Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 81.118
Filtrar
1.
Rev Saude Publica ; 58: 16, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716928

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic generated a large volume of scientific productions with different quality levels. The speed with which knowledge was produced and shared worldwide imposed on health management the challenge of seeking ways to identify the best available evidence to support its decisions. In response to this challenge, the Department of Science and Technology of the Brazilian Ministry of Health started offering a service to produce and provide scientific knowledge addressing priority public health issues in the pandemic scenario. Drug treatments, non-pharmacological measures, testing, reinfection and immunological response, immunization, pathophysiology, post-COVID syndrome and adverse events are among the topics covered. In this article, we discuss the strengths and lessons learned, as well as the challenges and perspectives that present a real example of how to offer the best scientific evidence in a timely manner in order to assist the decision-making process during a public health emergency.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Toma de Decisiones , Pandemias , Humanos , COVID-19/prevención & control , Brasil/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Salud Pública , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia
2.
Med Ref Serv Q ; 43(2): 119-129, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722610

RESUMEN

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) instruction is required for physician assistant (PA) students. As a follow-up to an initial didactic year survey, this study seeks to understand which attributes of EBM resources clinical PA students find most and least useful, their self-efficacy utilizing medical literature, and their usage of EBM tools in the clinic. Results indicate that students preferred UpToDate and PubMed. PA students valued ease of use, which can inform instructors and librarians. Respondents utilized EBM tools daily or a few days a week, underscoring the importance of EBM tools in real-world scenarios. After their clinical year, students felt moderately confident utilizing the medical literature, emphasizing EBM training.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Asistentes Médicos , Asistentes Médicos/educación , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/educación , Femenino , Masculino , Adulto , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estudiantes del Área de la Salud/psicología , Adulto Joven , Autoeficacia
3.
Psychiatr Clin North Am ; 47(2): 367-398, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724126

RESUMEN

Administration of psychedelics for mental health treatment, typically referred to as "psychedelic-assisted therapy," is a broad term with a very heterogeneous implementation. Despite increasing interest in the clinical application of psychedelic compounds for psychiatric disorders, there is no consensus on how to best integrate the psychedelic experience with evidence-based psychotherapeutic treatment. This systematic review provides a timely appraisal of existing approaches to combining psychotherapy with psychedelics and provides clear recommendations to best develop, optimize, and integrate evidence-based psychotherapy with psychedelic administration for straightforward scientific inference and maximal therapeutic benefit.


Asunto(s)
Alucinógenos , Trastornos Mentales , Psicoterapia , Humanos , Alucinógenos/uso terapéutico , Psicoterapia/métodos , Trastornos Mentales/tratamiento farmacológico , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia
4.
Support Care Cancer ; 32(6): 335, 2024 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727834

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC)/European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) Patient Antiemetic Guideline Committee aimed to (1) adapt the updated evidence-based, clinical guidelines to patient-centered antiemetic guidelines and (2) develop patient education materials and statements. METHODS: The MASCC 2023 Patient Antiemetic Guidelines were created and reviewed by antiemetic experts and patient advocates by incorporating the 2023 MASCC/ESMO antiemetic guidelines into patient-friendly language. Patient Education Statements were developed based on current literature and by utilizing an expert modified Delphi consensus (≥ 75% agreement). Patient advocate/focus group input and patient survey results were further integrated into Patient-Centered Antiemetic Guidelines and Education Statements. RESULTS: Patient-Centered Antiemetic Guidelines were created using patient-friendly language and visual slides. Patient-friendly language was also utilized to communicate the Educational Statements. Key content categories identified for the Educational Statements included the following: nausea/vomiting definitions, causes, risk factors, categories, complications, accompanying symptoms, prophylactic antiemetic treatment, general management, when to call/what to ask the healthcare team, what caregivers can do, and available resources. All identified content met the ≥ 75% expert agreement threshold. Fifteen (15) items demonstrated 100% agreement, 11 items achieved ≥ 90% agreement, and three content items demonstrated 80 ~ 82% agreement. CONCLUSIONS: The inaugural MASCC 2023 Patient Antiemetic Guidelines can help patients and caregivers understand the prevention of nausea and vomiting related to their cancer treatment. Educational Statements provide further patient information. Educating patients on how to utilize guideline antiemetics and the education statements can contribute improvements in the control of anticancer treatment-related nausea and vomiting.


