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1.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669124

RESUMEN

Schizophrenia is a chronic mental devastating disease. Current therapy suffers from various limitations including low efficacy and serious side effects. Thus, there is an urgent necessity to develop new antipsychotics with higher efficacy and safety. The dried stigma of the plant Crocus sativus L., (CS) commonly known as saffron, are used in traditional medicine for various purposes. It has been demonstrated that saffron and its bioactive components crocins and safranal exert a beneficial action in different pathologies of the central nervous system such as anxiety, depression, epilepsy and memory problems. Recently, their role as potential antipsychotic agents is under investigation. In the present review, I intended to critically assess advances in research of these molecules for the treatment of schizophrenia, comment on their advantages over currently used neuroleptics as well-remaining challenges. Up to our days, few preclinical studies have been conducted to this end. In spite of it, results are encouraging and strongly corroborate that additional research is mandatory aiming to definitively establish a role for saffron and its bioactive components for the treatment of schizophrenia.


Asunto(s)
Antipsicóticos/uso terapéutico , Carotenoides/uso terapéutico , Crocus/química , Ciclohexenos/uso terapéutico , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Esquizofrenia/tratamiento farmacológico , Terpenos/uso terapéutico , Animales , Antipsicóticos/química , Antipsicóticos/aislamiento & purificación , Carotenoides/química , Carotenoides/aislamiento & purificación , Ciclohexenos/química , Ciclohexenos/aislamiento & purificación , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Estructura Molecular , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/aislamiento & purificación
2.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 28, 2021 Mar 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726861

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronaviruses (CoVs) are distributed worldwide and have various susceptible hosts; CoVs infecting humans are called human coronaviruses (HCoVs). Although HCoV-specific drugs are still lacking, many potent targets for drug discovery are being explored, and many vigorously designed clinical trials are being carried out in an orderly manner. The aim of this review was to gain a comprehensive understanding of the current status of drug development against HCoVs, particularly severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). MAIN TEXT: A scoping review was conducted by electronically searching research studies, reviews, and clinical trials in PubMed and the CNKI. Studies on HCoVs and therapeutic drug discovery published between January 2000 and October 2020 and in English or Chinese were included, and the information was summarized. Of the 3248 studies identified, 159 publication were finally included. Advances in drug development against HCoV, especially SARS-CoV-2, are summarized under three categories: antiviral drugs aimed at inhibiting the HCoV proliferation process, drugs acting on the host's immune system, and drugs derived from plants with potent activity. Furthermore, clinical trials of drugs targeting SARS-CoV-2 are summarized. CONCLUSIONS: During the spread of COVID-19 outbreak, great efforts have been made in therapeutic drug discovery against the virus, although the pharmacological effects and adverse reactions of some drugs under study are still unclear. However, well-designed high-quality studies are needed to further study the effectiveness and safety of these potential drugs so as to provide valid recommendations for better control of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/farmacología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Coronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Coronavirus/fisiología , Descubrimiento de Drogas , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Biomarcadores , /metabolismo , Coronavirus/clasificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Desarrollo de Medicamentos , Descubrimiento de Drogas/métodos , Regulación Viral de la Expresión Génica , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Terapia Molecular Dirigida , Replicación Viral/efectos de los fármacos
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(5): 1034-1042, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787094

RESUMEN

Phyllanthus emblica is a kind of traditional medicine and medicinal and edible plant, with rich variety resources and high development value. It is a key poverty alleviation variety in China at present. As P. emblica processing industry is rising gradually in recent years, in order to fully develop and utilize its industrial resources, this paper systematically introduces current comprehensive development and utilization of P. emblica, discusses the problems in P. emblica processing industry, and puts forward comprehensive development and utilization strategies and industrial models in terms of cultivation, breeding, grading, quality evaluation and waste recycling, so as to provide a certain reference for promoting the high-quality development of P. emblica industry in China.


Asunto(s)
Medicina , Phyllanthus emblica , China , Medicina Tradicional , Fitomejoramiento , Extractos Vegetales
4.
Biomolecules ; 11(2)2021 02 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557097

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has already taken the lives of more than 2 million people worldwide, causing several political and socio-economic disturbances in our daily life. At the time of publication, there are non-effective pharmacological treatments, and vaccine distribution represents an important challenge for all countries. In this sense, research for novel molecules becomes essential to develop treatments against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. In this context, Mexican natural products have proven to be quite useful for drug development; therefore, in the present study, we perform an in silico screening of 100 compounds isolated from the most commonly used Mexican plants, against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. As results, we identify ten compounds that meet leadlikeness criteria (emodin anthrone, kaempferol, quercetin, aesculin, cichoriin, luteolin, matricin, riolozatrione, monocaffeoyl tartaric acid, aucubin). According to the docking analysis, only three compounds target the key proteins of SARS-CoV-2 (quercetin, riolozatrione and cichoriin), but only one appears to be safe (cichoriin). ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) properties and the physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model show that cichoriin reaches higher lung levels (100 mg/Kg, IV); therefore, it may be considered in developing therapeutic tools.


