconstruction are also highlighted.


Asunto(s)
Fibroma Osificante/cirugía , Neoplasias Mandibulares/cirugía , Adulto , Asimetría Facial/etiología , Fibroma Osificante/complicaciones , Fibroma Osificante/diagnóstico , Fibroma Osificante/diagnóstico por imagen , Peroné/trasplante , Humanos , Imagenología Tridimensional , Maxilares/anatomía & histología , Masculino , Neoplasias Mandibulares/complicaciones , Neoplasias Mandibulares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Mandibulares/diagnóstico por imagen , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Ortognáticos , Impresión Tridimensional , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
4.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(10): 783-788, 2020 Oct 09.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045792

RESUMEN

Bisphosphonate (BP), a group of anti-resorptive drugs, has been widely used for the treatments of osteoporosis and metastatic bone diseases. Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ), a serious well-recognized complication of patients receiving BP, adversely affects patients' oral health and quality of life. Its clinical signs include pain, bone exposure and necrosis of the jaws. Invasive oral treatments, which may affect the repair of jaws in patients using BP, could cause the occurrence of MRONJ. Therefore, it is important to avoid the risk factors of MRONJ and to standardize the operations in order to reduce the occurrence of MRONJ in oral treatments for patients receiving BP. After reviewing the related literature, this article aims to conclude the research progress on the standardized oral treatments of patients receiving BP and to provide clinical instructions for clinicians to treat these patients.


Asunto(s)
Osteonecrosis de los Maxilares Asociada a Difosfonatos , Osteoporosis , Osteonecrosis de los Maxilares Asociada a Difosfonatos/etiología , Difosfonatos/efectos adversos , Humanos , Maxilares , Osteoporosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Calidad de Vida
5.
Tokai J Exp Clin Med ; 45(3): 126-130, 2020 Sep 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901900

RESUMEN

We present a case of osteomyelitis of the condyle secondary to bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. A 77-year-old female was referred to our clinic with complaints of swelling in the left mandibular molar regions. The patient had been suffering from myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPOANCA) associated vasculitis and had been treated with glucocorticoids for 8 years, and oral bisphosphonates had been prescribed to prevent osteopenia secondary to glucocorticoids. Imaging examinations showed radiolucency of the left mandibular body. Based on the diagnosis of osteomyelitis of the mandibular body secondary to bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis, the patient received antimicrobial therapy and was well-healed. However, the patient returned 8 weeks later complaining of acute left preauricular swelling. Computed tomography showed the destructive changes in the mandibular condyle. We speculated that the infection was caused by the local spread from osteomyelitis of the left mandibular body. The risk of jaw necrosis related to antiresorptive therapy is well known. In recent years, the number of older patients being administered glucocorticoids with bisphosphonates has increased; therefore, we must be attentive to the signs of infectious diseases of the jawbone in the aging because it can easily shift to osteomyelitis or osteonecrosis and spread infection through the marrow.


Asunto(s)
Osteonecrosis de los Maxilares Asociada a Difosfonatos/etiología , Conservadores de la Densidad Ósea/efectos adversos , Difosfonatos/efectos adversos , Maxilares , Cóndilo Mandibular , Osteomielitis/etiología , Anciano , Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Vasculitis Asociada a Anticuerpos Citoplasmáticos Antineutrófilos/tratamiento farmacológico , Femenino , Glucocorticoides/efectos adversos , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Cóndilo Mandibular/diagnóstico por imagen , Osteomielitis/diagnóstico por imagen , Osteomielitis/terapia , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Resultado del Tratamiento
6.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20201578, 2020 09 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962547

RESUMEN

The southern alligator lizard (Elgaria multicarinata) exhibits a courtship behaviour during which the male firmly grips the female's head in his jaws for many hours at a time. This extreme behaviour counters the conventional wisdom that reptilian muscle is incapable of powering high-endurance behaviours. We conducted in situ experiments in which the jaw-adductor muscles of lizards were stimulated directly while bite force was measured simultaneously. Fatigue tests were performed by stimulating the muscles with a series of tetanic trains. Our results show that a substantial sustained force gradually develops during the fatigue test. This sustained force persists after peak tetanic forces have declined to a fraction of their initial magnitude. The observed sustained force during in situ fatigue tests is consistent with the courtship behaviour of these lizards and probably reflects physiological specialization. The results of molecular analysis reveal that the jaw muscles contain masticatory and tonic myosin fibres. We propose that the presence of tonic fibres may explain the unusual sustained force properties during mate-holding behaviour. The characterization of muscle properties that facilitate extreme performance during specialized behaviours may reveal general mechanisms of muscle function, especially when done in light of convergently evolved systems exhibiting similar performance characteristics.