Asunto(s)
Antieméticos , Consenso , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Náusea , Neoplasias , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Atención Dirigida al Paciente , Vómitos , Humanos , Antieméticos/uso terapéutico , Antieméticos/administración & dosificación , Vómitos/prevención & control , Náusea/prevención & control , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/métodos , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/normas , Neoplasias/complicaciones , Atención Dirigida al Paciente/métodos , Técnica Delphi , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto
6.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 316(5): 173, 2024 May 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758222

RESUMEN

Cosmeceuticals, the bridge between pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, contain biologically active ingredients that may improve the skin's overall appearance. As the market, accessibility, and popularity of cosmeceuticals increase, it is essential to understand the safety and efficacy of such products. This systematic review aims to examine published clinical studies involving the use of cosmeceuticals for antiaging to provide evidence-based recommendations based on available efficacy and safety data. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane were systematically searched on January 1, 2023 using PRISMA guidelines. Strength of evidence was graded using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine guidelines. Clinical recommendations were made based on the quality of the existing literature. A total of 153 articles regarding the use of cosmeceuticals for treatment of antiaging were identified. After screening of titles, abstracts, and full text, 32 studies involving 1236 patients met inclusion criteria, including 20 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 12 non-randomized open-label clinical trials for Vitamin C, Retinol, Bakuchiol, Tetrahydrojasmonic acid, Growth Factors, Methyl Estradiolpropanoate, Timosaponin A-III (TA-III), Protocatechuic acid, Grammatophyllum speciosum, and Jasmine rice panicle extract. Retinol and vitamin C for antiaging received a Grade A for recommendation. Methyl estradiolpropanoate, bakuchiol, tetrahydrojasmonic acid, and growth factors received a recommendation grade of C. The remaining ingredients were assigned an inconclusive grade of recommendation due to lack of evidence. Cosmeceuticals included in the review had favorable safety profiles with few significant adverse events. The review analyzes numerous different ingredients to provide an evidence-based approach to decision-making for consumers and physicians on the use of cosmeceuticals for antiaging. Limitations to our review include a limited number of randomized controlled trials and a need for long-term data on each cosmeceutical's efficacy and safety. Future research is needed to establish the long-term effectiveness and safety of cosmeceuticals.


Asunto(s)
Cosmecéuticos , Envejecimiento de la Piel , Humanos , Cosmecéuticos/uso terapéutico , Envejecimiento de la Piel/efectos de los fármacos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Resultado del Tratamiento , Piel/efectos de los fármacos , Cosméticos/uso terapéutico , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/métodos
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1447: 217-225, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724796

RESUMEN

The American Academy of Dermatology first published a series of guidelines for diagnosing and managing atopic dermatitis in 2014. Twelve clinicians were selected to review, grade, and offer clinical insight on available data regarding the clinical features, symptomology, pathophysiology, education, treatment, and emerging clinical studies on atopic dermatitis (AD). Based on these findings, the AAD released a guideline to streamline information on atopic dermatitis for physicians, recommending using clinical evidence to diagnose and first treating with nonpharmacologic therapies to restore the natural skin barrier. Topical pharmacologic therapies were recommended for improving pruritus and inflammation and newer systemic agents for clinically relevant moderate-to-severe cases. Evidence-based practices were emphasized in comparison to those that lacked therapeutic data. To highlight the emerging evidence and pharmacologic breakthroughs in atopic dermatitis, the AAD produced an updated set of guidelines educating physicians on new agents and their role in treatment. This chapter reviews the AAD guidelines as a tool for managing atopic dermatitis and staying up to date on disease advancements.