Asunto(s)
Productos Biológicos/análisis , Productos Biológicos/uso terapéutico , /virología , Simulación por Computador , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos , Medicina de Hierbas , Medicina Tradicional , /fisiología , Productos Biológicos/química , Productos Biológicos/farmacología , Quimioinformática , Humanos , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , /efectos de los fármacos
5.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 65, 2021 Feb 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602199

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The new paradigm of intercultural policies focuses on rethinking the common public culture. In Ecuador, the "Buen Vivir" plan seeks to incorporate the ancestral medical knowledge, experience and beliefs of traditional healers into the formal health services. This study explores views on the formal health system from the perspective of the healers belonging to the Kichwa and Shuar ethnicities in the South of Ecuador. METHODS: A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach was performed. Focus groups were conducted in three locations in Southern Ecuador. Shuar, Kichwa and Mestizo ethnic groups were included in the research. RESULTS: Eleven focus groups with a total of 110 participants belonging to the Shuar, Kichwa and Mestizo ethnic groups participated in the study. Six themes were created through analysis: 1) conflicts with health professionals, 2) acceptance of traditional healers, 3) respect, 4) work as a team, 5) environment and patient care, and 6) salary and recognition. CONCLUSION: This study indicated the perceived barriers compromising respectful collaboration between health staff and traditional healers from an indigenous perspective. Power inequalities and a historically unidirectional relationship and, in addition, differences in health beliefs, seem to create misunderstandings regarding each other's approach when faced with health and disease. However, insight in these barriers can create opportunities towards collaboration, which will have a positive effect on patient confidence in one or both systems and support continuity between traditional healers and the formal health system.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Grupos Étnicos , Personal de Salud , Indios Sudamericanos , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Medicina Tradicional , Adulto , Anciano , Comprensión , Conducta Cooperativa , Cultura , Ecuador , Femenino , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Percepción , Políticas , Poder Psicológico , Investigación Cualitativa
6.
Exp Parasitol ; 223: 108079, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524381

RESUMEN

Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, and it is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Latin America. There are no vaccines, and the chemotherapy available to treat this infection has serious side effects. In a search for alternative treatments, we determined the in vitro susceptibility of epimastigote and trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi and the cytotoxic effects on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of ethanolic extracts obtained from six different plant species. The ethanolic extracts of Ageratina vacciniaefolia, Clethra fimbriata and Siparuna sessiliflora showed antiprotozoal activity against epimastigotes and low cytotoxicity in mammalian cells. However, only the ethanolic extract of C. fimbriata showed activity against T. cruzi trypomastigotes, and it had low cytotoxicity in PBMCs. An analysis on the phytochemical composition of C. fimbriata extract showed that its metabolites were primarily represented by two families of compounds: flavonoids and terpenoids. Lastly, we analyzed whether the A. vacciniaefolia, C. fimbriata, or S. sessiliflora ethanolic extracts induced IFN-γ or TNF-α production. Significantly, ethanolic extracts of C. fimbriata induced TNF-α production and S. sessiliflora induced both cytokines. In addition, C. fimbriata and S. sessiliflora induced the simultaneous secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α in CD8+ T cells. The antiprotozoal and immunomodulatory activity of C. fimbriata may be related to the presence of flavonoid and triterpene compounds in the extract. Thus, these findings suggest that C. fimbriata may represent a valuable source of new bioactive compounds for the therapeutic treatment of Chagas disease that combines trypanocidal activity with the capacity to boost the immune response.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Chagas/tratamiento farmacológico , Leucocitos Mononucleares/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Trypanosoma cruzi/efectos de los fármacos , Adulto , Ageratina/química , Linfocitos T CD8-positivos/efectos de los fármacos , Linfocitos T CD8-positivos/metabolismo , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Clethraceae/química , Colombia , Femenino , Citometría de Flujo , Humanos , Concentración 50 Inhibidora , Interferón gamma/metabolismo , Laurales/química , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Extractos Vegetales/toxicidad , Espectrometría de Masa por Ionización de Electrospray , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Adulto Joven
7.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546469