Asunto(s)
Maxilares/anatomía & histología , Lagartos/fisiología , Músculos Masticadores/anatomía & histología , Conducta Sexual Animal , Animales , Fuerza de la Mordida , Cortejo , Femenino , Masculino , Contracción Muscular , Músculo Esquelético
7.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 95, 2020 07 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736512

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Adaptive radiations are characterized by extreme and/or iterative phenotypic divergence; however, such variation does not accumulate evenly across an organism. Instead, it is often partitioned into sub-units, or modules, which can differentially respond to selection. While it is recognized that changing the pattern of modularity or the strength of covariation (integration) can influence the range or rate of morphological evolution, the relationship between shape variation and covariation remains unclear. For example, it is possible that rapid phenotypic change requires concomitant changes to the underlying covariance structure. Alternatively, repeated shifts between phenotypic states may be facilitated by a conserved covariance structure. Distinguishing between these scenarios will contribute to a better understanding of the factors that shape biodiversity. Here, we explore these questions using a diverse Lake Malawi cichlid species complex, Tropheops, that appears to partition habitat by depth. RESULTS: We construct a phylogeny of Tropheops populations and use 3D geometric morphometrics to assess the shape of four bones involved in feeding (mandible, pharyngeal jaw, maxilla, pre-maxilla) in populations that inhabit deep versus shallow habitats. We next test numerous modularity hypotheses to understand whether fish at different depths are characterized by conserved or divergent patterns of modularity. We further examine rates of morphological evolution and disparity between habitats and among modules. Finally, we raise a single Tropheops species in environments mimicking deep or shallow habitats to discover whether plasticity can replicate the pattern of morphology, disparity, or modularity observed in natural populations. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the hypothesis that conserved patterns of modularity permit the evolution of divergent morphologies and may facilitate the repeated transitions between habitats. In addition, we find the lab-reared populations replicate many trends in the natural populations, which suggests that plasticity may be an important force in initiating depth transitions, priming the feeding apparatus for evolutionary change.


Asunto(s)
Cíclidos/anatomía & histología , Ecosistema , Conducta Alimentaria , Animales , Maxilares/anatomía & histología , Lagos , Malaui , Mandíbula/anatomía & histología , Modelos Biológicos , Faringe/anatomía & histología , Filogenia , Agua
8.
J Oral Sci ; 62(4): 360-364, 2020 Sep 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788503

RESUMEN

The upper and lower tooth-bearing jaws of the filefish (Stephanolepis cirrhifer) were scanned using a micro-CT system in order to address the existing gaps between the traditional pictures of the morphology and histology. 2D tomograms, reconstructed 3D models and virtual dissection were employed to examine and evaluate the in situ geometry of tooth implantation and the mode of tooth attachment both separately and collectively. No distinct sockets comparable to those in mammals were evident, but shallow depressions were observed in the premaxillary and the dentary. The opening of the tooth pulp cavity was not simply oriented towards the apparent tooth base in a direction opposite to the tooth apex. The opening was distorted basoposteriorly or basoanteriorly depending on the position of the tooth, and the edge of the pulp cavity opening was barely ankylosed; i.e. the sites of pleurodont ankylosis along the basoposterior or basoanterior edge of the opening appeared to closely match the contour of the shallow depression in the bone. These 3D findings appear to be very informative when considering the phylogeny of tooth attachment, suggesting that micro-CT would be a useful modality concurrent with or in advance of histological investigations.


