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1.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105260, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390926

RESUMEN

From infancy, neural processes for perceiving others' actions and producing one's own actions overlap (neural mirroring). Adults and children show enhanced mirroring in social interactions. Yet, whether social context affects mirroring in infancy, a time when processing others' actions is crucial for action learning, remains unclear. We examined whether turn-taking, an early form of social interaction, enhanced 9-month-olds' neural mirroring. We recorded electroencephalography while 9-month-olds were grasping (execution) and observing live grasps (observation). In this design, half of the infants observed and acted in alternation (turn-taking condition), whereas the other half observed several times in a row before acting (blocked condition). Replicating previous findings, infants showed significant 6- to 9-Hz mu suppression (indicating motor activation) during execution and observation (n = 24). In addition, a condition (turn-taking or blocked) by time (action start or end) interaction indicated that infants engaged in turn-taking (n = 9), but not in the blocked context (n = 15), showed more mirroring when observing the action start compared with the action end. Exploratory analyses further suggest that (a) there is higher visual-motor functional connectivity in turn-taking toward the action's end, (b) mirroring relates to later visual-motor connectivity, and (c) visual attention as indexed by occipital alpha is enhanced in turn-taking compared with the blocked context. Together, this suggests that the neural processing of others' actions is modulated by the social context in infancy and that turn-taking may be particularly effective in engaging infants' action perception system.


Asunto(s)
Electroencefalografía , Conducta del Lactante , Adulto , Niño , Fuerza de la Mano , Humanos , Lactante , Medio Social
2.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 26: e20210207, 2022. graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1339879

RESUMEN

Resumo Objetivo refletir sobre o conceito de vulnerabilidade em saúde à luz dos pressupostos de educação e liberdade de Hannah Arendt. Método estudo teórico-reflexivo cujos resultados foram agrupados em duas categorias: Vulnerabilidade em saúde como condição humana e Educação e liberdade do sujeito em situação de vulnerabilidade. Resultados a vulnerabilidade deve ser reconhecida como traço da condição humana, pois suas dimensões envolvem o sujeito e suas condições de saúde, materiais, socioambientais, culturais e jurídicas. Ao considerar a vulnerabilidade na perspectiva política e conscientizadora, a educação emerge como ferramenta para sobrepujá-las, pois possibilita desenvolver as singularidades dos sujeitos, preparando-os para a responsabilidade com o mundo; propicia superar a alienação; concretiza o aprendizado político e a tomada de decisões. Tudo isso reunido é crucial para suplantar a condição de vulnerabilidade frente às desigualdades existentes no mundo e o respeito à liberdade dos sujeitos. Conclusão e implicações para a prática pensamentos arendtianos guardam relação com vulnerabilidade, pois a conscientização, por meio da educação, é indispensável ao aprimoramento do atual contexto social e político. A busca do ser humano pela liberdade e o encorajamento de suas ações oportunizam a evolução do sujeito no mundo.


Resumen Objetivo reflexionar sobre el concepto de vulnerabilidad en salud a la luz de los supuestos de educación y libertad de Hannah Arendt. Método estudio teórico-reflexivo cuyos resultados se agruparon en dos categorías: Vulnerabilidad en salud como condición humana y Educación y libertad del sujeto en situación de vulnerabilidad. Resultados la vulnerabilidad debe ser reconocida como un rasgo de la condición humana, ya que sus dimensiones involucran al sujeto y sus condiciones de salud, materiales, socioambientales, culturales y legales. Al considerar la vulnerabilidad desde una perspectiva política y de sensibilización, la educación surge como una herramienta para superarlas, ya que permite desarrollar las singularidades de los sujetos, preparándolos para la responsabilidad con el mundo; permite superar la alienación; materializa el aprendizaje político y la toma de decisiones. Todo esto en conjunto es fundamental para superar la condición de vulnerabilidad ante las desigualdades existentes en el mundo y el respeto a la libertad de los sujetos. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica los pensamientos arendtianos están relacionados con la vulnerabilidad, ya que la conciencia, a través de la educación, es fundamental para mejorar el contexto social y político actual. La búsqueda por la libertad de los seres humanos y el estímulo de sus acciones brindan oportunidades para la evolución del sujeto en el mundo.


