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7.
J Med Biogr ; 27(3): 179-183, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848165

RESUMEN

Hermann (Hugh) Blaschko was a biochemical pharmacologist best known for discovering how adrenaline (epinephrine), noradrenaline (norepinephrine), and dopamine were synthesized, stored, and metabolized in adrenomedullary cells and sympathetic nerves. Blaschko's work not only supported the validity of the concept of neurochemical synaptic transmission but he also made fundamental contributions to the development of drugs used in clinical medicine to treat diseases such as depression, hypertension, and Parkinson's Disease.


Asunto(s)
Bioquímica/historia , Medicina Clínica/historia , Farmacología/historia , Catecolaminas/historia , Catecolaminas/fisiología , Inglaterra , Alemania , Historia del Siglo XX , Transmisión Sináptica/fisiología
8.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790500

RESUMEN

The article covers the life and the work of Ivan A. Petrovsky, doctor of medicine. His contribution into propaganda in the Russian Empire of the idea of French physician Pierre-Charles-Alexandre Louis (1787-1872) concerning necessity of applying the statistical method in the clinical medicine. At that, the new facts of the biography of P.-Ch.-A. Louis were established. So, it is established that in Russia he was family doctor in the family of Armand-Charles-Emmanuel de Guignard, Comte de Saint-Priest (1782-1863). This discovery permitted to specify the circumstances of life of P.-Ch.-A. Louis in the Russian Empire. The study is also based on the archive materials founded in the Russian State Military History Archive. They are introduced into the scientific circulation for the first time.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Clínica , Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Medicina Clínica/historia , Medicina Clínica/normas , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos , Federación de Rusia
9.
J Med Biogr ; 27(1): 61-65, 2019 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556478

RESUMEN

This article encapsulates the career of Joshua Burn, whose work encouraged new lines of experimentation and paved the way for fundamental advances in our knowledge of the autonomic nervous system. His legacy also endures in his efforts as Department Chairman to oversee a very supportive environment which led to the development of many successful scientists. By producing a body of work that enabled the discipline of pharmacology to contribute in a major way to the advancement of clinical medicine, Joshua Burn stands out as a unique figure in the annals of true scientific pioneers.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Clínica/historia , Farmacología/historia , Inglaterra , Historia del Siglo XX
10.
BMC Biol ; 16(1): 122, 2018 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30382834

RESUMEN

Bill Hanage is an Associate Professor of Epidemiology at Harvard School of Public Health, where he studies fundamental and applied epidemiology using genomic and evolutionary methods. Bill spoke to us about the different types of selection that determine pathogen populations, asking reviewers to highlight positives of papers, and whether we're closer to a causal framework for studying the microbiome.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Clínica/historia , Epidemiología/historia , Genoma Bacteriano , Genómica/historia , Historia del Siglo XXI , Massachusetts , Microbiota/genética , Revisión de la Investigación por Pares , Selección Genética
12.
Urologiia ; (3): 149-152, 2018 Jul.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30035437

RESUMEN

The article describes the achievements of James Israel and Max Nitze, who were successfully developing European medicine for more than 30 years of their scientific and practical activities, enriching it with both experimental and large clinical experience. Their scientific and practical accomplishments greatly contributed to the development of modern urology. The author analyzes the fact that the history of medicine gives rich material not only for understanding evolution but also for the possibility to foresee its further development. The current state of clinical urology has been achieved by the progress of basic research in biology, physics, biochemistry, bacteriology, immunology, pharmacology. At the same time, the personality of the scientist-physician, his observation, non-standard view, the ability to see the opening perspectives, to bring up worthy successors and create a scientific and clinical school of urologists, is of utmost importance. The great German urologists J. Israel and M. Nitze had all these fundamental characteristics of a great scientist-physician.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Clínica/historia , Urología/historia , Medicina Clínica/tendencias , Alemania , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Enfermedades Urológicas/historia , Enfermedades Urológicas/terapia , Urología/tendencias
13.
J Med Biogr ; 26(3): 171-175, 2018 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27681058

