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1.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0224925, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856174

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Delivery of preventive chemotherapy (PC) through mass drug administration (MDA) is used to control or eliminate five of the most common neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). The success of an MDA campaign relies on the ability of drug distributors and their supervisors-the NTD front-line workers-to reach populations at risk of NTDs. In the past, our understanding of the demographics of these workers has been limited, but with increased access to sex-disaggregated data, we begin to explore the implications of gender and sex for the success of NTD front-line workers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reviewed data collected by USAID-supported NTD projects from national NTD programs from fiscal years (FY) 2012-2017 to assess availability of sex-disaggregated data on the workforce. What we found was sex-disaggregated data on 2,984,908 trainees trained with financial support from the project. We then analyzed the percentage of males and females trained by job category, country, and fiscal year. During FY12, 59% of these data were disaggregated by sex, which increased to nearly 100% by FY15 and was sustained through FY17. In FY17, 43% of trainees were female, with just four countries reporting more females than males trained as drug distributors and three countries reporting more females than males trained as trainers/supervisors. Except for two countries, there were no clear trends over time in changes to the percent of females trained. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There has been a rapid increase in availability of sex-disaggregated data, but little increase in recruitment of female workers in countries included in this study. Women continue to be under-represented in the NTD workforce, and while there are often valid reasons for this distribution, we need to test this norm and better understand gender dynamics within NTD programs to increase equity.


Asunto(s)
Administración Masiva de Medicamentos/métodos , Enfermedades Desatendidas/prevención & control , Medicina Tropical/métodos , Quimioprevención , Femenino , Salud Global , Humanos , Masculino , Enfermedades Desatendidas/tratamiento farmacológico , Factores Sexuales , Sexismo , Medicina Tropical/tendencias
3.
Int Health ; 11(5): 338-340, 2019 09 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529110

RESUMEN

Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of diseases that disproportionately affect the poorest of the poor. While for years attention has focused on single diseases within this group, efforts during the past decade have resulted in their being grouped together to highlight that they are fundamentally diseases of neglected populations. The formation of a World Health Organization department to address these diseases consolidated the efforts of the many stakeholders involved. In the past decade, focus has shifted from the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), where NTDs are not mentioned, to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), where NTDs are not only mentioned, but clear indicators are provided to measure progress. It has also been a decade where many NTD programmes have scaled up rapidly thanks to work by affected countries through their master plans, the commitment of partners and the unprecedented donations of pharmaceutical manufacturers. This decade has also seen the scaling down of programmes and acknowledgement of the elimination of some diseases in several countries. Given the successes to date, the challenges identified over the past decade and the opportunities of the coming decade, the NTD Programme at the WHO is working with partners and stakeholders to prepare the new NTD roadmap for 2021 to 2030. The focus is on three major paradigm shifts: a change of orientation from process to impact, a change in technical focus from diseases to delivery platforms and a change from an external-based agenda and funding to a more country-led and funded implementation within health systems. This article reviews the past decade and offers a glimpse of what the future might hold for NTDs as a litmus test of SDG achievements.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Desatendidas/prevención & control , Medicina Tropical/organización & administración , Medicina Tropical/tendencias , Humanos , Desarrollo Sostenible , Organización Mundial de la Salud/organización & administración
4.
Adv Parasitol ; 105: 53-68, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530395

RESUMEN

For the Regional Network on Asian Schistosomiasis and Other Helminth Zoonosis (RNAS+), capacity building with emphasis on modern technology with correspondence to traditional techniques was found to be a priority. This article summarized the actual needs of capacity building among RNAS+ member countries and the working mechanism of capacity building during the last 20 years. The needs with respect to the RNAS+ target diseases are highly correlated with the research priorities, since most problems with regard to the performance of the national disease control programme in the member countries are connected with inadequate capacity in relation to implementation of innovative research, epidemiological investigations, laboratory performance; and sociological investigations. The capacity building arranged through RNAS+ platform includes short training courses, individual training in member institutions, e.g., supervision of Ph.D./Masters students; postdoctoral training; and internship training in institutions of southeast Asia as well as in famous institutions of Europe and the United States. In the future, capacity building will focus on platform design and technical standardization aiming at fostering research capacity in the future. Moreover, new training projects, such as massive online courses (MOOC) will be explored under RNAS+ platform.