Asunto(s)
Anquilosis del Diente , Diente/diagnóstico por imagen , Animales , Dentición , Maxilares , Ligamento Periodontal
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236425, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726330

RESUMEN

Craniofacial asymmetry, mandibular condylar modeling and temporomandibular joint disorders are common comorbidities of skeletally disproportionate malocclusions, but etiology of occurrence together is poorly understood. We compared asymmetry, condyle modeling stability and temporomandibular health in a cohort of 128 patients having orthodontics and orthognathic surgery to correct dentofacial deformity malocclusions. We also compared ACTN3 and ENPP1 genotypes for association to clinical conditions. Pre-surgical posterior-anterior cephalometric and panometric radiographic analyses; jaw pain and function questionnaire and clinical examination of TMD; and SNP-genotype analysis from saliva samples were compared to assess interrelationships. Almost half had asymmetries in need of surgical correction, which could be subdivided into four distinct morphological patterns. Asymmetric condyle modeling between sides was significantly greater in craniofacial asymmetry, but most commonly had an unanticipated pattern. Often, longer or larger condyles occurred on the shorter mandibular ramus side. Subjects with longer ramus but dimensionally smaller condyles were more likely to have self-reported TMD symptoms (p = 0.023) and significantly greater clinical diagnosis of TMD (p = 0 .000001), with masticatory myalgia most prominent. Genotyping found two significant genotype associations for ACTN3 rs1671064 (Q523R missense) p = 0.02; rs678397 (intronic SNP) p = 0.04 and one significant allele association rs1815739 (R577X nonsense) p = 0.00. Skeletal asymmetry, unusual condyle modeling and TMD are common and interrelated components of many dentofacial deformities. Imbalanced musculoskeletal functional adaptations and genetic or epigenetic influences contribute to the etiology, and require further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Actinina/genética , Deformidades Dentofaciales/genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Hidrolasas Diéster Fosfóricas/genética , Pirofosfatasas/genética , Trastornos de la Articulación Temporomandibular/genética , Adulto , Mentón/diagnóstico por imagen , Modelos Dentales , Deformidades Dentofaciales/diagnóstico por imagen , Deformidades Dentofaciales/patología , Deformidades Dentofaciales/cirugía , Cara/diagnóstico por imagen , Femenino , Estudios de Asociación Genética , Humanos , Maxilares/diagnóstico por imagen , Masculino , Maloclusión/diagnóstico por imagen , Maloclusión/genética , Maloclusión/patología , Maloclusión/cirugía , Cóndilo Mandibular/diagnóstico por imagen , Cóndilo Mandibular/patología , Cóndilo Mandibular/cirugía , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Ortognáticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Trastornos de la Articulación Temporomandibular/diagnóstico por imagen , Trastornos de la Articulación Temporomandibular/patología , Trastornos de la Articulación Temporomandibular/cirugía
10.
Science ; 369(6500): 211-216, 2020 07 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647004

RESUMEN

The dentitions of extant fishes and land vertebrates vary in both pattern and type of tooth replacement. It has been argued that the common ancestral condition likely resembles the nonmarginal, radially arranged tooth files of arthrodires, an early group of armoured fishes. We used synchrotron microtomography to describe the fossil dentitions of so-called acanthothoracids, the most phylogenetically basal jawed vertebrates with teeth, belonging to the genera Radotina, Kosoraspis, and Tlamaspis (from the Early Devonian of the Czech Republic). Their dentitions differ fundamentally from those of arthrodires; they are marginal, carried by a cheekbone or a series of short dermal bones along the jaw edges, and teeth are added lingually as is the case in many chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fishes) and osteichthyans (bony fishes and tetrapods). We propose these characteristics as ancestral for all jawed vertebrates.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Biológica , Dentición , Maxilares/anatomía & histología , Vertebrados/anatomía & histología , Vertebrados/clasificación , Animales , República Checa , Tomografía con Microscopio Electrónico , Fósiles , Filogenia , Sincrotrones , Diente/anatomía & histología
11.
Arch Oral Biol ; 117: 104836, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683145

