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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115847, 2023 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272491

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ershiwuwei Zhenzhu Pill (EZP), a representative and classic formula in Tibetan medicine, is commonly used in the treatment of various cerebrovascular diseases, including ischemic stroke (IS). Nevertheless, their efficacy and potential mechanism in treating IS have yet to be investigated. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the potential mechanisms of EZP in the treatment of IS based on network pharmacology and experimental verification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chemical profile of EZP was characterized using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). The targets related to the compounds in EZP were predicted by the Swiss Target Prediction and Target Net platform, and targets of IS were collected from the Gene Cards and OMIM databases. Subsequently, a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of targets was constructed and analyzed by the STRING database and Cytoscape software, version 3.7.1. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses were performed, and an ingredient-target-pathway network was constructed. Ultimately, the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was established to evaluate the anti-IS effects of EZP by detecting the neurological deficit score, HE, Nissl and TCC staining, and inflammatory factors, and the expression of key protein targets was detected by western blotting. RESULTS: A total of 129 components were identified in EZP. Network pharmacology revealed 3136 compound targets and 2826 disease-related targets, and 412 overlapping proteins were obtained as potential therapeutic targets. The PPI network results showed that 6 key targets (AKT1, SRC, VEGFA, TP53, TNF and EGFR) were core targets of EZP in the treatment of IS. Western blotting demonstrated that the expression levels of AKT1, VEGFA, TP53, SRC, TNF and EGFR in the brain tissue of MCAO rats were significantly changed after treatment with EZP compared to the model group. CONCLUSIONS: EZP ameliorated IS in MCAO rats. The underlying mechanism might be associated with inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis, promoting angiogenesis and protecting neurons by regulating multiple targets and pathways.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Accidente Cerebrovascular Isquémico , Animales , Ratas , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/química , Receptores ErbB , Accidente Cerebrovascular Isquémico/tratamiento farmacológico , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Farmacología en Red , Mapas de Interacción de Proteínas , Medicina Tradicional Tibetana
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115851, 2023 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273748

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The external use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat fractures has a long history of clinical application and theoretical basis, and is also one of the characteristic treatment methods of TCM with significant efficacy and many advantages. Among the commonly used external Chinese medicines, Tubiechong is noteworthy. AIM OF THE STUDY: To elucidate whether local patching of Tubiechong can promote fracture healing and explore its mechanism of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A rat tibia fracture model was constructed by the modified Einhorn modeling method. X-ray films were taken to evaluate the progress of fracture healing. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), osteocalcin (BGP) and the C-terminal content of collagen type I (CTX-I) were analyzed by ELISA. CD31 immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate angiogenesis in the tibia segment. The effects of Tubiechong decoction (TD) on HUVEC proliferation, migration and invasion were detected by MTT assay, wound healing assay and Transwell migration assay, respectively. RNA-seq was performed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Enrichment of functions and signaling pathway analysis were performed based on the Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to study gene expression levels. Western blotting (WB) was used to detect the expression of relevant regulatory proteins. RESULTS: The healing time of rat tibia fractures in the three TD dose groups was shortened. The serum levels of BALP, BGP and CTX- I in the TD-treated group were higher than those in the NC group. The X-ray results showed that on the 7th day after surgery, the fracture healing degree of the high-dose TD group was significantly better than that of the NC group, and the fracture healing degrees of each TD treatment group were significantly higher than those of the NC group on the 14th, 17th, and 21st days after the operation. The CD31 immunohistochemistry results showed that the number of blood vessels and the vascular area in the TD treatment group were higher than those in the NC group. In vitro, TD promoted the proliferation, wound healing and migration of HUVECs. GO analysis of transcriptome sequencing results showed that TD significantly altered the expression of genes related to cell growth, metabolism, and motility. According to KEGG annotations, VEGFA was upregulated. Eight DEGs were enriched in the VEGFA-VEGFR2 signaling pathway, of which six were upregulated. KEGG signaling pathway analysis showed that the most abundant DEGs were in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. qRT-PCR showed that VEGFA gene expression in HUVECs was 7.8 times that of the control group after 1 mg/mL TD treatment for 24 h, and WB experiments showed that its protein expression was 3 times that of the control group. WB results showed that the phosphorylated ERK gene was highly expressed, while the expression levels of phosphorylated P38 and phosphorylated JNK protein remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Tubechong patching therapy promotes tibia fracture healing in rats by regulating angiogenesis through the VEGF/ERK1/2 signaling pathway.


Asunto(s)
Curación de Fractura , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular , Animales , Ratas , Sistema de Señalización de MAP Quinasas , Neovascularización Patológica/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Tibia/metabolismo , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular/genética , Factor A de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular/metabolismo , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115680, 2023 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36058479