Abstract Objective reflect on the concept of health vulnerability in light of Hannah Arendt's assumptions on education and freedom. Method a theoretical-reflexive study whose results were grouped into two categories: Vulnerability in health as a human condition and Education and freedom of the subject in a vulnerable situation. Results vulnerability must be recognized as a feature of the human condition, because its dimensions involve the subject and their health, material, socio-environmental, cultural and legal conditions. When considering vulnerability from a political and awareness-raising perspective, education emerges as a tool to overcome it, for it makes it possible to develop the singularities of the subjects, preparing them for their responsibility to the world; it enables them to overcome alienation; it materializes political learning and decision making. All of this together is crucial to overcome the condition of vulnerability to the inequalities existing in the world and the respect for the subjects' freedom. Conclusion and implications for practice arendtian thoughts are related to vulnerability, since awareness, through education, is indispensable to the improvement of the current social and political context. The human being's search for freedom and the encouragement of their actions enable the evolution of the subject in the world.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Filosofía , Educación , Vulnerabilidad en Salud , Libertad , Medio Social , Formación de Concepto
3.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107116, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562776

RESUMEN

This study examines the relationship between personal networks and polysubstance use among people who use drugs (PWUD) in a medium sized city in the Midwest. A large body of work has demonstrated that personal relationships have an ambivalent association with substance use. On the one hand, a supportive network is associated with safer drug use practices and dramatically improves the outlook for recovery. However, individuals whose personal networks are composed of co-drug use partners are more likely to engage in risky practices. We argue that this notion of "supportive" social contacts and "risky" social contacts is ultimately incomplete: risky behaviors are introduced and further developed in a social context, often with the people who provide emotional support. We argue that personal networks with more multiplex relationships (where co-drug use and confiding fuse) are harmful because they combine norms of trust and reciprocity with drug use. We use data from the Rural Health Cohort (RHC) study to test this idea. The sample consists of 120 adult PWUD in a medium sized city located in southeastern Nebraska who were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Participants listed up to nine confidants and nine co-drug use partners, indicating any overlap between the two networks. Our results demonstrate that multiplex ties are as strongly associated with polysubstance use as simple co-drug use relationships. As the drug crisis has increasingly shifted to underserved populations outside large urban centers, this paper represents an important advance in our understanding of the current drug crisis.


Asunto(s)
Asunción de Riesgos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adulto , Humanos , Nebraska/epidemiología , Medio Social , Red Social , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología
4.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 98: 104567, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781189

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Ageism is studied extensively in community-dwelling older adults, but remains poorly understood in institutionalized older adults. Here, we compared the physical, psychological, and social variables associated with self-reported age-based biases in community-dwelling older adults and in those living in nursing homes (NHs). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Participants (n = 272) in this descriptive cross-sectional study lived in NHs (n = 126) or in their homes (n = 146), were 60 years or older, and had no cognitive or serious functional impairments. Those in NHs had been institutionalized for at least six months. The dependent variable was negative stereotypes toward aging (CENVE). We developed generalized linear models (GLMs) by place of residence and sex following the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment´s (CGA) methodology. RESULTS: There is a statistically significant relationship between negative stereotypes of aging and different multidimensional variables. These variables differ between institutionalized and non-institutionalized adults and between men and women. While some variables are non-modifiable (age and sex) others are potentially modifiable (educational level, participation in activities, length of NH stay, hand strength, autonomy, and depression). CONCLUSIONS: This study compared, for the first time, levels of ageism in older people living in two different social environments. Because most of the significant variables are modifiable in both environments, our results provide a framework to combat this type of discrimination. Promising strategies include anti-ageism policies and laws, educational interventions, and increased intergenerational contact.


Asunto(s)
Ageísmo , Estereotipo , Anciano , Envejecimiento , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Medio Social
5.
Int J Cancer ; 150(2): 253-262, 2022 01 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520579

