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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 27-34, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892550

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIM: Even though prostate cancer (PCa) has good prognosis, there is a discrepancy in the risk among ethnic groups, with high morbidity in African American men. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in interleukin 10 (IL-10) have been associated with inflammation and cancer risk. We investigated the association of five SNPs in the IL-10 promoter with clinical features such as Gleason score and smoking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 413 DNA samples were obtained from a nested case-control study of African American males who were genotyped for 5 SNPs utilizing pyrosequencing. Multiple and binary logistic regression models were applied to analyze the clinical and genotypic data. RESULTS: rs12122923 and rs1800871 were associated with PCa risk. Smoking was also found to increase the risk of PCa by 1.6-fold. rs1800893 was found to be associated with lower grades for prostate cancer. CONCLUSION: IL-10 promoter polymorphisms might be a risk factor for PCa development in smoking subjects and PCa progression.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos/genética , Interleucina-10/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Regiones Promotoras Genéticas , Neoplasias de la Próstata/etiología , Fumar/efectos adversos , Anciano , Alelos , Biomarcadores , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Genotipo , Haplotipos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Clasificación del Tumor , Neoplasias de la Próstata/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Próstata/patología , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18235, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895767

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Many studies have been reported that dietary meat intake may be associated with the risk of asthma in children, but the results are inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of meat on the risk of asthma in children. METHODS: The databases PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched. Pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated with random-effect model using Stata software. RESULTS: A total of 9 articles were included in this meta-analysis. Results from our study suggest that dietary meat intake 3 or more times per week compared with never/occasionally intake has no significant association with asthma risk among children (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 0.80-2.01, P = .308). Similarly, daily intake of meat did not affect the risk of asthma in children when compared with never/occasionally intake (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.93-1.37, P = 0.234). In addition, no publication biases were detected in our meta-analysis. CONCLUSION: Dietary meat intake most probably is not a risk factor for asthma in children. Due to some limitations that exist in our study, more studies are needed to further assess the association between meat intake and asthma risk in children.


Asunto(s)
Asma/inducido químicamente , Carne/efectos adversos , Niño , Conducta Alimentaria , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo
3.
BMJ ; 368: l6670, 2020 01 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911452

RESUMEN

Thyroid nodules are extremely common and can be detected by sensitive imaging in more than 60% of the general population. They are often identified in patients without symptoms who are undergoing evaluation for other medical complaints. Indiscriminate evaluation of thyroid nodules with thyroid biopsy could cause a harmful epidemic of diagnoses of thyroid cancer, but inadequate selection of thyroid nodules for biopsy can lead to missed diagnoses of clinically relevant thyroid cancer. Recent clinical guidelines advocate a more conservative approach in the evaluation of thyroid nodules based on risk assessment for thyroid cancer, as determined by clinical and ultrasound features to guide the need for biopsy. Moreover, newer evidence suggests that for patients with indeterminate thyroid biopsy results, a combined assessment including the initial ultrasound risk stratification or other ancillary testing (molecular markers, second opinion on thyroid cytology) can further clarify the risk of thyroid cancer and the management strategies. This review summarizes the clinical importance of adequate evaluation of thyroid nodules, focuses on the clinical evidence for diagnostic tests that can clarify the risk of thyroid cancer, and highlights the importance of considering the patient's values and preferences when deciding on management strategies in the setting of uncertainty about the risk of thyroid cancer.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/diagnóstico , Nódulo Tiroideo , Biopsia/métodos , Pruebas de Química Clínica , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Hallazgos Incidentales , Nódulo Tiroideo/diagnóstico por imagen , Nódulo Tiroideo/patología
4.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 54(1): 36-41, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570064