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of disease centered on obesity, which is the result of stagnation of liver qi according to traditional Chinese medicine. Panax notoginseng is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, entering liver and stomach meridians and dissipating blood stasis, in which panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are the main active components. However, its effects and mechanism on metabolic syndrome has not been revealed yet. AIM OF STUDY: To evaluate the anti-MetS effect of PNS, including body weight and adiposity, glucose metabolism and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as well as to explore the mechanism and signaling pathway of PNS on MetS effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HPLC was utilized to affirm the percentages of saponins in PNS. In vivo, normal C57BL/6J mice and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced MetS mice were used to evaluate anti-MetS effect of PNS. Body weight, food and water intake were recorded. NMR imager was used for NMR imaging and lipid-water analysis. Blood glucose detection, glucose and insulin tolerance test were performed to evaluate glucose metabolism. Biochemical indexes analysis and histopathological staining were used to evaluate the effect on NAFLD. The expressions of mRNA and proteins related to thermogenesis in adipose tissue were determined using real-time PCR and Western blot. In silico, network pharmacology was utilized to predict potential mechanism. In vitro, matured 3T3-L1 adipocyte was used as subject to confirm the signaling pathway by Western blot. RESULTS: We determined the content of PNS component by HPLC. In vivo, PNS could improve metabolic syndrome with weight loss, reduction of adiposity, improvement of adipose distribution, correction of glucose metabolism disorder and attenuation of NAFLD. Mechanismly, PNS boosted energy exhaustion and dramatically enhanced thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), induced white adipose tissue (WAT) browning. In silico, utilizing network pharmacology strategy, we identified 307 candidate targets which were enriched in MAPK signaling pathway specifically in liver tissue and adipocyte. In vitro validation confirmed ERK and p38MAPK mediated anti-MetS effects of PNS, not JNK signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: PNS exerted protective effect on metabolic syndrome through MAPK-mediated adipose thermogenic activation, which may serve as a prospective therapeutic drug for metabolic syndrome.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Insulinas , Síndrome Metabólico , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico , Panax notoginseng , Saponinas , Animales , Glucemia , Peso Corporal , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Glucosa , Lípidos , Síndrome Metabólico/tratamiento farmacológico , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Farmacología en Red , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/tratamiento farmacológico , Obesidad/tratamiento farmacológico , Panax notoginseng/química , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Saponinas/farmacología , Saponinas/uso terapéutico , Agua
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115677, 2023 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064148

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bioactive substance identification is always the focal point and the main challenge in Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). Most CHM present multiple efficacies and multiple tropisms, which has improved the application accuracy of CHM, and is worthy of further study. In this article, the concept of "multi-tropism efficacy of CHM" has been proposed for the first time. In addition, it is hypothesized that the different components in CHM can be classified based on their efficacy status. AIM OF THE STUDY: The spectrum-effect relationship between the fingerprint and efficacy was established to identify the efficacy status of components. This provided a practical, efficient and accurate way to identify the bioactive substances from a complex CHM system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The network pharmacology approach was applied to preliminarily analyze the potential antibacterial compounds and mechanisms of HQ. Furthermore, its chemical fingerprint was established and the characteristic peaks were identified by LC-MS/MS. The antibacterial and anti-inflammatory bioactivities of HQ were determined to evaluate its pharmacological effect of heat-clearing and detoxification, and its anticoagulation activity was determined to evaluate its heat-clearing and tocolysis effects. The spectrum-effect relationships were assessed by gray correlation analysis to discriminate the status of active components in HQ with different efficacies. RESULTS: Network pharmacology analysis revealed apigenin, wogonin, baicalein, acacetin, ß-sitosterol, baicalin, eugenol, moslosooflavone, palmitic acid, oroxylin-A 7-O-glucuronide, and scutevulin as the potential active compounds responsible for the efficacy of HQ against both E. coli and S. aureus. The spectrum-effect relationship was utilized to reveal the orientation activities, with the results as follows: 1) The main basic-efficacy components in HQ with antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anticoagulant effects were P5, P8, P9, P15, P18, P19, P20; while the general basic-efficacy components were P2, P3, P6, P7, P11, P14, P21, P22, P28. 2) The main efficacy-oriented components in HQ with antibacterial effects on E. coli were P1, P12, P17, while the general efficacy-oriented compound was P10, P24, P25, P26, P27; the main efficacy-oriented in HQ with antibacterial effects on S. aureus were P14 and the general efficacy-oriented components were P1, P12, P26, P29, P30, respectively. 3) The main efficacy-oriented components with anti-inflammatory activity were P14, P24, P25, P27, and P30, while the general efficacy-oriented components were P13, P23, P26. 4) The main efficacy-oriented compounds in HQ with effects on anticoagulation were P6 and P22; these acted by prolonging APTT through the intrinsic coagulation pathway and PT through the extrinsic coagulation pathway, respectively. 5) The pharmacodynamic status classification of Scutellaria baicalensis ingredients were confirmed by nine reference compounds exemplarily. CONCLUSION: This work established a novel strategy for active compound efficacy status identification in multi-tropism Chinese herbal medicine (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) based on multi-indexes spectrum-effect gray correlation analysis, the method is scientific feasible and can be applied to the effective substances identification and quality control of other CHM.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Scutellaria baicalensis , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Anticoagulantes , Apigenina , Cromatografía Liquida , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/química , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Escherichia coli , Eugenol , Glucurónidos , Ácido Palmítico , Piridinolcarbamato , Scutellaria baicalensis/química , Staphylococcus aureus , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Tropismo
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115690, 2023 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075274

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Xianglian Pill (XLP) is a classical Chinese medicine prescription applied for controlling ulcerative colitis (UC). Whereas, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present work was aimed to investigate the mechanism of XLP in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC via the Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4)/Myeloid Differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/Nuclear Factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The major components of XLP were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The ulcerative colitis model was induced by DSS in mice. 5-Amino Salicylic Acid (5-ASA) group and XLP group were intragastrically treated. Disease activity index (DAI) and colon length were monitored and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was conducted. Gasdermin D (GSDMD)-N and TLR4 expressions in colon tissues were visualized by immunofluorescence. TLR4 mRNA was measured by Real Time Quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The expressions of NOD-like receptor thermal protein domain associated protein 3 (NLRP3), active-caspase-1, GSDMD-N, TLR4, MYD88, NF-κB, p-NF-κB, and the ubiquitination of TLR4 in colon tissues were detected by Western blot. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzyme activity was examined and serum inflammatory factors Interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), and IL-18 were determined by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). TLR4-/- mice were applied for verifying the mechanism of XLP attenuated DSS symptoms. RESULTS: The XLP treatment extended colon length, reduced DAI, and attenuated histopathological alteration in DSS-induced mice. XLP administration suppressed MPO activity and reduced the content of IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-18 in serum. XLP also inhibited the expression levels of GSDMD-N, TLR4, NLRP3, active-caspase-1, MyD88, p-NF-κB/NF-κB in colon tissues of DSS-induced mice. TLR4-/- mice proved that TLR4 was involved in XLP-mediated beneficial effect on DSS-induced ulcerative colitis. CONCLUSIONS: XLP might treat ulcerative colitis by regulating the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway.