RESUMEN

Several studies have investigated the association between net survival (NS) and social inequalities in people with cancer, highlighting a varying influence of deprivation depending on the type of cancer studied. However, few of these studies have accounted for the effect of social inequalities over the follow-up period, and/or according to the age of the patients. Thus, using recent and more relevant statistical models, we investigated the effect of social environment on NS in women with breast or gynecological cancer in France. The data were derived from population-based cancer registries, and women diagnosed with breast or gynecological cancer between 2006 and 2009 were included. We used the European deprivation index (EDI), an aggregated index, to define the social environment of the women included. Multidimensional penalized splines were used to model excess mortality hazard. We observed a significant effect of the EDI on NS in women with breast cancer throughout the follow-up period, and especially at 1.5 years of follow-up in women with cervical cancer. Regarding corpus uteri and ovarian cancer patients, the effect of deprivation on NS was less pronounced. These results highlight the impact of social environment on NS in women with breast or gynecological cancer in France thanks to a relevant statistical approach, and identify the follow-up periods during which the social environment may have a particular influence. These findings could help investigate targeted actions for each cancer type, particularly in the most deprived areas, at the time of diagnosis and during follow-up.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/mortalidad , Neoplasias de los Genitales Femeninos/mortalidad , Sistema de Registros/estadística & datos numéricos , Medio Social , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Neoplasias de la Mama/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Francia/epidemiología , Neoplasias de los Genitales Femeninos/epidemiología , Neoplasias de los Genitales Femeninos/patología , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pronóstico , Tasa de Supervivencia
6.
Health Soc Care Community ; 30(1): e51-e66, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991131

RESUMEN

Prevention has become increasingly central in social care policy and commissioning strategies within the United Kingdom (UK). Commonly there is reliance on understandings borrowed from the sphere of public health, leaning on a prevention discourse characterised by the 'upstream and downstream' metaphor. Whilst framing both structural factors and responses to individual circumstances, the public health approach nonetheless suggests linearity in a cause and effect relationship. Social care and illness follow many trajectories and this conceptualisation of prevention may limit its effectiveness and scope in social care. Undertaken as part of a commissioned evaluation of the Social Services and Wellbeing Act (2014) Wales, a systematic integrative review was conducted to establish the key current debates within prevention work, and how prevention is conceptually framed, implemented and evaluated within the social care context. The databases Scopus, ASSIA, CINAHL and Social Care Online were initially searched in September 2019 resulting in 52 documents being incorporated for analysis. A further re-run of searches was run in March 2021, identifying a further 14 documents, thereby creating a total of 66. Predominantly, these were journal articles or research reports (n = 53), with the remainder guidance or strategy documents, briefings or process evaluations (n = 13). These were categorised by their primary theme and focus, as well as document format and research method before undergoing thematic analysis. This highlighted the continued prominence of three-tiered, linear public health narratives in the framing of prevention for social care, with prevention work often categorised and enacted with inconsistency. Common drivers for prevention activity continue to be cost reduction and reduced dependence on the care system in the future. Through exploring prevention for older people and caregivers, we argue for an approach to prevention aligning with the complexities of the social world surrounding it. Building on developments in complexity theory in social science and healthcare, we offer an alternative view of social care prevention guided by principles rooted in the everyday realities of communities, service users and caregivers.


Asunto(s)
Cuidadores , Apoyo Social , Anciano , Humanos , Medio Social , Reino Unido , Gales
7.
Appetite ; 168: 105759, 2022 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662601

RESUMEN

Individuals can apply different healthy eating strategies to help them make healthy eating choices. Previous research showed that individuals differ in their preferred strategy, but also that a mix of strategies is often applied by a single person across contexts. The current research investigated the extent to which differences within an individual across contexts (i.e., meal moments, social environment and physical environment) predicted openness to healthy eating strategies in addition to personal predictors that differ between individuals (i.e., intrinsic motivation, self-efficacy, physical opportunity and social opportunity). A representative sample of the Dutch adult population was recruited (N = 892). The within-individual (contextual) predictors were measured nine times just before a meal moment over a period of three weeks, by means of a smartphone application. The between-individual (personal) predictors were administered with a baseline questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis distinguished three healthy eating strategies: Increasing healthy foods, Limiting unhealthy foods and consuming Light products. A random intercept model, in which within-individual predictors and between-individual predictors were entered successively, showed that context matters for openness to all three strategies, but is most important for increasing healthy foods and least important for light products. Individuals are most open to increase healthy foods at dinner as compared to breakfast, whereas the opposite is true for limiting unhealthy foods and consuming light products. Eating at home is beneficial for openness to all three strategies and eating with others positively influences openness to increase healthy foods but has no effect on the other strategies. Insights gained from this research increase our understanding of an individual's openness to apply healthy eating strategies.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Saludable , Conducta Alimentaria , Adulto , Ingestión de Alimentos , Humanos , Comidas , Motivación , Medio Social
8.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260952, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34965252