RESUMEN

Virola is the largest genus of Myristicaceae in America, comprising about 60 species of medium-sized trees geographically spread from Mexico to southern Brazil. The plant species of this genus have been widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of several ailments, such as rheumatic pain, bronchial asthma, tumors in the joints, intestinal worms, halitosis, ulcers, and multiple infections, due to their pharmacological activity. This review presents an updated and comprehensive summary of Virola species, particularly their ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and biological activity, to support the safe medicinal use of plant extracts and provide guidance for future research. The Virola spp.'s ethnopharmacology, including in the treatment of stomach pain and gastric ulcers, as well as antimicrobial and tryponosomicidal activities, is attributable to the presence of a myriad of phytoconstituents, such as flavonoids, tannins, phenolic acids, lignans, arylalkanones, and sitosterol. Hence, such species yield potential leads or molecular scaffolds for the development of new pharmaceutical formulations, encouraging the elucidation of not-yet-understood action mechanisms and ascertaining their safety for humans.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Tradicional , Myristicaceae/química , Fitoquímicos , Fitoterapia , Extractos Vegetales , Animales , Humanos , Fitoquímicos/química , Fitoquímicos/uso terapéutico , Extractos Vegetales/química , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico
8.
Pharmacol Res ; 166: 105472, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592272

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has now rapidly spread around the world, causing an outbreak of acute infectious pneumonia. To develop effective and safe therapies for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 has become the major global public health concern. Traditional medicine (TM)/herbal medicines (HMs) have been used to treat multiple epidemics in human history, which brings hope for the fight against COVID-19 in some areas. For example, in China, India, and South Korea with traditional medication history and theory, the governments issued a series of guidelines to support TM/HMs in the medication of COVID-19. In contrast, other countries e.g. North American and European governments are typically silent on these practices, unless to warn of possible harm and overselling. Such difference is due to the discrepancy in culture, history and philosophical views of health care and medication, as well as unharmonized policies and standards in the regulation and legalization of TM/HMs among different areas. Herein, we reviewed the responses and scientific researches from seven selected countries on the policies and legalization of TM/HMs to treat COVID-19, and also analyzed the major challenges and concerns to utilize the traditional knowledge and resource.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/uso terapéutico , /terapia , Terapias Complementarias/legislación & jurisprudencia , Aprobación de Drogas/legislación & jurisprudencia , Salud Global/legislación & jurisprudencia , Medicina Tradicional , Preparaciones de Plantas/uso terapéutico , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Formulación de Políticas
9.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 42: 101275, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429123

RESUMEN

Wounds are physical and anatomical disruption in healthy skin and represent an important healthcare concern around the world. Wound healing is a complex and dynamic cascade of cellular and molecular interactions which include four main phases: hemostasis, inflammatory, proliferative, and remodeling. Therefore, some pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities can play a key role in the process of wound healing. Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM) has a rich background of practice and a wealth of ancient medicine scientists from the Old Persian days until today. This paper presents and characterizes pure data from original references of ITM about wound remedies and verifies their function by reviewing articles from three databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus), which could be an interesting and comprehensive resource for future researchers interested in traditional medicine (TM) generally and in ITM in particular. Selected natural compounds from the references were divided into 5 groups, including herbs, herbal products, animal products, minerals, and animals. In total, 23 natural compounds with regard to the current state of knowledge and ITM were introduced and verified. The present review will provide better insights into ITM and its extensive experience in topics such as wound healing.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Tradicional , Cicatrización de Heridas , Animales , Antiinflamatorios , Antioxidantes , Humanos , Irán
10.
J Altern Complement Med ; 27(3): 255-262, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512251

RESUMEN

Introduction: Oral mucositis (OM) is the most prevalent side effect in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). It causes an obvious decrease in quality of life (QoL) in these patients, so different medications have been recommended for OM, however, without optimal response. This randomized trial aimed to assess the effects of a honey-lemon spray compared with benzydamine hydrochloride in prevention of radiation-induced OM in patients with HNC. Materials and Methods: Forty-six patients with HNC received external beam radiotherapy for 5 days per week. Patients were randomized to treatment with either benzydamine hydrochloride spray or honey-lemon spray for 5 weeks and continued for 1 week after the end of treatment. The oral cavity was examined weekly, with a score given to each site based on the degree of mucositis using a 4-point scale, and a mean mucositis score was calculated as the primary outcome. Occurrence of OM, pain, QoL, and adverse effects were defined as secondary outcomes. Patients, therapists, and outcome assessors were blinded to group allocation. Results: No significant group differences occurred in the mucositis score, pain, or QoL. Mucositis occurrence rates were higher in the benzydamine hydrochloride group compared with the honey-lemon group (hazard ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.1 to 4.2). Two patients in the honey-lemon group had mild nausea and burning throat; no adverse effects occurred in the benzydamine hydrochloride group. Conclusions: There were no significant group differences in mucositis severity between patients treated with honey-lemon spray and benzydamine hydrochloride. The potential preventive effects of honey-lemon spray need to be confirmed in further trials. The trial registration number is IRCT20161024030467N1.