Asunto(s)
Colitis Ulcerosa , Factor 88 de Diferenciación Mieloide , Animales , Caspasas/metabolismo , Colitis Ulcerosa/inducido químicamente , Colitis Ulcerosa/tratamiento farmacológico , Colitis Ulcerosa/patología , Colon , Sulfato de Dextran/toxicidad , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Eosina Amarillenta-(YS)/metabolismo , Eosina Amarillenta-(YS)/farmacología , Eosina Amarillenta-(YS)/uso terapéutico , Hematoxilina/metabolismo , Hematoxilina/farmacología , Hematoxilina/uso terapéutico , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Interleucina-18/farmacología , Interleucina-18/uso terapéutico , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Ratones , Factor 88 de Diferenciación Mieloide/metabolismo , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína con Dominio Pirina 3 de la Familia NLR/metabolismo , Peroxidasa/metabolismo , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Receptor Toll-Like 4/metabolismo , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115675, 2023 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075275

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Rheum palmatum L. (RP) and Coptis chinensis Franch. (CC), frequently used as herbal pair (HP) in clinical practicing of traditional Chinese medicine, exerted predominate efficacies in colitis treatment. However, the mechanism of their synergism lacks scientific explanation. AIM OF THE STUDY: By integrating network pharmacology and DSS-induced colitis model, the anti-colitis effects and synergistic molecular mechanisms of RP-CC combination was determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vivo study, mice were divided into control, model, RP, CC and RP-CC (low, middle, high) groups, 2.5% DSS was administrated to induce colitis for consecutive 7 days, subsequently, the therapeutic effects were evaluated from body weight changes, disease activity index (DAI), and pathological conditions. After determining the shared and exclusive targets of RP and CC, respectively by network pharmacology, CETSA, WB, and qPCR were utilized to verify the action modes of RP and CC on specific targets. RESULTS: Compared to RP or CC used alone, RP-CC combination can significantly protect colon tissues from inflammatory damage in a dose-dependent manner via remarkably alleviating DAI and colon shortening. Network pharmacological analysis suggested that AKT1 would be the core target for RP-CC synergism since these two herbs could simultaneously but non-competitively bind to AKT1 at different sits. Furthermore, RP and CC could also influencing HIF and MAPK pathways, respectively, these additional actions attribute to more optimizing effectiveness towards colitis. CONCLUSION: In contrast to the mild therapeutic effects of RP or CC individually, RP-CC herb pair could exert strong and synergistic effects in treatment of colitis via non-competitive binding to AKT1 simultaneously, as well as exclusively influencing MAPK and HIF pathways. Our study not only provides the evidence for understanding the combined effect of RP and CC, but also brings up a new strategy and suggestive thoughts for the rationality of HP-based TCM formula.


Asunto(s)
Colitis , Coptis , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Rheum , Animales , Colitis/inducido químicamente , Colitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Coptis/química , Coptis chinensis , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Medicina Tradicional China , Ratones , Farmacología en Red
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115691, 2023 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087844

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The plant Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz.,a Chinese herbal medicine with multiple pharmacological effects and clinical applications, has been traditionally used in the treatment of paralysis caused by stroke and joint pain from rheumatism by the Yi minority people of Southwest China for generations.However, its mechanism involves many factors and has not been fully clarified. AIM OF THE STUDY: Taking intestinal flora as the target, the protective effect of extract(breviscapine) of E. breviscapus on cerebral ischemia and its possible mechanism were discussed from the perspective of brain inflammatory pathway and intestinal CYP3A4, which depends on intestinal flora. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we first verified the binding ability between major active ingredient of Erigeron breviscapus and the core target TLR4 protein by molecular docking using Vina software.We established a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo.The neurological function of rats was scored by Bederson score table, the cerebral infarction volume was detected by TTC staining, and the serum NSE level was detected by ELASA. 16S rRNA sequencing was used to detect the intestinal flora of rats in each group.The expression levels of cerebral TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB and CYP3A4 mRNA and protein in different intestinal segments were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot. RESULTS: Compared with the model group, the neurological injury score, infarct volume and serum NSE concentration of breviscapine low, medium and high dose groups and nimodipine groups decreased significantly. Meanwhile, breviscapine could significantly reduce the expression level of the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB in brain tissue and CYP3A4 in different intestinal segments of rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. In addition, breviscapine also significantly ameliorated intestinal flora dysbiosis of rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. CONCLUSIONS: Breviscapine can protect rats from cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by regulating intestinal flora, inhibiting brain TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB inflammatory pathway and intestinal CYP3A4 expression.