RESUMEN

The endeavor to understand the human brain has seen more progress in the last few decades than in the previous two millennia. Still, our understanding of how the human brain relates to behavior in the real world and how this link is modulated by biological, social, and environmental factors is limited. To address this, we designed the Healthy Brain Study (HBS), an interdisciplinary, longitudinal, cohort study based on multidimensional, dynamic assessments in both the laboratory and the real world. Here, we describe the rationale and design of the currently ongoing HBS. The HBS is examining a population-based sample of 1,000 healthy participants (age 30-39) who are thoroughly studied across an entire year. Data are collected through cognitive, affective, behavioral, and physiological testing, neuroimaging, bio-sampling, questionnaires, ecological momentary assessment, and real-world assessments using wearable devices. These data will become an accessible resource for the scientific community enabling the next step in understanding the human brain and how it dynamically and individually operates in its bio-social context. An access procedure to the collected data and bio-samples is in place and published on https://www.healthybrainstudy.nl/en/data-and-methods/access. Trail registration: https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/7955.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiología , Medio Social , Adulto , Afecto/fisiología , Conducta , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Cognición/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Neuroimagen , Sensación/fisiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959927

RESUMEN

With the increase in meals eaten outside the home, sodium reduction in restaurant foods is essential for reducing sodium intake. This study aimed to assess the stages of behavioral change for reducing sodium and the differences in perceptions among restaurant staff by stage. Restaurant owners and cooks (n = 313) in Seongnam, South Korea were surveyed on their stage of behavioral change, practices, and perceptive factors related to sodium reduction in restaurant meals using a questionnaire. The proportion of behavioral change by stage was 20.4% in the maintenance and action (MA) stage, 32.3% in the preparation (P) stage, and 47.3% in the pre-preparation (PP) stage, which included contemplation and pre-contemplation stages. The items that represent differences among the groups were recognition of social environment for sodium reduction, practice of weighing condiments and measuring salinity, and feasibility of actions related to low-sodium cooking. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios for practice and perceptive factors by using stage of behavioral change as the independent variable. Factors associated with being in the MA stage were weighing condiments, measuring salinity, and high feasibility of actions related to low-sodium cooking. Recognition of sodium labeling and anticipation of better taste by reducing sodium increased the odds of being in the P stage rather than the PP stage. These results suggest that customized stepwise education and support are needed for the efficacy of restaurant-based sodium reduction programs.


Asunto(s)
Comportamiento del Consumidor/estadística & datos numéricos , Culinaria , Dieta Hiposódica/psicología , Restaurantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Sodio en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Etiquetado de Alimentos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , República de Corea/epidemiología , Medio Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959994

RESUMEN

Children's executive functions (EFs) emerge over time and can be shaped by household environments and dietary intake. However, there is a lack of knowledge about how these factors influence EFs in children aged 18-24 months. This study tested a model exploring the relations between parent-reported dietary intake, household chaos, and child EF. The sample consisted of 294 families participating in the STRONG Kids2 birth cohort study of nutrition and child health. Caregivers completed the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), the Confusion, Hubbub, and Order Scale (CHAOS), and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function®-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P) to assess model variables. Regression analyses revealed a significant and independent association between assorted snacks and processed foods and two EF subscales. There were also significant associations between household chaos and each EF subscale. There was no significant moderation effect. These findings suggest that family households characterized by dysregulation are associated with children's EF difficulties during early childhood and that the role of unhealthy dietary intake in child EF should be explored further. Future longitudinal studies that include multi-method approaches are needed to document the mechanisms through which household chaos impacts child EF over time.


Asunto(s)
Ingestión de Alimentos/fisiología , Función Ejecutiva , Composición Familiar , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Lactante/fisiología , Responsabilidad Parental , Padres/psicología , Psicología Infantil , Medio Social , Factores de Edad , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
Gac Sanit ; 35 Suppl 2: S549-S553, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34929898

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to look at the effects of climate on the way and place of childcare and their impact on children's health. METHOD: The method used is field exploration by observing how parents take care of their children, and measuring the temperature and humidity of the caregiver, besides looking for secondary data at the local health center regarding the level of health of infants (health center visits for treatment and types of diseases that are mainly affected by climate). RESULT: Soil as a reservoir for germs occurs because the residential environment is not clean due to a poor drainage system which results in dirty water not being channeled properly, being absorbed into the soil and stagnant. In addition, high wind speeds also have an impact on household displacement from endemic places into settlements. It takes non-physical and physical efforts to prevent children from contracting the disease. Non-physical efforts through good behavior, and physically by making playtime comfortable and safe for children. CONCLUSION: Children who play in nature using soil media are at risk of causing disease. Soil as a reservoir for germs occurs because the residential environment is not clean due to a poor drainage system, resulting in dirty water not being channeled properly, absorbed into the soil and stagnant.