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to investigate (1) the jaw-opening forces in different stages of jaw-opening, and determine the correlation among maximum jaw-opening force, maximum jaw-opening, and parameters such as age, height, weight, and gender, (2) the energy expenditure during jaw-opening, and (3) the jaw-opening patterns in adults. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 87 participants were recruited from Dunedin, New Zealand. Jaw-opening forces were measured using an adjustable, rigid extra-oral device connected to a 1000 N load cell. MAIN RESULTS: Outcomes were highly skewed. The median (IQR) value of maximum jaw-opening was 48 mm (8 mm). The median of maximum jaw-opening force (40.0 N) was higher than jaw-opening force at maximum jaw-opening (35.2 N) (P < 0.01). The median (IQR) of the work was 1.30 J (1.28 J), ranging from 0.38 J to 4.03 J. The median of maximum jaw-opening force and work was higher in males (54.8 N; 1.22 J) than females (33.5 N; 0.74 J) (P < 0.05). Four jaw-opening force patterns (Pattern 1, 2, 3 and 4) were fitted and generated using Origin Pro software. CONCLUSION: A wide range of variation in jaw-opening force and work was observed, and they displayed a non-parametric, highly skewed distributions. The maximum jaw-opening force did not correspond to the maximum jaw-opening. Further studies could explore the potential association among the jaw-opening force pattern, the work of jaw-opening and TMJ diseases.


Asunto(s)
Metabolismo Energético , Maxilares/fisiología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 78(10): 1869.e1-1869.e10, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707040

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The Jaw in a Day (JIAD) procedure allows for complete primary reconstruction of bone and teeth during the same operation as tumor resection. We reviewed 12 cases, the largest published case series of the JIAD procedure, and discussed both the prosthodontic and surgical considerations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multi-institutional retrospective chart review was completed to identify patients undergoing the JIAD procedure. Patients with a minimum of 6 months' follow-up were included. Variables included skeletal relationship, dental Angle classification changes, postoperative diet, prosthesis complications, flap failure, osseointegration of dental implants, hardware complications, infection, intelligible speech, and patients' subjective satisfaction with facial and dental esthetics. RESULTS: The sample included 12 patients (8 male and 4 female patients) with a mean age of 38 years (range, 15 to 75 years) and an average follow-up period of 19 months (range, 7 to 42 months). Patients underwent the JIAD procedure at the same time as resection of an ameloblastoma (mandibular in 9 and maxillary in 1) or odontogenic myxoma (mandibular in 1 and maxillary in 1). Nine patients' Angle classification remained unchanged after the procedure, with 3 patients showing correction from dental Class III to Class I. On average, 4 implants (range, 2 to 6 implants) were placed. Hybrid or splinted crown prostheses replaced, on average, 8 teeth (range, 3 to 12 teeth) with no prosthetic fractures. All patients had viable fibular flaps, absence of infection, and completely intelligible speech. All but 1 patient had subjective satisfaction with facial and dental esthetics. Complications included plate fracture with fibrous union (1), premature contacts requiring occlusal equilibration (2), implant loss (1), delayed wound healing (1), heterotopic bone formation along the pedicle (1), and dissatisfaction with chin symmetry (1). CONCLUSIONS: The JIAD technique predictably reconstructs bone and teeth in a single operation. The tools and services streamlining this protocol are now widely available. However, there are still several challenges with this protocol that surgeons and patients must overcome. Further study and refinements are necessary to address these.


Asunto(s)
Implantes Dentales , Mandíbula , Niño , Preescolar , Implantación Dental Endoósea , Prótesis Dental de Soporte Implantado , Fracaso de la Restauración Dental , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Lactante , Maxilares , Masculino , Oseointegración , Estudios Retrospectivos , Colgajos Quirúrgicos , Resultado del Tratamiento
13.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(12): 839-845, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590846