Asunto(s)
Isquemia Encefálica , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Erigeron , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Daño por Reperfusión , Animales , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamiento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Erigeron/genética , Erigeron/metabolismo , Flavonoides , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Factor 88 de Diferenciación Mieloide/genética , Factor 88 de Diferenciación Mieloide/metabolismo , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Nimodipina/farmacología , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , ARN Ribosómico 16S , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Daño por Reperfusión/tratamiento farmacológico , Daño por Reperfusión/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Receptor Toll-Like 4/genética , Receptor Toll-Like 4/metabolismo
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115704, 2023 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096345

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch (RC) and Coptis chinensis Franch (RG) are traditional Chinese medicines, which are classic drug pair in prescriptions to treat gastrointestinal diseases. Multi-herb therapy is one of the most important features of traditional Chinese medicine, but due to the complex components of herbal decoctions, the substances that actually exert their medicinal effects have not been fully elucidated. The discovery of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch and Coptis chinensis Franch supramolecular parts (RC-RG SA) can provide a new perspective for explaining the mechanism of drug-pair compatibility. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this study was to explore the active composition and identification of chemical constituents of RC-RG SA, and to explore the inhibitory effects of supramolecular parts on S. aureus and biofilm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The micromorphology of RC-RG SA was characterized by SEM and DLS. Intermolecular forces between Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch and Coptis chinensis Franch determined by ITC. The chemical constituents of RC-RG SA were systematically analyzed by UPLC-ESI-MSn. The inhibitory effect of RC-RG SA on S. aureus was determined by turbidimetric method and plate coating method. The scavenging effect of RC-RG SA supramolecular parts on S. aureus biofilm were observed by MTT method, SEM and LSCM, respectively. RESULTS: The microstructure of RC-RG SA was spherical with a particle size of 161.6 nm. ITC proved that the reaction between decoction of RC and RG was exothermic. A total of 70 compounds were preliminarily identified in RC-RG SA, including 34 flavonoids, 34 alkaloids and 2 triterpenoids. The inhibitory effect of RC-RG supramolecular parts on S. aureus proliferation and the ability to clear S. aureus biofilm were better than RC-RG co-decoction and RC-RG non-supramolecular parts. CONCLUSIONS: The Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch and Coptis chinensis Franch co-decoctions' supramolecular components were an important substance that exerts its medicinal effect. Current study provided supramolecular strategies to reveal the active ingredients and the medicinal effect of the traditional Chinese medicine decoction.


Asunto(s)
Alcaloides , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Triterpenos , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/química , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Flavonoides , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/química , Medicina Tradicional China , Staphylococcus aureus
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115703, 2023 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096347

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Integrated Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) and Western Medicine (WM) treatments have been used for primary hypertension (PHTN) patients in China. Currently, there are many randomized control trials (RCTs) published regarding the effect of CHM and WM on PHTN, which indicated that combining Chinese with WM was effective and safe for PHTN when compared with WM alone, but the quality of evidence was insufficient, and there is no clear information and summary are available for these RCTs assessing the effectiveness of CHM with WM versus WM in patients with PHTN. OBJECTIVES: This systematic study and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of CHM combined with WM in comparison with WM in reducing systolic and diastolic blood pressure for patients with PHTN. METHODS: The information of this study was searched from electronic databases (PubMed, COCHRANE, EMBASE, Ovid, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang, and CBM). The markedly effective and effective terms were according to Guiding Principles for Clinical Research of New Chinese Medicines. Two investigators independently reviewed each trial. The Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool was used for quality assessment, and RevMan 5.4 was used for meta-analysis. RESULTS: In this study, a total of 29 studies that included 2623 patients were recorded. The study results displayed that the clinical effectiveness in the treatment of hypertension patients from the integrated medicines was considerably higher than that with WM alone, clinical effective (RR 1.23, 95% CI [1.17, 1.30], P < 0.00001), and markedly effective (ME) in the patients (RR 1.66, 95% CI [1.52, 1.80], and P < 0.00001). Random effect in SBP (MD 7.91 mmHg,[6.00, 983], P < 0.00001) and DBP (MD 5.46 mmHg, [3.88, 6.43], P < 0.00001), a subgroup analysis was carried out based on the type of intervention, duration of treatment, and CHM formulas that showed significance. Furthermore, no severe side effects were reported, and no patients stopped treatment or withdrawal due to any severe adverse events. CONCLUSION: Compared to WM alone, the therapeutic effectiveness of CHM combined with WM is significantly improved in the treatment of hypertension. Additionally, CHM with WM may safely and efficiently lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in individuals with PHTN. However, rigorous randomized controlled trials with a large sample, high quality, long duration of treatment, and follow-up are recommended to strengthen this clinical evidence.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Hipertensión , Medicina Integral , Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/efectos adversos , Humanos , Hipertensión/inducido químicamente , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115702, 2023 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099982