Asunto(s)
Cuidado del Niño , Salud del Niño , Niño , Composición Familiar , Humanos , Padres , Medio Social
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(51)2021 12 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903653

RESUMEN

We investigated historical redlining, a government-sanctioned discriminatory policy, in relation to cardiovascular health (CVH) and whether associations were modified by present-day neighborhood physical and social environments. Data included 4,779 participants (mean age 62 y; SD = 10) from the baseline sample of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA; 2000 to 2002). Ideal CVH was a summary measure of ideal levels of seven CVH risk factors based on established criteria (blood pressure, fasting glucose, cholesterol, body mass index, diet, physical activity, and smoking). We assigned MESA participants' neighborhoods to one of four grades (A: best, B: still desirable, C: declining, and D: hazardous) using the 1930s federal Home Owners' Loan Corporation (HOLC) maps, which guided decisions regarding mortgage financing. Two-level hierarchical linear and logistic models, with a random intercept to account for participants nested within neighborhoods (i.e., census tracts) were used to assess associations within racial/ethnic subgroups (non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic Chinese). We found that Black adults who lived in historically redlined areas had a 0.82 (95% CI -1.54, -0.10) lower CVH score compared to those residing in grade A (best) neighborhoods, in a given neighborhood and adjusting for confounders. We also found that as the current neighborhood social environment improved the association between HOLC score and ideal CVH weakened (P < 0.10). There were no associations between HOLC grade and CVH measures or effect modification by current neighborhood conditions for any other racial/ethnic group. Results suggest that historical redlining has an enduring impact on cardiovascular risk among Black adults in the United States.


Asunto(s)
Aterosclerosis/epidemiología , Racismo , Características de la Residencia , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Aterosclerosis/etnología , Femenino , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Factores de Riesgo de Enfermedad Cardiaca , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Medio Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
13.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(12): 2196-2200, 2021 Dec 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34954986

RESUMEN

Objective: To establish an index that can reflect the level of healthy aging promotion in a region. Methods: Establish an indicators system using expert consultation and then determine the weight for each indicator using the analytic hierarchy process. Finally, we can get the regional healthy aging promotion index. Results: Regional healthy aging promotion indicator system was established, including five first-level indicators (residence environment, medical service, public health, nurse and care, and supporting system) and 21 second-level indicators. The weight of every level-one indicator ranges from 0.073 to 0.346. Two indicators with the highest weight are residence environment and public health (0.346 and 0.325, respectively), while the indicator with the lowest weight is nurse and care (0.073). The importance of every level-two indicator ranges from 0.011 to 0.162. The consistency ratio of the regional healthy aging promotion index is 0.021, and the consistency test is qualified. Conclusion: Regional healthy aging promotion index established in this study is very scientific, reasonable, and applicable. It can be used to evaluate the region's situation or level of healthy aging promotion.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento Saludable , Ambiente , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Salud Pública , Medio Social
14.
Emotion ; 21(7): 1427-1437, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34928691

RESUMEN

Individuals with social anxiety are sensitive to social hierarchies and tend to compare themselves unfavorably with others, perceiving themselves as inferior or lower in social rank. The current study explores patterns of change in these negative perceptions, and their associated emotional outcomes, in an online social context. Undergraduate students (N = 291) browsed the profiles of eight Instagram influencers and completed a measure of social comparison after viewing each profile, yielding multiple ratings of their own perceived social rank. Participants completed measures of affect and state self-esteem before and after the profile browsing task. Higher social anxiety predicted lower, and greater declines in, social rank self-perceptions during browsing. Higher social anxiety also predicted greater decreases in positive affect, increases in negative affect, and decreases in state self-esteem from the beginning to the end of the browsing task. Low baseline rank perceptions contributed to change in all three emotional variables. Decreases in rank perceptions contributed further to decreases in positive affect and appearance-related self-esteem. This study elaborates on cognitive-evolutionary theory, suggesting that the inferiority self-perceptions of socially anxious individuals translate to online social contexts, may be strengthened with increased exposure to such contexts, and may have a detrimental emotional impact. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , Emociones , Humanos , Autoimagen , Medio Social , Percepción Social
15.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 3): 4919-4932, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787186