Asunto(s)
Dermatitis Atópica , Dermatología , Humanos , Dermatitis Atópica/terapia , Dermatitis Atópica/diagnóstico , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapéutico , Dermatología/normas , Dermatología/métodos , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/normas , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Estados Unidos
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 560, 2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693492

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The rapid evolution, complexity, and specialization of oncology treatment makes it challenging for physicians to provide care based on the latest and best evidence. We hypothesized that physicians would use evidence-based trusted care pathways if they were easy to use and integrated into clinical workflow at the point of care. METHODS: Within a large integrated care delivery system, we assembled clinical experts to define and update drug treatment pathways, encoded them as flowcharts in an online library integrated with the electronic medical record, communicated expectations that clinicians would use these pathways for every eligible patient, and combined data from multiple sources to understand usage over time. RESULTS: We were able to achieve > 75% utilization of eligible protocols ordered through these pathways within two years, with > 90% of individual oncologists having consulted the pathway at least once, despite no requirements or external incentives associated with pathway usage. Feedback from users contributed to improvements and updates to the guidance. CONCLUSIONS: By making our clinical decision support easily accessible and actionable, we find that we have made considerable progress toward our goal of having physicians consult the latest evidence in their treatment decisions.


Asunto(s)
Vías Clínicas , Sistemas de Apoyo a Decisiones Clínicas , Registros Electrónicos de Salud , Oncología Médica , Flujo de Trabajo , Humanos , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia
11.
BMC Med ; 22(1): 183, 2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693530

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Reducing overweight and obesity has been a longstanding focus of public health messaging and physician-patient interactions. Clinical guidelines by major public health organizations describe both overweight and obesity as risk factors for mortality and other health conditions. Accordingly, a majority of primary care physicians believe that overweight BMI (even without obesity) strongly increases mortality risk. MAIN POINTS: The current evidence base suggests that although both obese BMI and underweight BMI are consistently associated with increased all-cause mortality, overweight BMI (without obesity) is not meaningfully associated with increased mortality. In fact, a number of studies suggest modest protective, rather than detrimental, associations of overweight BMI with all-cause mortality. Given this current evidence base, clinical guidelines and physician perceptions substantially overstate all-cause mortality risks associated with the range of BMIs classified as "overweight" but not "obese." Discrepancies between evidence and communication regarding mortality raise the question of whether similar discrepancies exist for other health outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Health communication that inaccurately conveys current evidence may do more harm than good; this applies to communication from health authorities to health practitioners as well as to communication from health practitioners to individual patients. We give three recommendations to better align health communication with the current evidence. First, recommendations to the public and health practitioners should distinguish overweight from obese BMI and at this time should not describe overweight BMI as a risk factor for all-cause mortality. Second, primary care physicians' widespread misconceptions about overweight BMI should be rectified. Third, the evidence basis for other potential risks or benefits of overweight BMI should be rigorously examined and incorporated appropriately into health communication.


Asunto(s)
Índice de Masa Corporal , Sobrepeso , Humanos , Sobrepeso/mortalidad , Obesidad/mortalidad , Obesidad/complicaciones , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Factores de Riesgo , Comunicación
12.
Recenti Prog Med ; 115(5): 213-214, 2024 May.
Artículo en Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708531

RESUMEN

The interpretation of clinical research evidence is still characterized by wide subjectivity. This subjectivity is also visible when comparing guidelines and recommendations developed by institutions and learned societies. It is often due to bias and conflicts of interest experienced by the members of guideline panels: thus, the role of editors and publishers of journals and scientific media becomes increasingly important, and they should return to careful oversight of the content of what is published. To address the problem, however, it is necessary to return to teaching evidence-based medicine in order to restore its function as a "North star" in clinical practice and public health decision-making.