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Although traumatic injuries to the superior mesenteric vein (SMV), portal vein (PV), and hepatic vein (HV) are rare, their impact is significant. Small single center reports estimate mortality rates ranging from 29% to 100%. Our aim is to elucidate the incidence and outcomes associated with each injury due to unique anatomic positioning and varied tolerance of ligation. We hypothesize that SMV injury is associated with a lower risk of mortality compared to HV and PV injury in adult trauma patients. METHODS: The Trauma Quality Improvement Program database (2010-2016) was queried for patients with injury to either the SMV, PV, or HV. A multivariable logistic regression model was used for analysis. RESULTS: From 1,403,466 patients, 966 (0.07%) had a single major hepatoportal venous injury with 460 (47.6%) involving the SMV, 281 (29.1%) involving the PV, and 225 (23.3%) involving the HV. There was no difference in the percentage of patients undergoing repair or ligation between SMV, PV, and HV injuries (P > .05). Compared to those with PV and HV injuries, patients with SMV injury had a higher rate of concurrent bowel resection (38.5% vs 12.1% vs 7.6%, P < .001) and lower mortality (33.3% vs 45.9% vs 49.3%, P < .01). After controlling for covariates, traumatic SMV injury increased the risk of mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1.59, confidence interval [CI] = 1.00-2.54, P = .05) in adult trauma patients; however, this was less than PV injury (OR = 2.77, CI = 1.56-4.93, P = .001) and HV injury (OR = 2.70, CI = 1.46-4.99, P = .002). CONCLUSION: Traumatic SMV injury had a lower rate of mortality compared to injuries of the HV and PV. SMV injury increased the risk of mortality by 60% in adult trauma patients, whereas PV and HV injuries nearly tripled the risk of mortality.


Asunto(s)
Venas Hepáticas/lesiones , Vena Porta/lesiones , Lesiones del Sistema Vascular/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Venas Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagen , Venas Hepáticas/cirugía , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vena Porta/diagnóstico por imagen , Vena Porta/cirugía , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Lesiones del Sistema Vascular/diagnóstico por imagen , Lesiones del Sistema Vascular/mortalidad , Lesiones del Sistema Vascular/cirugía , Adulto Joven
5.
J Urol ; 203(1): 62-72, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112107

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Studies indicate that molecular subtypes in muscle invasive bladder cancer predict the clinical outcome. We evaluated whether subtyping by a simplified method and established classifications could predict the clinical outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We subtyped institutional cohort 1 of 52 patients, including 39 with muscle invasive bladder cancer, an Oncomine™ data set of 151 with muscle invasive bladder cancer and TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) data set of 402 with muscle invasive bladder cancer. Subtyping was done using simplified panels (MCG-1 and MCG-Ext) which included only transcripts common in published studies and were analyzed for predicting metastasis, and cancer specific, overall and recurrence-free survival. TCGA data set was further analyzed using the Lund taxonomy, the Bladder Cancer Molecular Taxonomy Group Consensus and TCGA 2017 mRNA subtype classifications. RESULTS: Muscle invasive bladder cancer specimens from cohort 1 and the Oncomine data set showed intratumor heterogeneity for transcript and protein expression. MCG-1 subtypes did not predict the outcome on univariate or Kaplan-Meier analysis. On multivariate analysis N stage (p ≤0.007), T stage (p ≤0.04), M stage (p=0.007) and/or patient age (p=0.01) predicted metastasis, cancer specific and overall survival, and/or the cisplatin based adjuvant chemotherapy response. In TCGA data set publications showed that subtypes risk stratified patients for overall survival. Consistently the MCG-1 and MCG-Ext subtypes were associated with overall but not recurrence-free survival on univariate and Kaplan-Meier analyses. TCGA data set included 21 low grade specimens of the total of 402 and subtypes associated with tumor grade (p=0.005). However, less than 1% of muscle invasive bladder cancer cases are low grade. In only high grade specimens the MCG-1 and MCG-Ext subtypes could not predict overall survival. On univariate analysis subtypes according to the Bladder Cancer Molecular Taxonomy Group Consensus, TCGA 2017 and the Lund taxonomy were associated with tumor grade (p <0.0001) and overall survival (p=0.01 to <0.0001). Regardless of classification, subtypes had about 50% to 60% sensitivity and specificity to predict overall and recurrence-free survival. On multivariate analyses N stage and lymphovascular invasion consistently predicted recurrence-free and overall survival (p=0.039 and 0.003, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Molecular subtypes reflect bladder tumor heterogeneity and are associated with tumor grade. In multiple cohorts and subtyping classifications the clinical parameters outperformed subtypes for predicting the outcome.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores de Tumor/análisis , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales/genética , Carcinoma de Células Transicionales/patología , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/genética , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/patología , Femenino , Humanos , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Clasificación del Tumor , Invasividad Neoplásica , Metástasis de la Neoplasia , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Fenotipo , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Pronóstico , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Transcriptoma
6.
J Urol ; 203(1): 92-99, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430234