RESUMEN

The scope of this study was to analyze the association between social capital and bullying among adolescents aged 15 to 19 years, in high schools in the Greater Vitória Metropolitan Area in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was carried out at the school base, with a sample of 2293 students, stratified by municipality of school location. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed using two instruments: Integrated Questionnaire to Measure Social Capital of the World Bank and adapted versions of the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. The results showed that victims of bullying were more likely to present low level of cognitive social capital (p = 0.001; OR = 1.9, 95%CI = 1.29-2.68), underlying (p = 0.002; OR = 1.7, 95%CI = 1.20-2.38) and total (p < 0.001; OR = 1.80, 95%CI = 1.32-2.59). Bullying offenders were associated with low levels of cognitive social capital (p < 0.001; OR = 3.2, 95%CI = 2.34-4.44) and total (p = 0.042; OR = 1.7, 95%CI = 1.24-2.27). High levels of social capital are related to the reduction of bullying and victimization behaviors. Therefore, healthy social relationships should be promoted in the spaces of mutual coexistence of adolescents to stimulate other positive reactions in school environments.


Asunto(s)
Acoso Escolar , Capital Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Instituciones Académicas , Medio Social , Adulto Joven
16.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(6): 992-1000, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841767

RESUMEN

Objective: To analyze the impact of the social environment of a community on the self-rated health of middle-aged and older adults living in the community, and to provide a basis for building favorable community social environment that promotes the health of middle-aged and older adults. Methods: Using the community and individual survey data from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) done in 2011, 7822 middle-aged and older adults living in 397 communities were selected as the subjects of the study. Community social environment under study included community socioeconomic status, community social security and community services. Self-rated health was measured with a five-level score. A three-level hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM) was used to analyze the impact of community social environment on the self-rated health of middle-aged and older adults. Results: The proportion of subjects who reported self-rated poor health was 28.8%. According to the results of the three-level HGLM, the self-rated health of middle-aged and older adults showed differences at both the city and the community levels, and the variance reduction ratio reached 35.71% at the community level. The self-rated health status of residents in the communities with medium and high net per capita income was better than that in the communities with low net per capita income ( OR=0.84, P<0.05; OR=0.70, P<0.05). The self-rated health status of residents in the communities with secondary and higher education levels was better than that in the communities with low education level ( OR=0.78, P<0.05; OR=0.73, P<0.05). The self-rated health of middle-aged and older adults in the communities with unemployment subsidies was much better ( OR=0.77, P<0.05). The self-rated health status of middle-aged and older adults with chronic diseases was worse ( OR=4.46, P<0.05). Middle-aged and older adults living in cities had better self-rated health status ( OR=0.67, P<0.05). Conclusion: Community socioeconomic status and community unemployment subsidy are positively correlated with the self-rated health of middle-aged and older adults living in the community. It is necessary to pay special attention to the health status of middle-aged and older adults in communities of low socioeconomic status, improve unemployment insurance policies, and promote the health of middle-aged and older adults.


Asunto(s)
Estado de Salud , Medio Social , Anciano , Correlación de Datos , Humanos , Renta , Estudios Longitudinales , Persona de Mediana Edad
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769580

RESUMEN

The literature has not yet well documented the relative elements of the adoption of healthy lifestyle habits (HLHs) over the long term. More especially, researchers are calling to complete the corpus with qualitative or mixed estimates that would allow them to better explain the conditions necessary for the adoption or maintenance of HLHs over the long term. The present study seeks to understand the winning conditions for the adoption and maintenance of HLHs. Semi-structured group interviews were conducted with three groups of university students (two in Bachelor's degree in physical education (PE) and one in Master's degree in physical activity science), all in favor with HLHs. The results identify some dominant winning conditions in the adoption and maintenance of HLHs, such as the role of the family environment, the role of diversity and choice in physical activities during youth, the physical and social environment, autonomy and also mental health, which is closely linked with physical health. Results were modelled in the form of an ideal pathway, which traces the impact of winning conditions from childhood to adulthood. The originality of this study stands out, among other things, because of its innovative methodology; therefore, this study opens the door to future qualitative research in the field. Investigating pathways, considering the different phases of development of children and adolescents to identify factors of change and maintenance of HLHs now seems to be an interesting and necessary avenue for research in the field.