Asunto(s)
Bencidamina/uso terapéutico , Productos Biológicos/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/radioterapia , Miel , Estomatitis , Adulto , Aerosoles , Anciano , Antiinflamatorios/administración & dosificación , Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Bencidamina/administración & dosificación , Productos Biológicos/administración & dosificación , Citrus , Método Doble Ciego , Femenino , Humanos , Irán , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Persona de Mediana Edad , Proyectos Piloto , Traumatismos por Radiación/tratamiento farmacológico , Traumatismos por Radiación/etiología , Radioterapia/efectos adversos , Estomatitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Estomatitis/etiología
11.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(2): 314-324, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390800

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is the largest health crisis ever faced worldwide. It has resulted in great health and economic costs because no effective treatment is currently available. Since infected persons vary in presentation from healthy asymptomatic mild symptoms to those who need intensive care support and eventually succumb to the disease, this illness is considered to depend primarily on individual immunity. Demographic distribution and disease severity in several regions of the world vary; therefore, it is believed that natural inherent immunity provided through dietary sources and traditional medicines could play an important role in infection prevention and disease progression. People can boost their immunity to prevent them from infection after COVID-19 exposure and can reduce their inflammatory reactions to protect their organ deterioration in case suffering from the disease. Some drugs with in-situ immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activity are also identified as adjunctive therapy in the COVID-19 era. This review discusses the importance of COVID-19 interactions with immune cells and inflammatory cells; and further emphasizes the possible pathways related with traditional herbs, medications and nutritional products. We believe that such pathophysiological pathway approach treatment is rational and important for future development of new therapeutic agents for prevention or cure of COVID-19 infection.


Asunto(s)
/tratamiento farmacológico , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Medicina Tradicional , /prevención & control , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Inmunomodulación , Terapia Molecular Dirigida , Fitoterapia , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Vitaminas/uso terapéutico , Zinc/uso terapéutico
12.
Phytochemistry ; 183: 112644, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429352

RESUMEN

The genus Corydalis is a botanical source of various pharmaceutically active components. Its member species have been widely used in traditional medicine systems in Southeast Asia, especially in China for thousands of years. They have been administered to treat the common cold, hypertension, hepatitis, hemorrhage, edema, gastritis, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and neurological disorders. Analgesia is the most important effect of Corydalis products, which are relatively non-addictive and associated with low tolerance compared with other analgesics. Certain Corydalis species are rich in alkaloids, which have strong biological activity, and also contain coumarins, flavonoids, steroids, organic acids and other chemical components. These constituents have pharmacological efficacy against diseases of the nervous, cardiovascular and digestive systems. Numerous investigations have been performed on these plants and their components. Here, we systemically summarized the chemical constituents of important medicinal member species of Corydalis that have been reported since 1962. A total 381 alkaloids were enumerated, including 117 quaternary isoquinoline type, 60 Benzophenanthridine type, 37 aporphine type, 10 protopine type, 59 phthalide isoquinoline type, 52 simple isoquinoline-type, 25 lignin amides and 21 other alkaloids. Thus, we have provided a basis for further explorations into the pharmacologically active constituents of Corydalissp.(Papaveraceae) to develop medicines that exert strong effects, are relatively non-addictive, and result in few side effects.


Asunto(s)
Alcaloides , Corydalis , Plantas Medicinales , Alcaloides/farmacología , China , Medicina Tradicional
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 268: 113685, 2021 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309919