Asunto(s)
Conflicto de Intereses , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/educación , Humanos , Toma de Decisiones , Investigación Biomédica/educación , Sesgo , Salud Pública/educación , Edición/normas , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto
15.
BMC Prim Care ; 25(1): 177, 2024 May 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773496

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Advanced chronic kidney disease (ACKD) is associated with a high risk of adverse cardiovascular and renal events and has a significant impact on quality of life and life expectancy. Several studies have identified areas for improvement in their management in primary care. Some professional and environmental factors can act as key barriers to appropriate care. OBJECTIVE: To analyse attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control among primary care professionals related to the implementation of an evidence-based approach for individuals with ACKD in primary care. METHODOLOGY: This was a qualitative study using an interpretative phenomenological approach based on the theory of planned behaviour. Two aspects of the evidence-based approach were explored: the implementation of clinical practice guidelines and the utilisation of electronic kidney disease records within the scope of this study. Primary care nurses and physicians participated in a previous pilot interview and five focus groups. Subsequently, a thematic analysis of the gathered data was conducted. FINDINGS: Thirty-three primary care professionals participated. The emerging themes included: experiences in the management of ACKD (highlighting a distinct profile of older, frail patients with comorbidities masking CKD and a CKD follow-up primarily focused on analytical monitoring and drug adjustment); factors in the professional environment influencing the use of scientific evidence (such as time constraints, excessive electronic health records, and unfamiliar reference guidelines); attitudes towards the application of recommendations on ACKD (recognising limitations of computer systems despite considering them as guidance); and capacities to implement evidence-based recommendations (acknowledging formative needs and challenges in coordinating care with nephrology services). CONCLUSIONS: Several psychological elements identified through the TBP hinder the adequate implementation of an evidence-based approach for individuals with CKD. Attitudes have been identified as factors modulating the use of standardised electronic records. Instead, subjective norms (influences from the professional environment) and perceived behavioral control (perception of capabilities) acted as barriers to the proper application of clinical practice guidelines and standardised records. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Strategies aimed at optimising the management of people with ACKD should focus not only on training but also on improving attitudes, organisational structures, IT systems and coordination between primary care and nephrology.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Grupos Focales , Investigación Cualitativa , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica , Humanos , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/terapia , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/psicología , Masculino , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Atención Primaria de Salud , Adulto , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Registros Electrónicos de Salud , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/psicología , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Médicos/psicología
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 26: e54821, 2024 May 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776542

RESUMEN

Despite the surge in popularity of virtual health care services as a means of delivering health care through technology, the integration of research evidence into practice remains a challenge. Rapid reviews, a type of time-efficient evidence synthesis, offer a potential solution to bridge the gap between knowledge and action. This paper aims to highlight the experiences of the Fraser Health Authority's Virtual Health team in conducting rapid reviews. This paper discusses the experiences of the Virtual Health team in conducting 15 rapid reviews over the course of 1.5 years and the benefit of involving diverse stakeholders including researchers, project and clinical leads, and students for the creation of user-friendly knowledge products to summarize results. The Virtual Health team found rapid reviews to be a valuable tool for evidence-informed decision-making in virtual health care. Involving stakeholders and focusing on implementation considerations are crucial for maximizing the impact of rapid reviews. Health care decision makers are encouraged to consider implementing rapid review processes to improve the translation of research evidence into practice, ultimately enhancing patient outcomes and promoting a culture of evidence-informed care.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Humanos , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/métodos , Telemedicina , Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia
17.
NEJM Evid ; 3(4): EVIDe2400018, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776558
18.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 8(1)2024 May 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38782481

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To develop evidence-based guidance for topical steroid use in paediatric eosinophilic oesophagitis (pEoE) in the UK for both induction and maintenance treatment. METHODS: A systematic literature review using Cochrane guidance was carried out by the British Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (BSPGHAN) Eosinophilic Oesophagitis (EoE) Working Group (WG) and research leads to determine the evidence base for preparation, dosing and duration of use of swallowed topical steroid (STS) formulations in EoE. Seven themes relating to pEoE were reviewed by the WG, alongside the Cochrane review this formed the evidence base for consensus recommendations for pEoE in the UK. We provide an overview of practical considerations including treatment regimen and dosing. Oral viscous budesonide (OVB) and, if agreed by local regulatory committees, orodispersible budesonide (budesonide 1 mg tablets) were selected for ease of use and with most improvement in histology. A practical 'how to prepare and use' OVB appendix is included. Side effects identified included candidiasis and adrenal gland suppression. The use of oral systemic steroids in strictures is discussed briefly. RESULTS: 2638 citations were identified and 18 randomised controlled trials were included. Evidence exists for the use of STS for induction and maintenance therapy in EoE, especially regarding histological improvement. Using the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation criteria, dosing of steroids by age (0.5 mg two times per day <10 years and 1 mg two times per day ≥10 years) for induction of at least 3 months was suggested based on evidence and practical consideration. Once histological remission is achieved, maintenance dosing of steroids appears to reduce the frequency and severity of relapse, as such a maintenance weaning regimen is proposed. CONCLUSION: A practical, evidence-based flow chart and guidance recommendations with consensus from the EoE WG and education and research representatives of BSPGHAN were developed with detailed practical considerations for use in the UK.


