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3.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 1, 2021 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397494

RESUMEN

With the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic showing no signs of abating, resuming neglected tropical disease (NTD) activities, particularly mass drug administration (MDA), is vital. Failure to resume activities will not only enhance the risk of NTD transmission, but will fail to leverage behaviour change messaging on the importance of hand and face washing and improved sanitation-a common strategy for several NTDs that also reduces the risk of COVID-19 spread. This so-called "hybrid approach" will demonstrate best practices for mitigating the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by incorporating physical distancing, use of masks, and frequent hand-washing in the delivery of medicines to endemic communities and support action against the transmission of the virus through water, sanitation and hygiene interventions promoted by NTD programmes. Unless MDA and morbidity management activities resume, achievement of NTD targets as projected in the WHO/NTD Roadmap (2021-2030) will be deferred, the aspirational goal of NTD programmes to enhance universal health coverage jeopardised and the call to 'leave no one behind' a hollow one. We outline what implementing this hybrid approach, which aims to strengthen health systems, and facilitate integration and cross-sector collaboration, can achieve based on work undertaken in several African countries.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Enfermedades Desatendidas/epidemiología , Enfermedades Desatendidas/prevención & control , África/epidemiología , Enfermedades Endémicas , Salud Global , Humanos , Higiene , Administración Masiva de Medicamentos/métodos , Morbilidad , Pandemias , Equipo de Protección Personal , Saneamiento , Clima Tropical , Medicina Tropical/métodos
7.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 115(3): 205-207, 2021 03 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367883

RESUMEN

Countries have seen substantial disruptions to usual health services related to coronavirus disease 2019 and these are likely to have immediate and long-term indirect effects on many disease control programmes, including neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). The pandemic has highlighted the usefulness of mathematical modelling to understand the impacts of these disruptions and future control measures on progress towards 2030 NTD goals. The pandemic also provides an opportunity, and a practical necessity, to transform NTD programmes through innovation.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Difusión de Innovaciones , Enfermedades Desatendidas/epidemiología , Enfermedades Desatendidas/prevención & control , Medicina Tropical , Humanos , Pandemias , Organización Mundial de la Salud
8.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(12): e22478, 2020 12 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382382

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent a diverse group of 20 communicable diseases that occur in tropical and subtropical areas in 149 countries, affecting over 1 billion people and costing developing economies billions of dollars every year. Within these diseases, those that present lesions on the skin surface are classified as skin NTDs (sNTDs). Mobile health interventions are currently being used worldwide to manage skin diseases and can be a good strategy in the epidemiological and clinical management of sNTDs. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze existing evidence about mobile health interventions to control and manage sNTDs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and make recommendations for what should be considered in future interventions. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted of the MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus databases over 10 years up to April 30, 2020. All types of clinical studies were considered. Data were synthesized into evidence tables. Apps were selected through a comprehensive systematic search in the Google Play Store and Apple App Store conducted between March 20 and April 15, 2020. RESULTS: From 133 potentially relevant publications, 13 studies met our criteria (9.8%). These analyzed eight different interventions (three SMS text messaging interventions and five app interventions). Six of the 13 (46%) studies were community-based cross-sectional studies intended to epidemiologically map a specific disease, mainly lymphatic filariasis, but also cutaneous leishmaniasis, leprosy, and NTDs, as well as sNTDs in general. Most of the studies were considered to have a high (5/13, 39%) or moderate (4/13, 31%) risk of bias. Fifteen apps were identified in the Google Play Store, of which three were also in the Apple App Store. Most of the apps (11/15, 73%) were targeted at health care professionals, with only four targeted at patients. The apps focused on scabies (3/15, 20%), lymphatic filariasis (3/15, 20%), cutaneous leishmaniasis (1/15, 7%), leprosy (1/15, 7%), yaws and Buruli ulcer (1/15, 7%), tropical diseases including more than one sNTDs (3/15, 20%), and NTDs including sNTDs (2/15, 13%). Only 1 (7%) app focused on the clinical management of sNTDs. CONCLUSIONS: All mobile health interventions that were identified face technological, legal, final user, and organizational issues. There was a remarkable heterogeneity among studies, and the majority had methodological limitations that leave considerable room for improvement. Based on existing evidence, eight recommendations have been made for future interventions.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de la Piel/terapia , Telemedicina , Medicina Tropical , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Enfermedades Desatendidas/terapia , Proyectos Piloto , Estudios Prospectivos , Tanzanía , Adulto Joven
11.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 78(5): 499-518, 2020 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026346