Asunto(s)
Erradicación de la Enfermedad/métodos , Cooperación Internacional , Esquistosomiasis/prevención & control , Erradicación de la Enfermedad/organización & administración , Humanos , Medicina Tropical/educación , Medicina Tropical/tendencias
5.
Adv Parasitol ; 105: xi-xiii, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530398

RESUMEN

This special issue is going to introduce the origins of the "Regional Network on Asian Schistosomiasis (RNAS)" which can be traced back to 1996. RNAS was originally a collaboration of scientists from China and Philippines, and then expanded to Cambodia, Indonesia, Japan and Laos, with focusing on research and control of schistosomiasis japonica. However, at its fifth meeting in Bali, Indonesia in 2005, more countries such as Vietnam, Thailand and Korea were brought on board along with a string of neglected tropical diseases such as cysticercosis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis and fascioliasis, and RNAS thus became RNAS+. We all expected that the progress made so far will be enough to persuade donors to assist RNAS+ in its current activities and forward movement.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Desatendidas/prevención & control , Enfermedades Desatendidas/parasitología , Enfermedades Parasitarias/patología , Enfermedades Parasitarias/prevención & control , Animales , Asia Sudoriental , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Investigación/tendencias , Clima Tropical , Medicina Tropical/tendencias
7.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 101(1): 8-11, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094312

RESUMEN

The American Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene recently inaugurated an award for the best clinical research article published in the society's journal in the previous year. This article summarizes both the process of selecting the winner and several themes that stood out in those articles which rose to the top for consideration. Themes of note included the importance of doing clinical research outside of referral centers, the complexity that must be considered when implementing interventions, incorporation of both ends of the age spectrum into studies, and considering cost-effectiveness and opportunity cost of interventions.


Asunto(s)
Distinciones y Premios , Sociedades Médicas , Medicina Tropical/tendencias , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto , Humanos , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto , Estados Unidos
8.
Adv Parasitol ; 103: 151-173, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878057

RESUMEN

The accurate, rapid, and cost-effective diagnosis of malaria and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in low-resource settings may benefit by significant technological advances in handheld and mobile phone microscopy. We systematically review the available literature in this field and discuss the future directions in which these technologies may be applied. English-language studies from the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Sciences were searched through April 2018 for observational and interventional studies reporting diagnostic characteristics of handheld and mobile phone microscopy devices as compared to field-established gold standard reference tests. Seventeen studies were included in the analysis. Findings included the high performance of the Newton Nm1 microscope in the diagnosis of Plasmodium species, Schistosoma mansoni, and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), exhibiting sensitivity and specificity values often greater than 90%. Similarly, the CellScope was shown to have excellent diagnostic characteristics in the detection of Loa loa and Schistosoma species. Fluorescent microscopy was found to have high specificity and sensitivity in the diagnosis of Plasmodium species. Mobile phone technologies and handheld microscopes hold significant promise in the rapid and effective diagnosis of malaria and NTDs in areas where accurate diagnosis is vital. Although many of these technologies have yet to be securely embedded within the health system and studied directly in this context, the foundations for significant healthcare advances and impact have already been laid by several studies conducted within the last decade.


Asunto(s)
Teléfono Celular , Malaria/diagnóstico , Microscopía , Enfermedades Desatendidas/diagnóstico , Medicina Tropical/métodos , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Medicina Tropical/historia , Medicina Tropical/tendencias
10.
Nature ; 559(7715): 498-506, 2018 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046073

RESUMEN

Infectious tropical diseases have a huge effect in terms of mortality and morbidity, and impose a heavy economic burden on affected countries. These diseases predominantly affect the world's poorest people. Currently available drugs are inadequate for the majority of these diseases, and there is an urgent need for new treatments. This Review discusses some of the challenges involved in developing new drugs to treat these diseases and highlights recent progress. While there have been notable successes, there is still a long way to go.


Asunto(s)
Descubrimiento de Drogas/tendencias , Clima Tropical , Medicina Tropical/tendencias , Animales , Coinfección , Humanos , /parasitología , /virología
11.
Trop Med Int Health ; 23(7): 691, 2018 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29969846
12.
Adv Parasitol ; 100: 39-126, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29753342

RESUMEN

Climate change is expected to impact across every domain of society, including health. The majority of the world's population is susceptible to pathological, infectious disease whose life cycles are sensitive to environmental factors across different physical phases including air, water and soil. Nearly all so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) fall into this category, meaning that future geographic patterns of transmission of dozens of infections are likely to be affected by climate change over the short (seasonal), medium (annual) and long (decadal) term. This review offers an introduction into the terms and processes deployed in modelling climate change and reviews the state of the art in terms of research into how climate change may affect future transmission of NTDs. The 34 infections included in this chapter are drawn from the WHO NTD list and the WHO blueprint list of priority diseases. For the majority of infections, some evidence is available of which environmental factors contribute to the population biology of parasites, vectors and zoonotic hosts. There is a general paucity of published research on the potential effects of decadal climate change, with some exceptions, mainly in vector-borne diseases.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Enfermedades Desatendidas/epidemiología , Medicina Tropical/tendencias , Animales , Humanos , Clima Tropical
13.
Parasitology ; 145(13): 1647-1654, 2018 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547362