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Herbal medicine in Russia has a long history starting with handwritten herbalist manuscripts from the Middle Ages to the officinal Pharmacopoeia of the 21st century. The "herbophilious" Russian population has accumulated a lot of knowledge about the beneficial effects of local medicinal plants. Yet, for a long time, Russian traditional and officinal herbal medicine was not well known to the international audience. In our previous comprehensive review, we discussed the pharmacological effects of specific plants included in the 11th edition of the Pharmacopoeia of the USSR, which was also for a while used in Russia. The 14th edition of the Russian Federation's State Pharmacopoeia was implemented in 2018. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The aims of the present review are: (i) to trace the evolution of medicinal plant handling from handwritten herbalist manuscripts to Pharmacopoeias; (ii) to describe the modern situation with regulatory documents for herbal medicinal products and their updated classification; (iii) to summarize and discuss the pharmacology, safety, and clinical data for new plants, which are included in the new edition of the Pharmacopoeia. METHODS: New medicinal plants included in the 14th edition of the Russian Federation's State Pharmacopoeia were selected. We carefully searched the scientific literature for data related to traditional use, pharmacological, clinical application, and safety. The information was collected from local libraries in Saint-Petersburg, the online databases E-library.ru, Scopus, Web of Science, and the search engine Google scholar. RESULTS: Investigating the evolution of all medicinal plants referred to in the Russian Pharmacopoeias led us to the identification of ten medicinal plants that were present in all editions of civilian Russian Pharmacopoeias starting from 1778. In the 14th edition of the modern Russian Pharmacopoeia, medicinal plants are described in 107 monographs. Altogether, 25 new monographs were included in the 14th edition, and one monograph was excluded in comparison to the 11th edition. Some of the included plants are not endemic to Russia and do not have a history of traditional use, or on the other hand, are widely used in Western medicine. For 15 plants, we described the specificity of their application in Russian traditional medicine along with the claimed dosages and indications in officinal medicine. The pharmacology, safety, and clinical data are summarized and assessed for nine plants, underlining their therapeutic potential and significance for global phytopharmacotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: In this review, we highlight the therapeutical potential of new plants included in the modern edition of the Russian Pharmacopoeia. We hope that these plants will play an imperative role in drug development and will have a priority for future detailed research.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Farmacopeas como Asunto/clasificación , Extractos Vegetales/clasificación , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Plantas Medicinales/clasificación , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/tendencias , Plantas Medicinales/química , Federación de Rusia/etnología
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113254, 2021 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798616

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Research on the folk categorization of nature in preliterate societies in Europe is complicated due to the fragmentation of the information available and is rarely undertaken. Yet the data is valuable and may provide, in certain circumstances, important insights, if not into novel medicines, then into the historical logic of selection and memorisation of plants useful from a medicinal perspective. AIMS OF THE STUDY: We aim to understand the ethnobotany of a preliterate society by analysing the emic (derived from people) perspective on nature-related culture of one of Europe's smaller nations, whose written language and culture was shaped in the 18th-19th centuries by other, larger nations of Europe, and thus from the etic (academic) perspective. We attempt to identify how folk categorization is reflected in the relationships between plant names and uses and to map the structure of those relationships. DATA AND METHODS: We base our analysis on one of the oldest ethnobotanical manuscripts and herbaria of the Baltic governorates, compiled in 1831 by an amateur botanist, Baltic German Pastor Johann Heinrich Rosenplänter (1782-1846), which was derived from conversations with his parishioners from the tiny Pärnu parish. The historical dataset was critically analysed from an ethnobotanical perspective in light of recent identifications of the herbarium specimens. RESULTS: Although the Rosenplänter collection is fragmentary, the logic of plant categorization by non-literate peasants at that time is clearly seen in the data. Plants preserved in the herbarium were predominantly used for ethno-medicinal, food or ethno-veterinary purposes, such as treating chronic skin and joint diseases as well as severe acute diseases in humans and animals. Among 129 folk taxa analysed, more than one third had apparent purpose-related plant names providing clear links to their use, whereas a few multifunctional plants had several names reflecting diverse uses. For example, Hypericum spp., which was used in three different ways, had three semantically distinct names. However, among the plants that Rosenplänter collected, there were also some that were simply named and described by people but lacked any usability data (e.g., Trollius europaeus), meaning that use as such was not the primary criterion for recognising a plant. The web-like structure of preliterate thinking in plant-related knowledge reveals a deep relationship with the environment and the interpretation of new elements through familiar natural objects. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that historical ethnobotanical data, if thoughtfully analysed, can be used not only for comparative purposes, but also for understanding the logic of preliterate thinking. We encourage future in-depth studies of historical ethnobotanical data in Europe in order to understand the relationship between nature and culture of native European populations.


Asunto(s)
Etnobotánica/historia , Etnofarmacología/historia , Manuscritos Médicos como Asunto/historia , Medicina Tradicional/historia , Plantas Medicinales , Países Bálticos/etnología , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Humanos
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113262, 2021 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818574