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: We evaluated which lesions are detected and missed on [68Ga]Ga-PSMA (prostate specific membrane antigen)-11 positron emission tomography in patients with primary prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were enrolled in this prospective observational study. Patients underwent [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 positron emission tomography/computerized tomography or positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging prior to surgery and received a dose of [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 intraoperatively for positron emission tomography of extirpated specimens. Whole mount pathology was performed with lesion and intralesion based analysis to determine the characteristics of lesions detected or not detected by PSMA positron emission tomography. Lesion volume was determined by planimetry and clinically significant lesion volume was calculated as lesion volume × fraction pattern 4/5. RESULTS: On whole mount analysis 30 cancerous lesions were found in a total of 15 patients, including 4, 15, 4, 1 and 6 which were Grade Group 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. PSMA-positron emission tomography detected 100% of primary/index lesions and 8 of 11 (82%) secondary lesions. All Grade Group 3-5 lesions were detected vs 12 of 15 Grade Group 2 lesions. When comparing Grade Group 2 vs 3-5, lesion size was similar (p=0.48) but the standardized uptake value was lower for Grade Group 2 vs 3-5 (5.3 vs 7.9, p=0.03). The 3 missed lesions showed 10% or less of pattern 4 and a Gleason pattern 4/5 volume of less than 0.1 cm3. CONCLUSIONS: PSMA positron emission tomography detected 100% of primary/index lesions in this study. The 3 missed secondary lesions were small and had a low percent of pattern 4. This argues for further study to better understand what defines clinically significant prostate cancer, which would assist in determining whether small lesions that become challenging to detect by [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11 positron emission tomography confer a risk to the patient.


Asunto(s)
Antígenos de Superficie/sangre , Glutamato Carboxipeptidasa II/sangre , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Tomografía Computarizada por Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones/métodos , Neoplasias de la Próstata/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias de la Próstata/patología , Radioisótopos de Galio , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Clasificación del Tumor , Estudios Prospectivos , Medición de Riesgo
7.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124604, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450113

RESUMEN

Accurate in silico predictions of chemical substance ecotoxicity has become an important issue in recent years. Most conventional methods, such as the Ecological Structure-Activity Relationship (ECOSAR) model, cluster chemical substances empirically based on structural information and then predict toxicity by employing a log P linear regression model. Due to empirical classification, the prediction accuracy does not improve even if new ecotoxicity test data are added. In addition, most of the conventional methods are not appropriate for predicting the ecotoxicity on inorganic and/or ionized compounds. Furthermore, a user faces difficulty in handling multiple Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) formulas with one chemical substance. To overcome the flaws of the conventional methods, in this study a new method was developed that applied unsupervised machine learning and graph theory to predict acute ecotoxicity. The proposed machine learning technique is based on the large AIST-MeRAM ecotoxicity test dataset, a software program developed by the National Institute of Advanced Industry Science and Technology for Multi-purpose Ecological Risk Assessment and Management, and the Molecular ACCess System (MACCS) keys that vectorize a chemical structure to 166-bit binary information. The acute toxicity of fish, daphnids, and algae can be predicted with good accuracy, without requiring log P and linear regression models in existing methods. Results from the new method were cross-validated and compared with ECOSAR predictions and show that the new method provides better accuracy for a wider range of chemical substances, including inorganic and ionized compounds.