RESUMEN

Alfred Gilman was best known for his co-authorship with Louis Goodman of the seminal textbook on pharmacology The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics in 1941. The book made the discipline of pharmacology relevant to clinical medicine by providing a link between the basic medical sciences and the practice of medicine. Gilman was also instrumental in establishing the use of chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer and made important contributions in areas related to renal function, acid-base balance, and diuretics. During the 1960s, he created a first rate department at the newly formed Albert Einstein College of Medicine. A superb lecturer, he commented incisively on issues related to pharmacology, therapeutics, and pathophysiology. Dr Gilman also provided a key link between academia and the pharmaceutical industry by serving as a consultant to several drug firms. The legacy of Alfred Gilman senior was continued by his son, Alfred Goodman Gilman, who became a Nobel Laureate.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Clínica/historia , Farmacología/historia , Connecticut , Historia del Siglo XX , New York , Estados Unidos
16.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 40(1): 8, 2017 Nov 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29181597

RESUMEN

Upon entering clinical medicine in the 1940s, antibiotic therapy seemed to complete a transformation of hospitals that originated in the late nineteenth century. Former death sinks had become harbingers of therapeutic progress. Yet this triumph was short-lived. The arrival of pathologies caused by resistant bacteria, and of nosocomial infections whose spread was helped by antibiotic therapies, seemed to be intimately related to modern anti-infective therapy. The place where such problems culminated were hospitals, which increasingly appeared as dangerous environments where attempts to combat infectious diseases had instead created hothouses of disease evolution. This paper will focus on one aspect of that history. It caused clinical medicine and hospital hygiene in particular to pay attention to a dimension of infectious disease it had previously paid little attention to thus far: The evolution of infectious disease-previously a matter of mostly theoretical interest-came to be useful in explaining many phenomena observed. This did not turn hospital hygienists into geneticists, though it did give them an awareness that the evolution of infectious disease in a broad sense was something that did matter to them. The paper advances its argument by looking at three phases: The growing awareness of the hospital as a dangerous environment in the 1950s, comprehensive attempts at improving antibiotic therapy and hospital hygiene that followed from the 1960s and lastly the framing of such challenges as risk factors from the 1970s. In conclusion, I will argue that hospital hygiene, being inspired in particular by epidemiology and risk factor analysis, discussed its own specific version of disease emergence and therefore contributed to the 1980s debates around such topics. Being loosely connected to more specialized studies, it consisted of a re-interpretation of infectious disease centred around the temporality of such phenomena as they were encountered in day-to-day dealings of clinical wards.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Medicina Clínica/historia , Infección Hospitalaria/historia , Hospitales/historia , Higiene/historia , Antibacterianos/historia , Infección Hospitalaria/tratamiento farmacológico , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo
17.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 72(3): 302-327, 2017 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28575351

RESUMEN

Early eighteenth-century Edinburgh provided a unique learning environment for aspiring practitioners: one in which the unity of medicine and surgery was appreciated and clinical observations and a reasoning practitioner became the well spring of proper patient care. John Rutherford, a surgical apprentice in this environment, student on the wards of London hospitals and under Boerhaave at Leiden, became one of the original medical professors at the University of Edinburgh medical school in 1726. Rutherford taught the popular, theory-based Practice of Medicine for twenty-two years. Then at the end of 1748 he convinced Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh managers to allow him to begin a new lecture series, entitled Clinical Lectures, conducted at the patient's bedside. Pedagogically, the new lecture series integrated medical theory and its application on the ward. Pragmatically, Rutherford used the Clinical Lectures to transition students into practitioners. He oriented the student to the medical profession at large and placed him simultaneously at the patient-disease-physician interface. He taught that systematic patient observation and examination, when combined with experience and reasoning, were essential to accurate diagnoses and proper therapeutic interventions. Importantly too, Rutherford prepared his students for failure through humility, introspection, and the speculative nature of medical practice.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Clínica/historia , Educación Médica/historia , Cirugía General/historia , Facultades de Medicina/historia , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Humanos , Londres , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Médicos , Estudiantes de Medicina
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