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory, depression is an emotional disease, which is thought to be related to stagnation of liver qi and dysfunction of the spleen in transport. Xiaoyao San (XYS) is considered to have the effects of soothing liver-qi stagnation and invigorating the spleen. The spleen has the function to transport and transform nutrients. The liver has also termed the center of energy metabolism in the body. Therefore, exploring the antidepressant effects of XYS from the perspective of energy metabolism may reveal new findings. AIM OF THE STUDY: Glucose catabolism is an important part of energy metabolism. In recent years, several researchers have found that XYS can exert antidepressant effects by modulating abnormalities in glucose catabolism-related metabolites. The previous research of our research group found that the hippocampus glucose catabolism was disordered in depression. However, the antidepressant potential of XYS through modulating the disorders of hippocampal glucose catabolism and the specific metabolic pathways and targets of XYS action were still unknown. The aim of this study was to address the above scientific questions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this research, the CUMS (chronic unpredictable mild stress) model was used as the animal model of depression. The antidepressant effect of XYS was evaluated by behavioral indicators. The specific pathways and targets of XYS modulating the disorders of glucose catabolism in the hippocampus of CUMS rats were obtained by stable isotope-resolved metabolomics. Further, the isotope tracing results were also verified by molecular biology and electron transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that XYS pretreatment could significantly improve the depressive symptoms induced by CUMS. More importantly, it was found that XYS could modulate the disorders of glucose catabolism in the hippocampus of CUMS rats. Stable isotope-resolved metabolomics and enzyme activity tests showed that Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Pyruvate carboxylase (PC), and Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) were targets of XYS for modulating the disorders of glucose catabolism in the hippocampus of CUMS rats. The Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex V (MRCC-Ⅴ) were targets of XYS to improve abnormal mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in the hippocampus of CUMS rats. XYS was also found to have the ability to improve the structural damage of mitochondria and nuclei in the hippocampal caused by CUMS. CONCLUSIONS: This study was to explore the antidepressant effect of XYS from the perspective of glucose catabolism based on a strategy combining stable isotope tracing, molecular biology techniques, and transmission electron microscopy. We not only obtained the specific pathways and targets of XYS to improve the disorders of glucose catabolism in the hippocampus of CUMS rats, but also revealed the specific targets of the pathways of XYS compared with VLF.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Succinato Deshidrogenasa , Animales , Antidepresivos/farmacología , Antidepresivos/uso terapéutico , Conducta Animal , Depresión/psicología , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Glucosa/farmacología , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Isótopos/metabolismo , Isótopos/farmacología , Lactato Deshidrogenasas/metabolismo , Metabolómica/métodos , Piruvato Carboxilasa , Piruvatos/farmacología , Ratas , Estrés Psicológico/tratamiento farmacológico , Succinato Deshidrogenasa/metabolismo
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115705, 2023 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099983

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Zhenwu Decoction (ZWD) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula which has wide scope of indications related to Yang deficiency and dampness retention in TCM syndrome. Cardiac hypertrophy can induce similar symptoms and signs to the clinical features of Yang deficiency and dampness retention syndrome. ZWD can increase the left ventricular ejection fraction, reduce cardiac hypertrophy of patients with chronic heart failure. However, its underlying pharmacological mechanism remains unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: The study aimed to confirm the protective effects of ZWD on cardiac hypertrophy and explore the underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The potential targets and pathways of ZWD in cardiac hypertrophy were highlighted by network pharmacology and validated by mechanistic and functional studies. RESULTS: Our network pharmacology analysis suggests that the protective effects of ZWD on cardiac hypertrophy are related to cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) - protein kinase G (PKG) pathway. Subsequent animal studies showed that ZWD significantly ameliorated cardiac function decline, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. To explore the underlying mechanisms of action, we performed Western blotting, immunohistochemical analysis, and detection of inflammatory response and oxidative stress. Our results showed that ZWD activated the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) - cGMP - PKG signaling pathway. The sGC inhibitor ODQ that blocks the sGC-cGMP-PKG signaling pathway in zebrafish abolished the protective effects of ZWD, suggesting sGC-cGMP-PKG is the main signaling pathway mediates the protective effect of ZWD in cardiac hypertrophy. In addition, three major ingredients from ZWD, poricoic acid C, hederagenin and dehydrotumulosic acid, showed a high binding energy with prototype sGC. CONCLUSION: ZWD reduces oxidative stress and inflammation and exerts cardioprotective effects by activating the sGC-cGMP-PKG signaling pathway.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Quinasas Dependientes de GMP Cíclico , Guanosina Monofosfato , Animales , Cardiomegalia/tratamiento farmacológico , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinasas Dependientes de GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Guanilato Ciclasa/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Guanilil Ciclasa Soluble/metabolismo , Volumen Sistólico , Función Ventricular Izquierda , Deficiencia Yang , Pez Cebra
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115723, 2023 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115600

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Xiaojin Pills (XJPs), which has the function of dissipating knots and dispersing swelling, removing blood stasis, and relieving pain, is a classic prescription for the treatment of mammary glands hyperplasia. It is also the first choice of Chinese patent medicine for the clinical treatment of mammary glands hyperplasia in contemporary traditional Chinese medicine clinics. Previous studies have shown that the efficacy of XJPs "taken orally after soaked with Chinese Baijiu" in tradition was significantly better than that of taking it orally with water in modern in terms of activating the blood, anti-inflammation, analgesia, anti-mammary gland hyperplasia, anti-breast cancer and its metastasis in vitro and in vivo, especially under low-dose conditions. However, the material basis for the difference in efficacy between XJP&B and XJP&W is still unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: To analyze the material basis of the significant difference in efficacy between XJP&B and XJP&W from the perspective of serum pharmacochemistry and pharmacokinetics, and clarified the scientific connotation of XJPs "taken orally after soaked with Chinese Baijiu". MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with a multivariate statistical analysis method were used to screen the differential components in the Chinese Baijiu extract and the water extract of XJPs and the corresponding residues, so as to clarify the differential components between XJP&B and XJP&W in vitro. The migrating components in the blood after XJP&B and XJP&W were characterized by serum pharmacochemical methods, in order to clarify the differential components in rats. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the representative components absorbed into the blood were compared between XJP&B and XJP&W by the pharmacokinetics study method, in order to determine the dynamic changes of the representative components in rats. RESULTS: The identification results of different components in vitro showed that there were 34 and 12 different compounds between the Chinese Baijiu extract and water extract of XJPs, and the residues after Chinese Baijiu extraction and water extraction, respectively. The content of different components such as arachidonic acid, ursolic acid, 3-acetyl-11-keto-ß-boswellic acid, 2α-hydroxyursolic acid, and oleanolic acid was higher in the Chinese Baijiu extract, which was more than twice the content in the water extract. The results of the serum pharmacochemistry study indicated that 42 prototype components were identified in the serum of rats after XJP&B and XJP&W, including organic acids, alkaloids, steroids, and terpenoids. And XJP&B increased the absorption of the prototype components of organic acids in XJPs into the blood. The pharmacokinetic study results of representative components demonstrated that the mean plasma concentration-time profile and pharmacokinetic parameters of muscone, aconitine, and 3-acetyl-11-keto-ß-boswellic acid were significantly different between XJP&B and XJP&W. Compared with XJP&W, the Cmax and AUC0-t of muscone and aconitine in XJP&B were higher, and the T1/2 and MRT0-t of 3-acetyl-11-keto-ß-boswellic acid in XJP&B were relatively longer. CONCLUSION: This research proved that "taking XJPs orally after being soaked with Chinese Baijiu" can increase the dissolution and absorption of active ingredients in XJPs, increase the plasma concentration and content of representative ingredients, and prolong its action time, thus enhancing the biological activity of XJPs in vitro and in vivo. To a certain extent, this study revealed the material basis of the significantly better efficacy of XJP&B than XJP&W and clarified the scientific connotation of XJPs "taken orally after soaked with Chinese Baijiu", which can provide a theoretical basis for the optimization of XJPs' clinical administration method.