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In the Peruvian Amazon as in the tropical countries of South America, the use of medicinal Piper species (cordoncillos) is common practice, particularly against symptoms of infection by protozoal parasites. However, there is few documented information about the practical aspects of their use and few scientific validation. The starting point of this work was a set of interviews of people living in six rural communities from the Peruvian Amazon (Alto Amazonas Province) about their uses of plants from Piper genus: one community of Amerindian native people (Shawi community) and five communities of mestizos. Infections caused by parasitic protozoa take a huge toll on public health in the Amazonian communities, who partly fight it using traditional remedies. Validation of these traditional practices contributes to public health care efficiency and may help to identify new antiprotozoal compounds. AIMS OF STUDY: To record and validate the use of medicinal Piper species by rural people of Alto Amazonas Province (Peru) and annotate active compounds using a correlation study and a data mining approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rural communities were interviewed about traditional medication against parasite infections with medicinal Piper species. Ethnopharmacological surveys were undertaken in five mestizo villages, namely: Nueva Arica, Shucushuyacu, Parinari, Lagunas and Esperanza, and one Shawi community (Balsapuerto village). All communities belong to the Alto Amazonas Province (Loreto region, Peru). Seventeen Piper species were collected according to their traditional use for the treatment of parasitic diseases, 35 extracts (leaves or leaves and stems) were tested in vitro on P. falciparum (3D7 chloroquine-sensitive strain and W2 chloroquine-resistant strain), Leishmania donovani LV9 strain and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Assessments were performed on HUVEC cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages. The annotation of active compounds was realized by metabolomic analysis and molecular networking approach. RESULTS: Nine extracts were active (IC50 ≤ 10 µg/mL) on 3D7 P. falciparum and only one on W2 P. falciparum, six on L. donovani (axenic and intramacrophagic amastigotes) and seven on Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Only one extract was active on all three parasites (P. lineatum). After metabolomic analyses and annotation of compounds active on Leishmania, P. strigosum and P. pseudoarboreum were considered as potential sources of leishmanicidal compounds. CONCLUSIONS: This ethnopharmacological study and the associated in vitro bioassays corroborated the relevance of use of Piper species in the Amazonian traditional medicine, especially in Peru. A series of Piper species with few previously available phytochemical data have good antiprotozoal activity and could be a starting point for subsequent promising work. Metabolomic approach appears to be a smart, quick but still limited methodology to identify compounds with high probability of biological activity.


Asunto(s)
Antiprotozoarios/metabolismo , Etnofarmacología/métodos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Metabolómica/métodos , Piper/metabolismo , Extractos Vegetales/metabolismo , Animales , Antimaláricos/aislamiento & purificación , Antimaláricos/metabolismo , Antimaláricos/uso terapéutico , Antiprotozoarios/aislamiento & purificación , Antiprotozoarios/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Células Endoteliales de la Vena Umbilical Humana/efectos de los fármacos , Células Endoteliales de la Vena Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Leishmania donovani/efectos de los fármacos , Leishmania donovani/metabolismo , Mesocricetus , Ratones , Perú/etnología , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Plasmodium falciparum/efectos de los fármacos , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113322, 2021 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871236

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Melastoma consists of approximately 100 species distributed widely in tropical and subtropical countries, and Melastoma species are often used for medicinal purposes, such as treatment for bleeding, diarrhea, diabetes, and gynecological tumors by local people, mostly in Southeast Asian countries. AIM OF THE REVIEW: The present review summarizes the traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of species belonging to Melastoma to suggest further research strategies and to facilitate the exploitation of the therapeutic potential of Melastoma species for the treatment of human disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information related to the traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities was systematically collected by searching for the word "Melastoma" in electronic databases, including SciFinder, Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar, from Apr. 1968 until Dec. 2019. RESULTS: A systematic literature survey revealed that Melastoma spp. are widely distributed in southern Asia to northern Oceania and the Pacific Islands and are traditionally used to treat bleeding, diarrhea, swelling, and gynecological tumors. Approximately 142 compounds, including flavonoids, tannins, phenylpropanoids, organic acids, terpenoids, and steroids, have been reported from Melastoma spp. Different extracts have been evaluated for their pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, hemostatic, anticoagulant, cytotoxic, antibacterial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective and hypoglycemic activities. CONCLUSIONS: Melastoma spp. are popularly used in Southeast Asian countries as effective herbs and are rich in flavonoids, tannins and organic acids with valuable medicinal properties. However, additional studies of the chemical constituents and the mechanism-based pharmacological activities of many members of Melastoma are still needed for developing new plant-derived drugs. In addition, studies on the clinical safety and efficacy of Melastoma are also needed.