RESUMEN

The effects of wearing an intra-oral device on several ventilatory and fatigue markers have been reported for a variety of sports. The quality of the figures performed in synchronized swimming is directly affected by fatigue, and can be monitored during training sessions (TS). The aim of the study was to investigate the acute effects of wearing customized intra-oral devices on heart rate variability, rating of perceived exertion, blood lactate accumulation, and salivary cortisol production during a competitive training session. Twelve highly trained elite female athletes (age: 21.0±3.6 years) participated in the study. Fatigue markers were assessed at the beginning and at the end of the 3rd and 5th afternoon TS for that week, once with and once without an intra-oral device, in random order. Salivary cortisol levels were higher in relation to the baseline in the intra-oral device condition (P<0.05) but not in athletes without an intra-oral device. No differences between conditions were found in rating of perceived exertion (P=0.465) and blood lactate (P=0.711). No time or condition interactions or main effects were shown for heart rate variability. Thus, there is no evidence that wearing a low-arch intra-oral device is a good recommendation for high-standard athletes performing long and stressful routines.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Competitiva/fisiología , Protectores Bucales , Acondicionamiento Físico Humano/fisiología , Natación/fisiología , Diseño de Equipo , Femenino , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Maxilares , Ácido Láctico/sangre , Percepción/fisiología , Acondicionamiento Físico Humano/métodos , Esfuerzo Físico/fisiología , Ventilación Pulmonar , Saliva/metabolismo , Adulto Joven
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 622-626, June 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098297

RESUMEN

The studies have illustrated odontometric analysis can be used to determine the sexual dimorphism effect on size of the teeth in various populations. The main aim of the study was to identify the inter-cuspal-, bucco-lingual -dimensions and weight of human upper-arch pre-molars in males and females of different South Asian populations. These metrics can distinguish sex which can have application in mass disasters, archaeology of mingled human remains and the in unidentified or several ancestry. The sample size consisted of 60 orthodontically extracted maxillary pre-molars from Pakistani and Saudi Arabian populations respectively. For male and female groups of each population fifteen first and second maxillary premolars were collected respectively, stored in PBS solution. The weight of the individual teeth was recorded. Later, digitally pictures were captured parallel to the occlusal surface to measure maximal bucco-lingual and inter-cuspal dimensions using Image-J software. The dimensions and weights were compared using Students' t-test between males and females respective Pakistani and Saudi Arabian first (P1) and second (P2) maxillary pre-molars. The dimensions for male P1 and P2 were statistically significantly larger than that for females in both populations. Furthermore, wet-weight of pre-molars in males is significantly greater than females in both populations. The findings demonstrate maxillary pre-molars can discriminate between the sexes in various populations.


Las investigaciones han ilustrado que el análisis odontométrico se puede utilizar para determinar el efecto del dimorfismo sexual en el tamaño de los dientes en varias poblaciones. El objetivo principal del estudio fue identificar las dimensiones y el peso entre cúspides, buco-linguales y el peso de los premolares de la arcada superior humana en hombres y mujeres de diferentes poblaciones del sur de Asia. Estas medidas pueden distinguir el sexo y ser importante en desastres masivos, arqueología de restos humanos entremezclados y en ancestros no identificados. El tamaño de la muestra consistió en 60 premolares maxilares extraídos ortodóncicamente de las poblaciones de Pakistán y Arabia Saudita, respectivamente. Para los grupos de hombres y mujeres de cada población, se recogieron quince primeros y segundos premolares superiores respectivamente, almacenados en solución de PBS. Se registró el peso de los dientes individuales. Posteriormente se capturaron imágenes digitales paralelas a la superficie oclusal para medir las dimensiones máximas buco-linguales e intercúspides utilizando software Image-J. Las dimensiones y los pesos se compararon mediante la prueba t de Student entre lo premolares maxilares (P1) y segundos (P2) de hombres y mujeres paquistaníes y saudíes. Las dimensiones para P1 y P2 de los hombres fueron estadísticamente significativos mayores que para las mujeres en ambas poblaciones. Además, el peso húmedo de los premolares en los varones era significativamente mayor que el de las mujeres en ambas poblaciones. Los hallazgos demuestran que los premolares maxilares pueden discriminar entre los sexos en varias poblaciones.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Análisis para Determinación del Sexo/métodos , Diente Premolar/anatomía & histología , Caracteres Sexuales , Maxilares/anatomía & histología , Pakistán , Arabia Saudita , Medicina Legal
15.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(2): 205-212, June 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090676