Asunto(s)
Alcaloides , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Ácido Oleanólico , Aconitina/análisis , Animales , Ácidos Araquidónicos , China , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Cicloparafinas , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/química , Hiperplasia , Medicamentos sin Prescripción , Ácido Oleanólico/análisis , Ratas , Triterpenos , Agua
13.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 222: 115086, 2023 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36219926

RESUMEN

Dalitong Granules, a potent gastrointestinal motility promoting traditional Chinese medicine, is used to treat functional dyspepsia clinically. It shows good effect on alleviating gastrointestinal motility disorders and has a broad prospect of clinical application. However, there is no comprehensive study on its in vivo and in vitro chemical analysis. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS combined with the non-targeted characteristic filter analysis and in silico prediction strategies (NCFS) were used to deduce and identify the chemical components and in vivo metabolites in the bio-samples of rats following oral administration of Dalitong Granules. In this study, 108 chemical components were identified in Dalitong granules, including 50 flavonoids, 22 alkaloids, 13 terpenes, 11 organic acids, 10 coumarins and 2 volatile oils. In the plasma, tissue, urine and fecal samples of rats after administration of Dalitong granules, a total of 147 compounds were speculated (60 prototype compounds and 87 metabolites). The main metabolic pathways in vivo include methylation, demethylation, deglycosylation, hydrogenation, hydroxylation, sulfonation and glucuronidation as there are many flavonoids existing in Dalitong Granules. In conclusion, the chemical components and metabolites of Dalitong Granules were comprehensively identified by using a rapid and accurate analysis method, which laid a foundation for dissecting its bioactive substances. In addition, it provides a scientific basis for the in-depth study of the material basis of Dalitong Granules efficacy and its further comprehensive development and utilization.


Asunto(s)
Alcaloides , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Ratas , Animales , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/química , Alcaloides/análisis , Flavonoides/análisis , Administración Oral
14.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 222: 115092, 2023 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228473

RESUMEN

Metabolite detection from complex biological samples faces challenges due to interference from endogenous substrates and the inherent limitation of multiple subsequent tandem scanning rates of instruments. Here, a new integrated approach based on gas-phase fractionation with a staggered mass range (sGPF) and a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) molecular network was developed to accelerate the data processing of the targeted and untargeted constituents absorbed in rats after oral administration of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription Gui Ling Ji (GLJ). Compared with three conventional acquisition methods, sGPF at 3, 5, and 7 mass fractions could enhance MS/MS coverage with an increased MS/MS triggering rate of 29.4-206.2% over data-dependent acquisition (DDA), fast DDA and gas-phase fractionation. A mass range fraction setting of five optimized the performance. Based on the similar diagnostic fragment ions and characteristic neutral loss behaviors in the DDA-MS/MS spectrum, an initial molecular network of GLJ was created with the help of the global natural products social molecular networking (GNPS) platform. Furthermore, to remove the endogenous interference nodes, Cytoscape software was adopted to produce a clean and concise molecular network of prototype compounds and their corresponding metabolites. Using this strategy, a total of 210 compounds, including 59 prototype constituents and 151 metabolites, was unambiguously or tentatively identified in GLJ. This first systematic metabolic study of GLJ in vivo elucidated the potential pharmacodynamic basis of GLJ in clinical treatment. More importantly, this work can serve as a practical example and establish a guide for rapidly identifying TCM metabolites in biological matrices.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Ratas , Animales , Cromatografía Liquida/métodos , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos , Metabolómica/métodos , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/análisis , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos
15.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 222: 115109, 2023 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270097