Asunto(s)
Etnofarmacología/métodos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Melastomataceae , Fitoquímicos/uso terapéutico , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Animales , Antibacterianos/aislamiento & purificación , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Anticoagulantes/aislamiento & purificación , Anticoagulantes/farmacología , Anticoagulantes/uso terapéutico , Etnofarmacología/tendencias , Flavonoides/aislamiento & purificación , Flavonoides/farmacología , Flavonoides/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/tendencias , Fitoquímicos/aislamiento & purificación , Fitoquímicos/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113339, 2021 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898627

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cereus hildmannianus (K.) Schum. (syn. C. peruvianus) is a native medicinal plant in the Neotropical region. C. hildmannianus cladodes extracts are used in folk medicine for weight loss, reducing cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, as diuretic and cardiotonic, and to treat various diseases, including pulmonary disorders, rheumatism, and in topical treatment for wounds and lithiasis. Fruits and flowers of C. hildmmanianus have high nutritional value. AIM OF THE REVIEW: In this review, previous reports on C. hildmannianus (syn. C. peruvianus) concerning its botanical description, geographical distribution, ethnomedicinal use, phytochemistry, in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties, food benefits and plant biotechnology were summarized. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Scientific search engines, including ScienceDirect, Capes Journals Portal, Google Scholar, PubMed, Scielo, and Scifinder, were consulted to gather data on C. hildmannianus. The present review is an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of phytochemical compounds, ethnomedicinal uses, phytopharmacological activities, and food value of cladodes, flowers, fruits, seeds, and tissue culture from C. hildmannianus. RESULTS: In traditional medicine, C.hildmannianus is used to treat various diseases, including pulmonary disorders, rheumatism, and in topical treatment for wounds and lithiasis. The extracts from the cladodes of C. hildmannianus exhibited numerous in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities such as gastroprotective, antioxidant, antifungal, ovicidal, hemagglutinating and slimming, and anticancer activity. These extracts' substances belong to different classes of chemical compounds such as fatty acids, polysaccharides, terpenes, alkaloids, phenolic acids, and flavonoids CONCLUSIONS: Ethnomedicinal surveys have indicated the use of C. hildmannianus, an important medicinal plant in South America, for the treatment of various diseases. The ethnobotanical, phytochemical, pharmacological, and ethnomedicinal properties from various morphological parts of the plant of C. hildmannianus were highlighted in this review, which provides information for future studies, commercial exploration and reveals that this plant has a huge potential for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications.


Asunto(s)
Cactaceae , Etnofarmacología/métodos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Fitoquímicos/uso terapéutico , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Plantas Medicinales , Animales , Antifúngicos/aislamiento & purificación , Antifúngicos/farmacología , Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , Antioxidantes/aislamiento & purificación , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Etnofarmacología/tendencias , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/tendencias , Fitoquímicos/aislamiento & purificación , Fitoquímicos/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/aislamiento & purificación , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , América del Sur/etnología
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 266: 113356, 2021 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956758

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bougainvillea glabra (Choisy). (Family: Nyctinaginacea) is a valuable ornamental plant with culinary uses and also utilized in traditional medicine for treating common ailments. It is traditionally employed against several diseases such as diarrhoea, hypotension, intestinal disorders, stomachache, nausea, inflammation-related ailments, and in pain management. Though widely validated via in vitro and in vivo models, to date no endeavour has been made to compile in a single review the traditional, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of B. glabra. AIMS: To provide an up-to-date, authoritative review with respect to the traditional uses, chemical composition, in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties, and toxicological estimations accomplished either utilizing the crude extracts or, wherever applicable, the bioactive compounds isolated from B. glabra. Besides, a critical evaluation of the published literature has been undertaken with regards to the current biochemical and toxicological data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Key databases per se, Ovid, Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google scholar amongst others were probed for a systematic search using keywords to retrieve relevant publications on this plant. A total of 52 articles were included for the review depending on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. RESULTS: The studies conducted on either crude extracts, solvent fractions or isolated pure compounds from B. glabra had reported a varied range of biological effects comprising antibacterial, antifungal, antidiabetic, cytotoxic, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. Phytochemical analysis of different parts of B. glabra unveiled 105 phytochemicals, belonging to phenolic, flavonoid, betacyanin, terpenoid, glycoside and essential oils classes of secondary metabolites. CONCLUSION: Most of the pharmacological activities of crude extracts from this plant have been reported. A very few studies have reported the isolation of compounds responsible for observed biological potential of this plant. Moreover, the toxicity studies of this plant still need to be explored comprehensively to ensure its safety parameters. Additional investigations are recommended to transmute the ethnopharmacological claims of this plant species in folklore medicines into scientific rationale-based information.