Asunto(s)
Ecotoxicología/métodos , Aprendizaje Automático , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Contaminación Química del Agua/análisis , Animales , Simulación por Computador , Daphnia/efectos de los fármacos , Peces , Modelos Lineales , Modelos Teóricos , Relación Estructura-Actividad Cuantitativa , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Programas Informáticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/química
8.
Food Chem ; 308: 125519, 2020 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648087

RESUMEN

Food additives are considered to be the catalysts and headstones of the modern food industry, affecting every step of food production, processing, and storage. The urgent need for a comprehensive curation of food additives, including their molecular structures, biological activities, and precise toxicological evaluations, prompted the creation of the AdditiveChem database (http://www.rxnfinder.org/additivechem/). This database has curated >9064 types of food additives, along with their molecular structure, chemical and physical properties, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity properties, biosynthesis and biodegradation methods, usage specifications, toxicological and risk assessment data, and targets in the human body from 16 databases to construct an efficient search platform for in silico preliminary evaluations. AdditiveChem database will enable an exploration of the relationship between the structure and function of food additives.


Asunto(s)
Biología Computacional , Aditivos Alimentarios , Bases de Datos Factuales , Alimentos , Medición de Riesgo , Programas Informáticos
9.
Toxicol Lett ; 318: 57-64, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585160

RESUMEN

3-Bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) is a promising agent that has been widely studied in the treatment of cancer and pulmonary hypertension. Rotenone is a pesticide commonly used on farms and was shown to have anti-cancer activity and delay fibrosis progression in chronic kidney disease in a recent study. However, there are few studies showing the toxicity of rotenone and 3-BrPA in the myocardium. To support further medical exploration, it is necessary to clarify the side effects of these compounds on the heart. This study was designed to examine the cardiotoxicity of 3-BrPA and rotenone by investigating electrical and structural cardiac remodeling in rats. Forty male rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 10 in each group) and injected intraperitoneally with 3-BrPA, rotenone or a combination of 3-BrPA and rotenone. The ventricular effective refractory period (VERP), corrected QT interval (QTc), and ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) inducibility were measured. The expression of Cx43, Kir2.1, Kir6.2, DHPRα1, KCNH2, caspase3, caspase9, Bax, Bcl2, and P53 was detected. Masson's trichrome, TUNEL, HE, and PAS staining and transmission electron microscopy were used to detect pathological and ultrastructural changes. Our results showed that rotenone alone and rotenone combined with 3-BrPA significantly increased the risk of ventricular arrhythmias. Rotenone combined with 3-BrPA caused myocardial apoptosis, and rotenone alone and rotenone combined with 3-BrPA caused electrical and structural cardiac remodeling in rats.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/toxicidad , Ventrículos Cardíacos/efectos de los fármacos , Insecticidas/toxicidad , Piruvatos/toxicidad , Rotenona/toxicidad , Taquicardia Ventricular/inducido químicamente , Fibrilación Ventricular/inducido químicamente , Remodelación Ventricular/efectos de los fármacos , Potenciales de Acción/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Proteínas Reguladoras de la Apoptosis/metabolismo , Cardiotoxicidad , Conexina 43/genética , Conexina 43/metabolismo , Frecuencia Cardíaca/efectos de los fármacos , Ventrículos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Ventrículos Cardíacos/fisiopatología , Ventrículos Cardíacos/ultraestructura , Masculino , Canales de Potasio de Rectificación Interna/genética , Canales de Potasio de Rectificación Interna/metabolismo , Ratas Wistar , Periodo Refractario Electrofisiológico/efectos de los fármacos , Medición de Riesgo , Taquicardia Ventricular/metabolismo , Taquicardia Ventricular/patología , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatología , Fibrilación Ventricular/metabolismo , Fibrilación Ventricular/patología , Fibrilación Ventricular/fisiopatología
10.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(1): 194-204, 2020 Jan 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854920