RESUMEN

Mapudungun is a language used by Mapuche people in some regions of Chile and Argentina. The aim of this study was to describe the vowel phonemes with regard to the articulatory parameters (position of the tongue with respect to the palate and jaw opening) and acoustic parameters (f0, F1, F2 and F3) in Mapudungun speakers in the Region of La Araucanía. The vocalic phonemes of Mapudungun are six, where the first five are similar to those used in Spanish (/a e i o u/), to which is added a sixth vowel (/ɨ/) with its vocalic allophones (/ɨ/) and [Ә]. Three Mapudungun speakers were evaluated. The tongue movements were collected by Electromagnetic Articulography 3D and the data were processed with MATLAB and PRAAT software. It was possible to describe the trajectory of each third of the tongue during the production of the vowels. It was observed that the sixth vowel /Ә/ had minimal jaw opening during its pronunciation. In addition, the characteristic of /Ә/ as an unrounded mid-central vowel was corroborated. In this study, the tongue of mapudungun speakers was in a more posterior position than the found in other studies.


El Mapudungun es un lenguaje utilizado por los mapuches en algunas regiones de Chile y Argentina. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir los fonemas vocálicos respecto a los parámetros articulatorios (posición de la lengua respecto al paladar y apertura mandibular) y los parámetros acústicos (f0, F1, F2 y F3) en hablantes de Mapudungun en la Región de La Araucanía, los fonemas vocálicos de Mapudungun son seis, donde los primeros cinco son similares a los utilizados en español (/a e i o u /), a los que se agrega una sexta vocal (/ɨ/) con sus alófonos vocálicos [ɨ] y [Ә]. Se evaluaron tres hablantes de Mapudungun. Los movimientos de la lengua fueron registrados por Articulografía Electromagnética 3D y los datos fueron procesados con el software MATLAB y PRAAT. Fue posible describir la trayectoria de cada tercio de la lengua durante la producción de las vocales. Se observó que la sexta vocal /Ә/ tenía una apertura mínima de la mandíbula durante su pronunciación. Además, se corroboró la característica de /Ә/ como vocal central media no redondeada. En este estudio, la lengua de los hablantes de mapudungun estaba en una posición más posterior que la encontrada en otros estudios.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Medición de la Producción del Habla/instrumentación , Lengua/fisiología , Fonética , Indios Sudamericanos , Maxilares/fisiología , Acústica del Lenguaje , Proyectos Piloto , Fenómenos Electromagnéticos
16.
J Morphol ; 281(6): 688-701, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383540

RESUMEN

The vertebrate head as a major novelty is directly linked to the evolutionary success of the vertebrates. Sequential information on the embryonic pattern of cartilaginous head development are scarce, but important for the understanding of its evolution. In this study, we use the oriental fire bellied toad, Bombina orientalis, a basal anuran to investigate the sequence and timing of larval cartilaginous development of the head skeleton from the appearance of mesenchymal Anlagen in post-neurulation stages until the premetamorphic larvae. We use different methodological approaches like classic histology, clearing and staining, and antibody staining to examine the larval skeletal morphology. Our results show that in contrast to other vertebrates, the ceratohyals are the first centers of chondrification. They are followed by the palatoquadrate and the basihyal. The latter later fuses to the ceratohyal and the branchial basket. Anterior elements like Meckel's cartilage and the rostralia are delayed in development and alter the ancestral anterior posterior pattern observed in other vertebrates. The ceratobranchials I-IV, components of the branchial basket, follow this strict anterior-posterior pattern of chondrification as reported in other amphibians. Chondrification of different skeletal elements follows a distinct pattern and the larval skeleton is nearly fully developed at Gosner Stage 28. We provide baseline data on the pattern and timing of early cartilage development in a basal anuran species, which may serve as guidance for further experimental studies in this species as well as an important basis for the understanding of the evolutionary changes in head development among amphibians and vertebrates.