RESUMEN

The French society of clinical biology "Biochemical markers of COVID-19" has set up a working group with the primary aim of reviewing, analyzing and monitoring the evolution of biological prescriptions according to the patient's care path and to look for markers of progression and severity of the disease. This study covers all public and private sectors of medical biology located in metropolitan and overseas France and also extends to the French-speaking world. This article presents the testimonies and data obtained for the "Overseas and French-speaking countries" sub-working group made up of 45 volunteer correspondents, located in 20 regions of the world. In view of the delayed spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the overseas regions and the French-speaking regions have benefited from feedback from the first territories confronted with COVID-19. Thus, the entry of the virus or its spread in epidemic form could be avoided, thanks to the rapid closure of borders. The overseas territories depend very strongly on air and/or sea links with the metropolis or with the neighboring continent. The isolation of these countries is responsible for reagent supply difficulties and has necessitated emergency orders and the establishment of stocks lasting several months, in order to avoid shortages and maintain adequate patient care. In addition, in countries located in tropical or intertropical zones, the diagnosis of COVID-19 is complicated by the presence of various zoonoses (dengue, Zika, malaria, leptospirosis, etc.).


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Medicina del Viajero/organización & administración , Adulto , África/epidemiología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Bélgica/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Biomarcadores/análisis , Biomarcadores/sangre , Cambodia/epidemiología , Niño , Servicios de Laboratorio Clínico/organización & administración , Servicios de Laboratorio Clínico/estadística & datos numéricos , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Trazado de Contacto/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Islas/epidemiología , Lenguaje , Laos/epidemiología , Louisiana/epidemiología , Masculino , Personal de Laboratorio Clínico/organización & administración , Personal de Laboratorio Clínico/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Estudios Retrospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Análisis de Supervivencia , Medicina del Viajero/métodos , Medicina del Viajero/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedad Relacionada con los Viajes , Clima Tropical , Medicina Tropical/métodos , Medicina Tropical/organización & administración , Medicina Tropical/estadística & datos numéricos , Vietnam/epidemiología
12.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 1758-1761, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069267

RESUMEN

We calculated carbon emissions associated with air travel of 4,834 participants at the 2019 annual conference of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH). Together, participants traveled a total of 27.7 million miles or 44.6 million kilometers. This equates to 58 return trips to the moon. Estimated carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions were 8,646 metric tons or the total weekly carbon footprint of approximately 9,366 average American households. These emissions contribute to climate change and thus may exacerbate many of the global diseases that conference attendees seek to combat. Options to reduce conference travel-associated emissions include 1) alternating in-person and online conferences, 2) offering a hybrid in-person/online conference, and 3) decentralizing the conference with multiple conference venues. Decentralized ASTMH conferences may allow for up to 64% reduction in travel distance and 58% reduction in CO2e emissions. Given the urgency of the climate crisis and the clear association between global warming and global health, ways to reduce carbon emissions should be considered.


Asunto(s)
Huella de Carbono , Higiene , Sociedades Científicas/organización & administración , Viaje , Medicina Tropical , Cambio Climático , Humanos , Estados Unidos
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008498, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785262

RESUMEN

The global burden attributed to Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) is 47.9 million Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). These diseases predominantly affect disadvantaged populations. Priority for NTDs has grown in recent years, which is observed by their inclusion in the sustainable development goals (SDGs). This study analyzed the process that allowed these diseases to be included on the global health policy agenda. This global policy analysis used the Shiffman and Smith framework to understand the determinants of global health political priority for NTDs. The framework comprises four categories: actor power, ideas, political contexts, and issue characteristics. Global documents and World Health Assembly (WHA) resolutions were examined, key-informant interviews were conducted, and academic publications were reviewed to understand the four categories that comprise the framework. A total of 37 global policy documents, 15 WHA resolutions, and 38 academic publications were examined. Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals representing different sectors within the NTD community who have been involved in raising the priority of these diseases. This study found that several factors helped better position NTDs in the global health agenda. These include the leadership of actors that mobilized the global health community, the creation of a label combining these diseases as a group to represent a larger disease burden, the presence of mechanisms aligning the NTD community, and the agreement on ways to present the NTD burden and potential solutions. The process of building the priority of NTDs in the global health agenda shows that several determinants led to positive outcomes, but these diseases continue to have low priority at the global level which requires the implementation of actions to increase their global priority. These include sustaining the commitment of current actors and engaging new ones; increasing the attention given to diseases formerly categorized as "tool-deficient", including zoonotic NTDs; continue leveraging on policy windows and creating favorable policy moments to sustain commitment, as well as setting realistic targets. Findings from this study can help develop strategies to build the momentum and drive actions to implement the goals of the new Roadmap for NTDs in the pathway to universal health coverage (UHC) and sustainable development.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global , Política de Salud , Enfermedades Desatendidas/epidemiología , Enfermedades Desatendidas/prevención & control , Humanos , Enfermedades Desatendidas/economía , Organizaciones , Medicina Tropical , Organización Mundial de la Salud
16.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 20(17): 1518-1520, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830620