Asunto(s)
Estilo de Vida Saludable , Estudiantes , Adolescente , Niño , Ejercicio Físico , Humanos , Educación y Entrenamiento Físico , Medio Social , Adulto Joven
18.
J Aging Stud ; 59: 100957, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794708

RESUMEN

Older peoples' independent living in their own homes and their ability to move around and maintain social relations in their communities have been acknowledged as important aims to support their well-being. In this article, we study Special Transport Services as a means to support older persons with 'aging in place' - that is, within their communities. From "go-alongs" (shared dial-a-ride bus journeys) and "sit-down interviews" (at participant's home or a café) with 12 older people living in a Finnish suburb, we explored their everyday dial-a-ride bus trips to the local mall. We used actor-network theory and the concept of motility to show how at first glance what appeared to be simple dial-a-ride journeys were in fact produced by a complex and fluid actor network consisting of people, rules, norms, practices, technical devices, as well as other objects and tools. Associations between various human and non-human actors compensated for the functional limitations experienced by the participants, but also created difficulties during the journeys. Our main finding is that the actor network of dial-a-ride bus did physically help older people be more mobile, but at the same time the service required a wide range of know-how and skills. We argue that developing a truly age-friendly environment - with inclusive services to help older individuals age well within their community - requires a detailed understanding from their perspective of the actor networks that produce those services. When planning old age services, there is a need to engage with older people from different social backgrounds to develop services that are genuinely supportive and easy to use for a heterogeneous group. Our findings can be utilized in developing physical and social environments that better support older people's mobility and enable them to age well in the community.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento Saludable , Vida Independiente , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Envejecimiento , Humanos , Medio Social
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770160

RESUMEN

Older public housing tenants experience various factors associated with physical inactivity and are locally dependent on their environment to support their physical activity. A better understanding of the person-environment fit for physical activity could highlight avenues to improve access to physical activity for this subgroup of the population. The aim of this study was to evaluate older public housing tenants' capabilities for physical activity in their residential environment using a socioecological approach. We conducted individual semi-structured walk-along interviews with 26 tenants (female = 18, male = 8, mean age = 71.96 years old). Living in housing developments exclusively for adults aged 60 years or over in three neighborhoods in the city of Montreal, Canada. A hybrid thematic analysis produced five capabilities for physical activity: Political, financial, social, physical, and psychological. Themes spanned across ecological levels including individual, public housing, community, and government. Tenant committees appear important to physical activity promotion. Participants called for psychosocial interventions to boost their capability for physical activity as well as greater implication from the housing authority and from government. Results further support a call for intersectoral action to improve access to physical activity for less affluent subgroups of the population such as older public housing tenants.


Asunto(s)
Vivienda , Vivienda Popular , Adulto , Anciano , Canadá , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Medio Social , Caminata
20.
Mol Biol Cell ; 32(22): ae2, 2021 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735269

RESUMEN

If this was not happening in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, I imagine that I would be speaking these words instead of writing them on my laptop. Even so, I am so jazzed for this opportunity! No word or phrase describes what I am feeling in this moment in receiving the 2021 American Society for Cell Biology Prize for Excellence in Inclusivity. It is certainly an honor to be recognized in this way. I am grateful to the Howard Hughes Medical Institute for awarding me additional resources to keep on keeping on. My approach to finding the connection between people and their science certainly could use the monetary support. Resources open doors. At the same time that I am grateful for the attention, I am not exactly sure what to do with the spotlight. Importantly, there are a host of other folks out there also doing amazing things who have never been recognized. Let's work to ensure that their contributions are supported, appreciated, and recognized. Instead of focusing the spotlight on me, I would rather redirect it to recognize my foundational influences. I also hope to encourage the need for institutional approaches beyond celebrating individual accomplishment.


Asunto(s)
Distinciones y Premios , Diversidad Cultural , Cambio Social , Academias e Institutos , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Medio Social
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