Asunto(s)
Anuros/crecimiento & desarrollo , Cráneo/crecimiento & desarrollo , Animales , Anuros/anatomía & histología , Región Branquial/anatomía & histología , Cartílago/crecimiento & desarrollo , Maxilares/anatomía & histología , Larva/crecimiento & desarrollo
17.
World Neurosurg ; 140: 109-113, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437993

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Acute stroke resolution via endovascular thrombectomy requires transcarotid access when transfemoral access is not possible. Although postoperative complications such as cervical hematoma and airway compression have been reported, an appropriate postprocedural management is largely unknown yet. We aim to provide new insights and learning points from our experience using the Jaw Elevation Device (JED) as a tool to facilitate recovery post surgery. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 79-year-old female underwent endovascular thrombectomy via transcervical, transcarotid access for a left internal carotid artery occlusion. No intraprocedural complications were reported. After successful thrombectomy, manual compression was applied in the carotid artery, and to achieve neck immobilization a JED was used for 4 hours after the procedure. No complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS: JED appears to be a reasonable option to facilitate patient recovery due to its capacity to maintain the airway, provide mild compression for hemostasis, and prevent cervical hematoma through a comfortable neck immobilization.


Asunto(s)
Procedimientos Endovasculares/métodos , Inmovilización/instrumentación , Accidente Cerebrovascular/cirugía , Trombectomía/métodos , Anciano , Arterias Carótidas/cirugía , Enfermedades de las Arterias Carótidas/complicaciones , Enfermedades de las Arterias Carótidas/cirugía , Femenino , Humanos , Maxilares , Cuello , Recuperación de la Función , Accidente Cerebrovascular/etiología
18.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1927): 20200428, 2020 05 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429804

RESUMEN

Tendon springs often influence locomotion by amplifying the speed and power of limb joint rotation. However, less is known about elastic recoil action in feeding systems, particularly for small aquatic animals. Here, we ask if elastic recoil amplifies the speed of gape closing during aquatic food processing in the Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). We measure activation of the adductor mandibulae externus via electromyography and strain of the jaw adductor muscle-tendon unit (MTU), and gape kinematics via fluoromicrometry. The muscle is pre-activated coincident with gape opening, which causes MTU stretch. Activation lasts significantly shorter for fish than cricket processing, and muscle shortening during MTU lengthening yields significantly greater elastic strain for cricket processing. The speed of MTU shortening, which dictates the speed of gape closing is 2.5-4.4 times greater than the speed of the initial shortening of the muscle fascicles for fish and cricket gape cycles, respectively. These data demonstrate a clear role for elastic recoil, which may be unexpected for a MTU in a feeding system of a small, aquatic animal. Amplification of jaw-closing speed resulting from elastic recoil likely confers ecological advantages in reducing prey escape risks during food processing in a dense and viscous fluid environment.


Asunto(s)
Maxilares/fisiología , Urodelos/fisiología , Animales , Elasticidad , Contracción Muscular , Músculo Esquelético
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6793, 2020 04 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322020

RESUMEN

An on-going debate concerning the dietary adaptations of archaic hominins and early Homo has been fuelled by contradictory inferences obtained using different methodologies. This work presents an extensive comparative sample of 30 extant primate species that was assembled to perform a morpho-functional comparison of these taxa with 12 models corresponding to eight fossil hominin species. Finite Element Analysis and Geometric Morphometrics were employed to analyse chewing biomechanics and mandible morphology to, firstly, establish the variation of this clade, secondly, relate stress and shape variables, and finally, to classify fossil individuals into broad ingesta related hardness categories using a support vector machine algorithm. Our results suggest that some hominins previously assigned as hard food consumers (e.g. the members of the Paranthropus clade) in fact seem to rely more strongly on soft foods, which is consistent with most recent studies using either microwear or stable isotope analyses. By analysing morphometric and stress results in the context of the comparative framework, we conclude that in the hominin clade there were probably no hard-food specialists. Nonetheless, the biomechanical ability to comminute harder items, if required as fallback option, adds to their strategy of increased flexibility.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Fisiológica/fisiología , Dieta , Alimentos , Fósiles , Mandíbula/anatomía & histología , Masticación/fisiología , Animales , Evolución Biológica , Análisis de Elementos Finitos , Hominidae , Maxilares/anatomía & histología , Maxilares/fisiología , Mandíbula/fisiología , Primates/anatomía & histología , Primates/clasificación , Primates/fisiología , Cráneo/anatomía & histología , Cráneo/fisiología , Máquina de Vectores de Soporte
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