RESUMEN

The first-ever World Chagas Disease Day, celebrated in April 14, 2020, is a key initiative to raise awareness of the impact of this neglected tropical disease (NTD). This landmark comes along with the first World NTD Day and the new WHO Road Map on NTDs for 2021-2030.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Chagas , Enfermedades Desatendidas , Enfermedad de Chagas/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Medicina Tropical , Tripanocidas/uso terapéutico
17.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1700-1710, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840202

RESUMEN

Coverage evaluation surveys (CESs) are an important complement to routinely reported drug coverage estimates following mass drug administration for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Although the WHO recommends the routine use of CESs, they are rarely implemented. Reasons for this low uptake are multifaceted; one is uncertainty on the best sampling method. We conducted a multicountry study to compare the statistical characteristics, cost, time, and complexity of three commonly used CES sampling methods: the Expanded Program on Immunization's (EPI's) 30 × 7 cluster survey, a stratified design with systematic sampling within strata to enable lot quality assurance sampling (S-LQAS) decision rules, and probability sampling with segmentation (PSS). The three CES methods were used in Burkina Faso, Honduras, Malawi, and Uganda, and results were compared across the country sites. All three CES methods were found to be feasible. The S-LQAS approach took the least amount of time to complete and, consequently, was the least expensive; however, all three methods cost less than $5,000 per district. The PSS design resulted in an unbiased, equal-probability sample of the target populations. By contrast, the EPI approach had inherent bias related to the selection of households. Because of modifications needed to maintain feasibility, the S-LQAS method also resulted in a non-probability sample with less precision than the other two methods. Given the comparable cost and time of the three sampling methods and the statistical advantages of the PSS method, the PSS method was deemed to be the best for CESs in NTD programs.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Desatendidas , Proyectos de Investigación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Medicina Tropical , Burkina Faso , Costos y Análisis de Costo , Honduras , Humanos , Muestreo para la Garantía de la Calidad de Lotes , Malaui , Muestreo , Uganda
18.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 114(10): 730-732, 2020 10 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853370

RESUMEN

Countries around the world are facing an enormous challenge due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The pressure that the pandemic inflicts on health systems could certainly impact on the care, control, and elimination of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). From mid-January 2020, Ethiopia started to prepare for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. The Federal Ministry of Health pledged to continue essential healthcare, including NTD care, during this pandemic. However, some hospitals have been closed for other healthcare services and have been turned into isolation and treatment centers for COVID-19. In addition to the healthcare facility measures, all community-based health promotion and disease prevention services have been stopped. The current shift in attention towards COVID-19 is expected to have a negative impact on NTD prevention and care.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Enfermedades Desatendidas/terapia , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Animales , Betacoronavirus , Erradicación de la Enfermedad , Etiopía/epidemiología , Programas de Gobierno , Clausura de las Instituciones de Salud , Humanos , Enfermedades Desatendidas/epidemiología , Pandemias , Medicina Tropical
19.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1933): 20200966, 2020 08 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842925

RESUMEN

Control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) via mass drug administration (MDA) has increased considerably over the past decade, but strategies focused exclusively on human treatment show limited efficacy. This paper investigated trade-offs between drug and environmental treatments in the fight against NTDs by using schistosomiasis as a case study. We use optimal control techniques where the planner's objective is to treat the disease over a time horizon at the lowest possible total cost, where the total costs include treatment, transportation and damages (reduction in human health). We show that combining environmental treatments and drug treatments reduces the dependency on MDAs and that this reduction increases when the planners take a longer-run perspective on the fight to reduce NTDs. Our results suggest that NTDs with environmental reservoirs require moving away from a reliance solely on MDA to integrated treatment involving investment in both drug and environmental controls.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles , Medicina Tropical , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Humanos , Enfermedades Desatendidas
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