RESUMEN

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by persistent joint inflammation. The development of rheumatoid arthritis is directly correlated with the disturbance of gut microbiome and its metabolites. RA can be effectively treated with the Danggui Sini decoction (DSD), a Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription from the Treatise on Febrile Diseases. Further research is needed to clarify the precise mechanism of DSD in the treatment of RA. In this study, 1H NMR metabonomics and 16 S rRNA gene sequencing techniques were used to clarify the intervention of DSD on CIA-induced RA. The results of 1H NMR metabolomics of feces revealed that five metabolites (alanine, glucose, taurine, betaine, and xylose) were disturbed, which could be regarded as potential biomarkers of RA. The intestinal microbiome of RA rats had changed, according to the results of 16 S rRNA gene sequencing; eight microbes (g_norank_f_Eubacterium_coprostanoligenes_group, g_Ruminococcus_torques_group, g_Dubosiell, g_Lactobacillus, g_norank_f_Desulfovibrionaceae, g_Bacteroides, g_Oscillibacter, and g_Romboutsia) occurred significantly at the genus level, and DSD significantly impacted six of them (g_Dubosiell, g_Lactobacillus, g_norank_f_Eubacterium_coprostanoligenes_group, g_Ruminococcus_torques_grou, g_Bacteroides, and g_Romboutsia). Three of them (g_norank_f_Eubacterium_ coprostanoligenes_group, g_Romboutsia, and g_Lactobacillus) were regarded as key microbiomes for DSD to treat RA, and three common metabolic pathways (taurine and hypotaurine metabolism; alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism; primary bile acid biosynthesis) were discovered based on the 1H NMR metabonomics and PICRUST2 prediction of 16 S rRNA gene sequencing. Six SCFAs in feces (acetic acid, butyric acid, propionic acid, caproic acid, isobutyric acid, and valeric acid) increased significantly in RA, according to the outcomes of targeting SCFAs, while five SCFAs (acetic acid, butyric acid, propionic acid, caproic acid, and valeric acid) had decreased significantly due to DSD treatment. In conclusion, our study indicated that DSD could regulate RA's metabolic disorder by affecting intestinal microbiome and its metabolites. It also establishes a framework for future research into exploiting gut microbes therapeutic to treat RA.


Asunto(s)
Artritis Experimental , Artritis Reumatoide , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Ratas , Animales , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Ácido Butírico , Genes de ARNr , Metabolómica/métodos , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/química , Artritis Experimental/tratamiento farmacológico , Artritis Experimental/metabolismo , Artritis Reumatoide/tratamiento farmacológico , Taurina , Alanina , Colágeno
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115746, 2023 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36179951

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Shixiao San (SXS) is a traditional Chinese formula that has been widely used in clinical practice to treat blood stasis syndromes, such as hyperlipidemia, atherosclerotic, thrombosis and coronary heart disease. However, the effectiveness and mechanism of SXS have not been studied in detail yet. AIM OF THE STUDY: Current study aimed to identify the compounds in SXS, evaluate the formula efficacies using network pharmacology, molecular docking, and verify the pharmacological effects by in vivo and in vitro experiments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The compounds in SXS were analyzed using UPLC-QTOF-MS. Potential target genes for identified compounds were obtained from three databases. DAVID database was used to perform GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses. PPI network was constructed to screen core targets. Molecular docking was used to examine interactions between active compounds and potential targets. The mechanism was also verified by model of acute blood stasis rats and human umbilical vein cells. RESULTS: In total, 45 compounds were identified from SXS. Among the detected phytochemicals, quercetin, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, D-catechin, naringenin and amentoflavone were identified as the active constituents. SXS is primarily involved in the modulation of hypoxic state, vascular regulation, and inflammation response, according to GO and KGG pathway enrichment analysis. A network of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) was constructed and five core targets were identified as VEGFA, AKT1, EGFR, PTGS2, and MMP9. Molecular docking simulation revealed good binding affinity of the five putative targets with the corresponding compounds. SXS reduced HIF-1α and COX-2 levels and increased the eNOS expression levels in hypoxic HUVECs. SXS can reduce the whole blood viscosity in adrenaline induced acute blood stasis rats and relieve blood stasis. CONCLUSIONS: SXS removes blood stasis might through VEGFA/AKT/eNOS/COX-2 pathway and flavonoids are the main active components in the formula.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Humanos , Ratas , Animales , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/química , Ciclooxigenasa 2 , Farmacología en Red
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115749, 2023 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181983

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Atherosclerosis (AS) is a common systemic disease with increasing morbidity and mortality worldwide. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with characteristics of multiple pathways and targets, presents advantages in the diagnosis and treatment of atherosclerosis. AIM OF THE STUDY: With the modernization of TCM, the active ingredients and molecular mechanisms of TCM for AS treatment have been gradually revealed. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the existing studies on TCM therapies aimed at regulating AS over the past two decades. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using "atherosclerosis" and "Traditional Chinese medicine" as keywords, all relevant TCM literature published in the last 10 years was collected from electronic databases (such as Elsevier, Springer, PubMed, CNKI, and Web of Science), books and papers until March 2022, and the critical information was statistically analyzed. RESULTS: In this review, we highlighted extracts of 8 single herbs, a total of 41 single active ingredients, 20 TCM formulae, and 25 patented drugs, which were described with chemical structure, source, model, efficacy and potential mechanism. CONCLUSION: We summarized the cytopathological basis for the development of atherosclerosis involving vascular endothelial cells, macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells, and categorically elaborated the medicinal TCM used for AS, all of which provide the current evidence on the better management of atherosclerosis by TCM.