RESUMEN

The drive to control neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has had many successes but to reach defined targets new approaches are required. Over the last decade, NTD control programmes have benefitted from increased resources, and from effective partnerships and long-term pharmaceutical donations. Although the NTD agenda is broader than those diseases of parasitic aetiology there has been a massive up-scaling of the delivery of medicines to some billion people annually. Recipients are often the poorest, with the aspiration that NTD programmes are key to universal health coverage as reflected within the 2030 United Nations sustainable development goals (SDGs). To reach elimination targets, the community will need to adapt global events and changing policy environments to ensure programmes are responsive and can sustain progress towards NTD targets. Innovative thinking embedded within regional and national health systems is needed. Policy makers, managers and frontline health workers are the mediators between challenge and change at global and local levels. This paper attempts to address the challenges to end the chronic pandemic of NTDs and achieve the SDG targets. It concludes with a conceptual framework that illustrates the interactions between these key challenges and opportunities and emphasizes the health system as a critical mediator.


Asunto(s)
Erradicación de la Enfermedad , Salud Global , Enfermedades Desatendidas/prevención & control , Enfermedades Parasitarias/prevención & control , Medicina Tropical/tendencias , Humanos , Enfermedades Parasitarias/tratamiento farmacológico
14.
Trends Parasitol ; 34(4): 272-282, 2018 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29500033

RESUMEN

The world is experiencing environmental and social change at an unprecedented rate, with the effects being felt at local, regional, and international scales. This phenomenon may disrupt interventions against neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that operate on the basis of linear scaling and 'one-size-fits-all'. Here we argue that investment in field-based data collection and building modelling capacity is required; that it is important to consider unintended consequences of interventions; that inferences can be drawn from wildlife ecology; and that interventions should become more location-specific. Collectively, these ideas underpin the development of adaptive decision-support tools that are sufficiently flexible to address emerging issues within the Anthropocene.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Desatendidas/prevención & control , Medicina Tropical/tendencias , Animales , Cambio Climático , Humanos , Medicina Tropical/normas
15.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 90(1 Suppl 1): 645-661, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29451603

RESUMEN

Scientific and technological breakthroughs have compelled the current players in drug discovery to increasingly incorporate knowledge-based approaches. This evolving paradigm, which has its roots attached to the recent advances in medicinal chemistry, molecular and structural biology, has unprecedentedly demanded the development of up-to-date computational approaches, such as bio- and chemo-informatics. These tools have been pivotal to catalyzing the ever-increasing amount of data generated by the molecular sciences, and to converting the data into insightful guidelines for use in the research pipeline. As a result, ligand- and structure-based drug design have emerged as key pathways to address the pharmaceutical industry's striking demands for innovation. These approaches depend on a keen integration of experimental and molecular modeling methods to surmount the main challenges faced by drug candidates - in vivo efficacy, pharmacodynamics, metabolism, pharmacokinetics and safety. To that end, the Laboratório de Química Medicinal e Computacional (LQMC) of the Universidade de São Paulo has developed forefront research on highly prevalent and life-threatening neglected tropical diseases and cancer. By taking part in global initiatives for pharmaceutical innovation, the laboratory has contributed to the advance of these critical therapeutic areas through the use of cutting-edge strategies in medicinal chemistry.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/química , Química Farmacéutica , Descubrimiento de Drogas/métodos , Enfermedades Desatendidas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Tripanocidas/química , Enfermedad de Chagas/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Esquistosomiasis/tratamiento farmacológico , Medicina Tropical/tendencias
16.
Trends Parasitol ; 34(5): 356-358, 2018 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29358040

RESUMEN

We share the insights from a successful collaboration in organizing and implementing an international scientific capacity-building workshop in Malaysia titled Mathematical Modelling of Neglected Infectious Diseases: Capacity Building in Southeast Asia. This workshop focused on the delivery of technical know-how and on essential soft skills related to effective grant proposal writing and networking.


Asunto(s)
Creación de Capacidad , Modelos Teóricos , Medicina Tropical/tendencias , Animales , Asia Sudoriental , Humanos , Enfermedades Desatendidas/epidemiología , Zoonosis/epidemiología
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