RESUMEN

At present, research findings on pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in coastal areas are still unclear, and there is a need to develop a method to detect more PPCPs simultaneously in seawater. In this study, nine compounds of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, lipid regulators. and stimulants were selected as analytes. Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used to extract the compounds, which were then analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The optimum experimental conditions, such as the filler, eluent, pH, flow rate, and the reduction of matrix effect were optimized during the SPE. The results showed that the best extraction column was CNW HLB, the best eluent was methanol:acetonitrile (1:1, volume ratio), the best eluent volume was 6 mL, the best pH was 7, the best flow rate was 5 mL·min-1, the amount of EDTA-Na2 added was 1 g, and the best concentration multiple was 500. The linear regression equations of all PPCPs had good linearity. Correlation coefficients were>0.999, recovery rates were between 82%-106%, relative standard deviations were between 1.6%-14%, and detection limits were between 0.01-2 ng·L-1, thus satisfying the requirement of trace analysis in seawater. Distribution characteristics and sources of PPCPs were studied in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea during summer 2018. All nine PPCPs were detected and the main pollutants were NAP, IBU, GEM, CAF, and ASA. High concentrations of PPCPs were generally detected in the nearshore area and displayed conspicuous decreasing tendencies from the inshore towards the offshore. The concentrations of PPCPs in the Yellow Sea were higher than of those in the East China Sea, and this was related to there being more sources of pollutions and poor water exchange capacity in the Yellow Sea. Principal component analysis showed that the main source of PPCPs was terrestrial input. The environmental risk assessment of PPCPs indicated that risk quotients (RQs) of IBU and NAP (0.1-1) posed a medium risk to the aquatic environment, while others posed low risk to organisms.


Asunto(s)
Cosméticos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , China , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Espectrometría de Masas , Océanos y Mares , Medición de Riesgo , Extracción en Fase Sólida
11.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(1): 205-212, 2020 Jan 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854921

RESUMEN

We explored the pollution characteristics, spatial and temporal distribution, ecological risk, and human health risk of organophosphate esters (OPEs) in the source water of the Nanjing section of the Yangtze River. Thirteen OPEs were determined by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that twelve OPEs were detected to different extents with total concentrations ranging from 85.21 to 1557.96 ng·L-1[excluding tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate]. Chloroalkyl phosphate was the main compound and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) was the most abundant of the thirteen OPEs, which reached up to 447.08 ng·L-1. Seasonal variation of OPEs showed that the concentrations of OPEs in summer ranged from 220-1557.96 ng·L-1, with the average concentration of 493.78 ng·L-1 being 1.7-2.6 times higher than of that in spring and autumn. An ecological risk assessment showed that tricresyl phosphate and 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate were associated with moderate or high risks to organisms (algae, crustaceans, and fish). At a high exposure concentration, the total non-carcinogenic risk of OPEs in source water ranged from 4.41×10-3-2.91×10-2, with the highest risk being associated with children aged 0-3 months. The total cancer risk value was 5.88×10-7-3.89×10-6, among which TCEP and Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate was associated with a potential risk for children. We conclude that the long-term exposure risk for children of OPEs in the source water of the Nanjing section of the Yangtze River deserve more attention.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Retardadores de Llama/análisis , Organofosfatos/análisis , Ríos/química , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Animales , China , Ésteres/análisis , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Medición de Riesgo , Estaciones del Año
12.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(1): 224-231, 2020 Jan 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854923