Asunto(s)
Aterosclerosis , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional China , Células Endoteliales , Aterosclerosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Aterosclerosis/prevención & control , Miocitos del Músculo Liso , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/química
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115726, 2023 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183950

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aconitum medicinal materials, such as Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux (Chinese: Wutou/) and Aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb. (Chinese: Caowu/), are a kind of important Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with great medicinal value. Statistics show that there are over 600 efficient TCM formulations comprising Aconitum medicinal materials. But high toxicity limits their clinical application. Clinically, the Aconitum medicinal materials must undergo a complex processing process that includes soaking, steaming, and boiling with pharmaceutical excipients, which makes highly toxic ester diterpenoid alkaloids are hydrolyzed to form less toxic aminoalcohol-diterpenoid alkaloids (ADAs). AIM OF THE STUDY: This review aims to summarize the pharmacokinetic and pharmacological activities of low-toxicity ADAs, providing a reference for future ADAs research and drug development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Accessible literature on ADAs published between 1984 and 2022 were screened and obtained from available electronic databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, Springer, Science Direct and Google Scholar, followed by systematic analysis. RESULTS: ADAs are secondary products of plant metabolism, widely distributed in the Aconitum species and Delphinium species. The toxicity of ADAs as pharmacodynamic components of Aconitum medicinal materials is much lower than that of other diterpenoid alkaloids due to the absence of ester bonds. On the one hand, the pharmacokinetics of ADAs have received little attention compared to other toxic alkaloids. The research primarily focuses on aconine and mesaconine. According to existing studies, ADAs absorption in the gastrointestinal tract is primarily passive with a short Tmax. Simultaneously, efflux transporters have less impact on ADAs absorption than non-ADAs. After entering the body, ADAs are widely distributed in the heart, liver, lungs, and kidney, but less in the brain. Notably, aconine is not well metabolized by liver microsomes. Aconine and mesaconine are excreted in urine and feces, respectively. ADAs, on the other hand, have been shown to have a variety of pharmacological activities, including cardiac, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, antioxidant, and regenerative effects via regulating multiple signaling pathways, including Nrf2/ARE, PERK/eIF2α/ATF4/Chop, ERK/CREB, NF-κB, Bcl-2/Bax, and GSK3ß/ß-catenin signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: ADAs have been shown to have beneficial effects on heart disease, neurological disease, and other systemic diseases. Moreover, ADAs have low toxicity and a wide range of safe doses. All of these suggest that ADAs have great potential for drug development.


Asunto(s)
Aconitum , Alcaloides , Diterpenos , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Aconitum/química , Alcaloides/química , Diterpenos/química , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/análisis , Ésteres , Raíces de Plantas/química
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115773, 2023 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191660

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Panacis Quinquefolii Radix (PQR) is often illegally sulfur fumigated to extend shelf life and improve appearance, but existing regulations of detecting SO2 residues do not accurately identify desulfurized sulfur-fumigated PQR (SF-PQR). Although sulfur-containing derivatives (SCDs) have been reported in some sulfur-fumigated herbs, there is a lack of research on the generation mechanisms and toxicity of SCDs. Our previous study reported the nephrotoxicity of SF-PQR, and there is an urgent necessity to illuminate the mechanism of toxicity as well as its association with SCDs. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the transformation pattern of chemical components and SCDs in SF-PQR, and to disclose the linkage between SCDs and SF-PQR nephrotoxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The extracts of PQR (before and after SF) were detected by the UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS method, and SCDs were screened as quality markers (Q-markers). The composition of sulfur combustion products was examined by ion chromatography to exploit the conversion mechanism of SCDs. After administration of PQR extracts to mice for two weeks, serum was collected for GC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics study to mine for differential metabolites. The upstream genes were traced by network analysis to probe toxicity targets. Molecular docking was used to uncover the interactions between SCDs and the targets. RESULTS: Thirty-three compounds were identified and 11 SCDs of saponins were screened, including four SO3 sulfonation products and five H2SO3 sulfonation products. Metabolomics study showed significant alterations in serum biochemistry of SF-PQR group, with substantial increases in fumarate and 2-heptanone content, and induced disturbances in glycerolipid metabolism and phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan biosynthesis in mice. Network analysis revealed that the key toxicity targets were DECR1, PLA2G1B, and CAT. Molecular docking indicated that SCDs had stable interaction forces with the above three toxicity targets. CONCLUSION: SF-PQR caused kidney damage by affecting glycerolipid metabolism and phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan biosynthesis. Eleven SCDs were potential nephrotoxic substances and Q-markers for identifying SF-PQR. This study is the first to systematically elucidate the mechanism of SF-PQR-related nephrotoxicity, providing a robust basis for the construction of new quality control standards and a global prohibition of sulfur fumigation.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Triptófano , Ratones , Animales , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Fumigación , Azufre/toxicidad , Azufre/química , Metabolómica , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/química , Tirosina , Fenilalanina
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115770, 2023 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191661

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cardiovascular diseases are still the leading cause of death worldwide. Heart failure (HF), as the terminal stage of many cardiovascular diseases, has brought a heavy burden to the global medical system. Microvascular rarefaction (decreased myocardial capillary density) with reduced coronary flow reserve is a hallmark of HF and therapeutic myocardial angiogenesis is now emerging as a promising approach for the prevention and treatment in HF. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has made remarkable achievements in the treatment of many cardiovascular diseases. Growing evidence have shown that their protective effect in HF is closely related to therapeutic angiogenesis. AIM OF THE STUDY: This review is to enlighten the therapeutic effect and pro-angiogenic mechanism of TCM in HF, and provide valuable hints for the development of pro-angiogenic drugs for the treatment of HF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relevant information about cardioprotective TCM was collected from electronic scientific databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). RESULTS: The studies showed that TCM formulas, extracts, and compounds from herbal medicines can provide therapeutic effect in HF with their pro-angiogenic activity. Their actions are achieved mainly by regulating the key angiogenesis factors particularly VEGF, as well as related regulators including signal molecules and pathways, non-coding miRNAs and stem cells. CONCLUSION: TCM and their active components might be promising in therapeutic angiogenesis for the treatment of HF.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Insuficiencia Cardíaca , Plantas Medicinales , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional China , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/tratamiento farmacológico , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/tratamiento farmacológico , China , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/química
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