Asunto(s)
Budesonida , Esofagitis Eosinofílica , Humanos , Esofagitis Eosinofílica/tratamiento farmacológico , Niño , Budesonida/administración & dosificación , Budesonida/uso terapéutico , Administración Tópica , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Glucocorticoides/administración & dosificación , Glucocorticoides/uso terapéutico , Reino Unido , Administración Oral
19.
Med Educ Online ; 29(1): 2357411, 2024 Dec 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38785167

RESUMEN

In clinical clerkship (CC), medical students can practice evidence-based medicine (EBM) with their assigned patients. Although CC can be a valuable opportunity for EBM education, the impact of EBM training, including long-term behavioral changes, remains unclear. One hundred and nine fourth- and fifth-year medical students undergoing CC at a medical school in Japan attended a workplace-based learning program for EBM during CC (WB-EBM), which included the practice of the five steps of EBM. The program's effect on the students' attitudes toward EBM in CC was assessed through questionnaires. A total of 88 medical students participated in the program. Responses to the questionnaire indicated high satisfaction with the WB-EBM program. The most common theme in students' clinical problems with their assigned patients was the choice of treatment, followed by its effect. Based on the responses in the post-survey for the long-term effects of the program, the frequency of problem formulation and article reading tended to increase in the 'within six months' group comprising 18 students who participated in the WB-EBM program, compared with the control group comprising 34 students who did not. Additionally, the ability to self-assess problem formulation was significantly higher, compared with the control group. However, among 52 students who participated in the WB-EBM program more than six months later, EBM-related behavioral habits in CC and self-assessments of the five steps of EBM were not significantly different from those in the control group. The WB-EBM program was acceptable for medical students in CC. It motivated them to formulate clinical questions and enhanced their critical thinking. Moreover, the WB-EBM program can improve habits and self-evaluations about EBM. However, as its effects may not last more than six months, it may need to be repeated across departments throughout CC to change behavior in EBM practice.


Asunto(s)
Prácticas Clínicas , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Estudiantes de Medicina , Lugar de Trabajo , Humanos , Prácticas Clínicas/organización & administración , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/educación , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Femenino , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Japón , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
20.
Ther Umsch ; 81(2): 54-59, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38780211

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Arrhythmias manifest frequently in individuals with heart failure, posing a notable threat of mortality and morbidity. While the prevention of sudden cardiac death through ICD therapy remains pivotal, accurate risk stratification remains a challenging task even in 2024. Recent data underscore the early consideration of catheter ablation for ventricular tachycardias. Although antiarrhythmic drug therapy serves as an ancillary measure for symptomatic patients, it does not confer prognostic advantages. The holistic management of arrhythmias in heart failure necessitates a systematic, multidimensional approach that initiates with evidence-based medical therapy for heart failure and integrates device-based and interventional therapies. Noteworthy clinical studies have illustrated the positive prognostic impact of early rhythm control strategies, particularly catheter ablation, in individuals managing heart failure and atrial fibrillation.


Asunto(s)
Ablación por Catéter , Insuficiencia Cardíaca , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/terapia , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Humanos , Ablación por Catéter/métodos , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapéutico , Desfibriladores Implantables , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiología , Muerte Súbita Cardíaca/prevención & control , Muerte Súbita Cardíaca/etiología , Pronóstico , Terapia Combinada , Fibrilación Atrial/terapia , Fibrilación Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilación Atrial/complicaciones , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Taquicardia Ventricular/terapia , Taquicardia Ventricular/diagnóstico
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...