Asunto(s)
Medicina Tradicional , Nyctaginaceae/química , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Animales , Etnofarmacología , Humanos , Fitoquímicos/química , Fitoquímicos/aislamiento & purificación , Fitoterapia , Extractos Vegetales/efectos adversos , Extractos Vegetales/química
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 266: 113399, 2021 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961278

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tagetes lucida Cav. commonly known as "yauhtli" or "pericón" is used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of anxiety, depressant diseases, pain, hypertension, among others. AIM: To evaluate the antihypertensive and vasorelaxant modes of action of a crude ethanolic extract from T. lucida aerial parts and to isolate the bioactive compounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ethanolic extract was tested in an in vivo assay in SHR rats by intragastric administration at 10 and 100 mg/kg dosages, to measure and to compare hemodynamic parameters like diastolic and systolic blood pressure and heart rate. Also, extract (3.03-1000 µg/ml), fractions (3.03-1000 µg/ml) and pure isolated compounds (1.75-550 µM) were evaluated on isolated aortic rings contracted with noradrenaline (0.1 µM) to determine their vasorelaxant effect and extract-mode of action. RESULTS: Ethanolic extract of T. lucida lowered systolic and diastolic blood pressure on SHR rats without heart rate modification (P > 0.05). Moreover, the extract showed concentration-dependent relaxant effect in a partially endothelium-dependent manner (P < 0.05), through NO/cGMP system activation and calcium channel blockade. 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin (1), 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin (2), and 7-methoxycoumarin (3) from T. lucida are the main bioactive compounds of the extract and showed significant vasorelaxant activity. CONCLUSIONS: Results provide evidence and endorsed the antihypertensive properties attributed to T. lucida in traditional medicine, which is produced by vasorelaxant effect mainly through multitarget NO/cGMP system activation and calcium channel blockade. Coumarin derivatives 1, 2 and 3 are the responsible of the vasorelaxant activity.


Asunto(s)
Antihipertensivos/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Tagetes/química , Vasodilatadores/farmacología , Animales , Antihipertensivos/administración & dosificación , Antihipertensivos/aislamiento & purificación , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Bloqueadores de los Canales de Calcio/administración & dosificación , Bloqueadores de los Canales de Calcio/aislamiento & purificación , Bloqueadores de los Canales de Calcio/farmacología , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Componentes Aéreos de las Plantas , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Ratas , Ratas Endogámicas SHR , Ratas Wistar , Vasodilatadores/administración & dosificación , Vasodilatadores/aislamiento & purificación
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 266: 113409, 2021 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979411

RESUMEN

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Costus spicatus (Jacq.) Sw., also known as "cana-do-brejo," is a species that is widely used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of kidney diseases. However, no studies have evaluated its nephroprotective and antilithiatic effects. AIM: To investigate nephroprotective and antilithiatic effects of C. spicatus in a preclinical model of acute kidney injury (AKI) and in vitro nephrolithiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C. spicatus leaves were collected directly from the natural environment in the Dourados region, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The ethanol-soluble fraction of C. spicatus (ESCS) was obtained by infusion. Phytochemical characterization was performed by liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and mass spectrometer (LC-DAD-MS). We assessed whether ESCS has acute or prolonged diuretic activity. The nephroprotective effects of ESCS were evaluated in a model of AKI that was induced by glycerol (10 ml/kg, intramuscularly) in Wistar rats. Different doses of ESCS (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg) were administered orally for 5 days before the induction of AKI. Urinary parameters were measured on days 1, 3, 5, and 7. Twenty-four hours after the last urine collection, blood samples were obtained for the biochemical analysis. Blood pressure levels, renal vascular reactivity, renal tissue redox status, and histopathological changes were measured. Antilithiatic effects were evaluated by in vitro crystallization. Calcium oxalate precipitation was induced by sodium oxalate in urine samples with ESCS at 0.05, 0.5, and 5 mg/ml. RESULTS: From LC-DAD-MS analyses, flavonoids, saponins and other phenolic compounds were determined in the composition of ESCS. Significant reductions of the excretion of urinary total protein, creatinine, sodium, and potassium were observed in the AKI group, with significant histopathological damage (swelling, vacuolization, necrosis, and inflammatory infiltration) in the proximal convoluted tubule. Treatment with ESCS exerted a significant nephroprotective effect by increasing the urinary excretion of total protein, urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride. All of the groups that were treated with ESCS exhibited a reduction of histopathological lesions and significant modulation of the tissue redox state. We also observed a concentration-dependent effect of ESCS on the crystallization of urinary crystals, with reductions of the size and proportion of monohydrated crystals. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that C. spicatus has nephroprotective and antilithiatic effects, suggesting possible effectiveness in its traditional use.


Asunto(s)
Lesión Renal Aguda/prevención & control , Costus/química , Nefrolitiasis/prevención & control , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Animales , Brasil , Cromatografía Liquida , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Etnofarmacología , Masculino , Espectrometría de Masas , Medicina Tradicional , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Extractos Vegetales/química , Hojas de la Planta , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
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