RESUMEN

In this paper, nutrient elements (N and P), heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, and Sn), and grain size in surface sediments of Baiyangdian Lake, northern China, are studied. We also analyze the spatial variation in elemental characteristics and undertaken a pollution risk assessment. By combining data with information on the river sediment characteristics, we use multivariate statistical methods to reveal the sources and variation of elements in sediments. The results showed that the average contents of heavy metals in surface sediments from the lake and associated rivers were higher than background values. Within the area of the lake, nutrient elements are relatively high in the northwest region but low in the southeast region, and heavy metals are relatively high in the middle of the lake but low in the southern and northern areas. The sequence of comprehensive pollution index (I) in sediments was Cd > Pb > Cr > Cu=Zn > Ni > Sn > Co, with Cd being assessed as severe pollution and other elements as moderate pollution, although severe pollution of Cr was found in the Zaolinzhuang area. The order of potential ecological risk coefficients (Eri) was determined as Cd > Pb > Cu > Cr > Ni > Zn, whereby Cd was associated with a strong potential ecological risk (except in the Caiputai area) and other elements were associated with a slight potential ecological risk. Differences in the lake sediment texture were found to be slight. Non-point source pollution after rivers flow into the lake was determined as the main reason for the spatial variation of elements in the surface sediments of Baiyangdian Lake, although point source pollution in the villages surrounding the lake should not be ignored, especially with respect to N, P, Pb, and Cr.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Lagos/química , Metales Pesados/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , China , Medición de Riesgo , Ríos/química
13.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(1): 232-241, 2020 Jan 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854924

RESUMEN

This study assesses the spatial distribution characteristics and ecological risk of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the surface sediments of the mainstream and tributaries of the Songhua River, China, using concentrations and composition of six PAEs, which were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometery (GC-MS). We assess the ∑6PAEs ecological risk using the hazard quotient (HQ) method and environmental risk levels (ERL). The results were as follows. ① It was found that the total concentrations of ∑6PAEs ranged from 6832.5 to 36298.9 ng·g-1 dry weight (average 18388.6 ng·g-1), with the main contributions coming from di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP). The difference between the main stream ∑6PAEs (6832.5-36298.9 ng·g-1, average 18616.9 ng·g-1) and the tributary ∑6PAEs (10367.6-26593.3 ng·g-1, average 18264.1 ng·g-1) was not significant (P >0.05). The mean concentrations of individual PAEs in the tributary stream differed little from that of the main stream. The ∑6PAEs concentration of the Songhua River decreased initially but then increased from the upstream to the downstream. The average ∑6PAEs concentration in natural agricultural areas (18677.5 ng·g-1) was similar to that found in urban industrial areas (18063.7 ng·g-1), and DBP and DEHP contributed 98% of ∑6PAEs. ② The main sources of ∑6PAEs were domestic, agricultural production, and industrial production using plasticizers. ③ The ecological risk assessment indicated that DMP and BBP in the surface sediments of the Songhua River did not pose an ecological risk for aquatic organisms, and that DEP was associated with a low ecological risk, whereas DEHP and DBP posed a high ecological risk for aquatic organisms.


Asunto(s)
Ésteres/análisis , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/análisis , Ríos/química , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , China , Dibutil Ftalato , Medición de Riesgo
14.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(1): 262-272, 2020 Jan 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854927

RESUMEN

Water is an important pathway for human exposure to heavy metals. Accurate assessment of the health risks that are related to exposure to heavy metals in drinking and household water are required for the preparation of targeted health risk prevention measures. This study explores and identifies the health risks related to exposure to heavy metals via drinking and household water pathways in Xigu District, Lanzhou, northwestern China, using household water samples and survey data obtained during July-September 2015 (wet season) and December 2015-January 2016 (dry season). During each period, drinking water and household water that were available for use by children aged 0-5 and 6-17 years were sampled and a questionnaire on water-related behavior patterns was completed for each household. Cd, Cr, Pb, and As concentrations were analyzed in all water samples, and were used along with water-related exposure factors from the questionnaires to estimate exposure doses and associated health risks using models recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The results showed that the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Pb, and As in both drinking and household water samples did not exceed the relative thresholds defined in China's national water quality standards. The concentrations of heavy metals in household water were more affected by seasonal factors than of those of drinking water. The non-cancer and cancer risks were in the ranges of 2.82×10-8-2.43×10-2 and 7.55×10-9-3.62×10-5, respectively, which are within acceptable levels, although the non-cancer and cancer risks from drinking water were both higher than of those determined for household water. Furthermore, the non-cancer and cancer risks from household water for children aged 0-5 years were lower than of those for children aged 6-17 years in each period. However, the cancer risk from drinking water for children aged 0-5 years was lower than of that for children aged 6-17 years, whereas the reverse was found for non-cancer risks. This study indicates that Cd, Cr, Pb, and As in drinking and household water did not pose significant detrimental effects to human health, and that the refined exposure assessment used could reduce uncertainties in health risk assessments.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable/química , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Metales Pesados/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , China , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Medición de Riesgo , Estaciones del Año
15.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(1): 368-376, 2020 Jan 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854939

RESUMEN

The Shen-Fu region is an important urban area in northeast China. We report on a study of the distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in representative topsoil from this region. In the summer of 2016, 72 soil samples from three cities (Shenyang, Fushun, and Shen-Fu New City) were collected, which covered four land use types:urban, rural residential, cultivated, and woodland. We report on the concentrations, compositions, and distributions of 14 PBDEs in soil and explore their sources, and additionally undertake human exposure analysis and health risk assessments. The results showed that the concentration of ∑14PBDEs in the topsoil ranged from 0.279-50.719 ng·g-1(dry weight), with a mean of (10.466±9.246) ng·g-1. The concentrations of PBDEs was ranked for the cities as:Fushun > Shenyang > Shen-Fu New City > background, and for different land use types as:urban land > rural residential land > cultivated land > forest. Deca-PBDE had the highest proportion of all congeners, accounting for 81.25%-89.23% of all PBDEs. Source analysis indicated that commercial Deca-PBDE was the main source, contributing 66.06% of the total Deca-PBDE according to principal component analysis/multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR). Among five different age groups assessed for exposure, children in Fushun had the highest exposure dose:(20.98±25.01) ng·(kg·d)-1. In terms of different land types, the highest exposure dose was for children living in urban areas:(18.54±20.27) ng·(kg·d)-1. The non-oncogenic health risks in the Shen-Fu region are of a relatively low level.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Éteres Difenilos Halogenados/análisis , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Niño , China , Ciudades , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo
16.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(1): 449-459, 2020 Jan 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854948

RESUMEN

This study uses 68 sets of paddy soil and rice grain samples collected from an area of carbonate rocks in Guangxi Province, China, to explore the ecological risks of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Ni, and Zn) in soils from a high background area. We analyzed the concentrations of these heavy metals in soil and grain samples, and their chemical speciation in soil, and use these data to assess the associated ecological risks by means of statistics, a geo-accumulation index, bioconcentration factors (BCF), and correlation analysis. The arithmetic mean values of heavy metals concentrations in soil samples from the study area were (75.8±50.1), (1.91±1.02), (467.0±253.1), (48.5±9.8), (0.21±0.08), (76.2±28.1), (84.2±25.0), and (258.0±122.6) mg·kg-1 for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn, respectively, which were remarkably higher than of those from other regions within Guangxi Province and China. In comparison to China's soil environmental quality standard risk screening values (GB 15618-2018), the over-standard rates of Cd, As, and Cr were 95.6%, 86.8%, and 69.1%, respectively. In comparison to risk intervention values, the over-standard rates of Cd, As, and Cr were 27.9%, 17.6%, and 5.9%, respectively. Speciation analysis on heavy metals indicated that As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were mainly found in a residual form, and accounted for>80% of the total concentrations, and had a low bioavailability. The bioactive components (F1+F2+F3) of Cd accounted for 21%, and the bioactivity of Cd was higher than other elements. The potential bioavailable components (F4+F5+F6) of Hg accounted for 44%, with low total concentrations, which are understood to have little potential ecological harm for crops. However, the over-standard rates of Pb, Cd, and Cr in rice grains were only 23.5%, 8.8%, and 2.9%, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that there was no significant correlation between the concentrations of heavy metals in soils and the corresponding rice grains. The mean BCFs of each heavy metal were <0.1, and the BCFs of Hg, Pb, As, Cr, and Ni were <0.05. Overall, we found relatively high concentrations, low activity, and low ecological risks for heavy metals in the study area. For high geological background materials such as carbonate rocks, factors such as metal speciation, biological activity, and crop over-standard rates should be taken into account along with the traditional use of the total amount of heavy metals in a soil as the evaluation standard when formulating pollution control policies.


Asunto(s)
Carbonatos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Metales Pesados/análisis , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Disponibilidad Biológica , China , Medición de Riesgo , Suelo
17.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124623, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545212

RESUMEN

The Indo-Gangetic alluvium is prime region for intensive agricultural. In some areas of this region, groundwater is now becoming progressively polluted by contamination with poisonous substances like arsenic. Intensive irrigation with arsenic contaminated ground water in dry spell results in the formation of As(III) which is more toxic. Thus groundwater quality assessment of Gangetic basin has become essential for its safer use. Therefore we under took study on the spatial variability of arsenic by collecting georeferred groundwater samples on grid basis from various water sources like dug well, bore and hand pumps covering the river bank region of Ganga basin. Water quality was investigated through determination pH, EC, TDS, salinity, Na, K, Ca, Mg, SAR, SSP, CO3, HCO3, RSC, Cl, As, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu, etc. Results pointed severe As contamination in ground water of three sites of the study area. ARC GIS software is now able to process maps along with tabular data and compare them well, to provide the spatial visualization of information and using this tool, the Geographical Information System (GIS) of arsenic was developed. It was noticed from spatial maps that concentration of arsenic was more near the meandering points of Ganga.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Agua Subterránea/química , Ríos/química , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Geografía , Humanos , India , Iones , Medición de Riesgo , Salinidad , Contaminación del Agua/análisis , Calidad del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua/normas
19.
Anaesthesia ; 75(1): 27-36, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282570

RESUMEN

It is unclear how best to predict peri-operative cardiovascular risk in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing non-cardiac surgery. This study examined the accuracy of the revised cardiac risk index and three atrial fibrillation thrombo-embolic risk models for predicting 30-day cardiovascular events after non-cardiac surgery in patients with a pre-operative history of atrial fibrillation. We conducted a prospective cohort study in 28 centres from 2007 to 2013 of 40,004 patients ≥ 45 years of age undergoing inpatient non-cardiac surgery who were followed until 30 days after surgery for cardiovascular events (defined as myocardial injury, heart failure, stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest or cardiovascular death). The 2088 patients with a pre-operative history of atrial fibrillation were at higher risk of peri-operative cardiovascular events compared with the 34,830 patients without a history of atrial fibrillation (29% vs. 13%, respectively, adjusted odds ratio 1.30 (95%CI 1.17-1.45). Compared with the revised cardiac risk index (c-index 0.60), all atrial fibrillation thrombo-embolic risk scores were significantly better at predicting peri-operative cardiovascular events: CHADS2 (c-index 0.62); CHA2 DS2 -VASc (c-index 0.63); and R2 CHADS2 (c-index 0.65), respectively. Although the three thrombo-embolic risk prediction models were significantly better than the revised cardiac risk index for prediction of peri-operative cardiovascular events, none of the four models exhibited strong discrimination metrics. There remains a need to develop a better peri-operative risk prediction model.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/complicaciones , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Modelos Estadísticos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Operativos , Anciano , Fibrilación Atrial/complicaciones , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Medición de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
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