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2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 355, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224421

RESUMEN

The outbreak of COVID-19 has been unprecedented in speed and effect. Efforts to predict the disease transmission have mostly been done using flagship models developed by the global north. These models have not accurately depicted the true rate of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Africa. The models have ignored Africa's unique socio-ecological makeup (demographic, social, environmental and biological) that has aided a slower and less severe spread of the virus. This paper opines on how the science of infectious disease modelling needs to evolve to accommodate contextual factors. Country-owned and tailored modelling needs to be urgently supported.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Países en Desarrollo/estadística & datos numéricos , Modelos Estadísticos , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , África/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Características Culturales , Demografía , Instituciones de Salud , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Asignación de Recursos , Medio Social
3.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1931): 20201026, 2020 07 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043865

RESUMEN

Social complexity reflects the intricate patterns of social interactions in societies. Understanding social complexity is fundamental for studying the evolution of diverse social systems and the cognitive innovations used to cope with the demands of social life. Social complexity has been predominantly quantified by social unit size, but newer measures of social complexity reflect the diversity of relationships. However, the association between these two sets of measures remains unclear. We used 12 years of data on 13 gorilla groups to investigate how measures of social complexity relate to each other. We found that group size was a poor proxy for relationship diversity and that the social complexity individuals experienced within the same group varied greatly. Our findings demonstrate two fundamental takeaways: first, that the number of relationships and the diversity of those relationships represent separate components of social complexity, both of which should be accounted for; and second, that social complexity measured at the group level may not represent the social complexity experienced by individuals in those groups. These findings suggest that comprehensive studies of social complexity, particularly those relating to the social demands faced by individuals, may require fine-scale social data to allow accurate comparisons across populations and species.


Asunto(s)
Gorilla gorilla/fisiología , Conducta Social , Animales , Medio Social
4.
Am J Prev Med ; 59(5): 630-638, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011008

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Exposure to disaster-related media may be a risk factor for mental distress, but this has not been examined in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study assesses whether exposure to social and traditional media during the rise of the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with mental distress among U.S. adults. METHODS: Data came from the Understanding America Study, conducted with a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of adults who completed surveys online. Participants included 6,329 adults surveyed between March 10 and March 31, 2020. Regression analyses examined the associations of (1) self-reported average time spent on social media in a day (hours) and (2) number of traditional media sources (radio, TV, and newspaper) consulted to learn about COVID-19 with self-reported mental distress (4-item Patient Health Questionnaire). Data were analyzed in April 2020. RESULTS: Participants responding at later survey dates reported more time spent on social media (ß=0.02, 95% CI=0.01, 0.03), a greater number of traditional media sources consulted to learn about COVID-19 (ß=0.01, 95% CI=0.01, 0.02), and greater mental distress (ß=0.07, 95% CI=0.04, 0.09). Increased time spent on social media and consulting a greater number of traditional media sources to learn about COVID-19 were independently associated with increased mental distress, even after adjusting for potential confounders (social media: ß=0.14, 95% CI=0.05, 0.23; traditional media: ß=0.14, 95% CI=0.08, 0.20). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to a greater number of traditional media sources and more hours on social media was modestly associated with mental distress during the rise of the COVID-19 pandemic in the U.S.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Distrés Psicológico , Medio Social , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Correlación de Datos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Difusión de la Información/métodos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Psicología , Factores de Riesgo , Autoinforme/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
5.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(10): 1462-1469, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047707

RESUMEN

Background: Educational environment (EE) affects transfer/acquisition of knowledge and skills needed in training medical students. Evaluation of EE by students is paramount to rating the EE of a medical school as well as evaluate effects of interventions. Assessing EE of medical schools is a current global trend. Objectives: : To evaluate EE at the new medical school of the Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Teaching Hospital Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria; calculate the total and subscale (Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure) DREEM scores and assess differences in these scores amongst the different classes, age groups, and sexes. Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study using census survey. We administered DREEM questionnaire to 4th, 5th, and 6th year medical students in the 2018/2019 academic session after ethical approval from Health Research and Ethics Committee (HREC). Data entry and analysis done using SPSS. ANOVA was used for association between level of study, age group, and total DREEM/Subscale scores. Test for association between sex and mean subscale/total score was done using independent sample t-test. P value <0.05 was adjudged significant. Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency was calculated. Results: Of 206 students, 185 filled in the questionnaire. Total DREEM score was 119.66, Students' perception of teachers 26.74, Students' academic self Perception 21.94, Students' Perception of Learning 30.75, Students' Social Self Perception 15.04, Students' Perception of Atmosphere 25.26. Three items scored above 3 while 11 items scored ≤2. Fourth year students significantly scored higher than others for all subscale and total DREEM score. No significant associations between age or gender and subscale or total DREEM scores. Cronbach's alpha for all scores was 0.91. Conclusions: The EE was not excellent but "more positive than negative." Improvements are necessary in all domains of DREEM to ensure better quality of the educational environment.


Asunto(s)
Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Facultades de Medicina/organización & administración , Autoimagen , Medio Social , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Masculino , Nigeria , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Enseñanza , Universidades
6.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 18(1): 78, 2020 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059714

RESUMEN

Telehealth is an extraordinary advancement of modern medicine. It has increased access to care for underserved populations and, in the case of pediatric rheumatology, has expanded the reach of a limited work force. During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, telehealth has radically changed the way healthcare workers have been able to deliver care while maintaining social distance. In addition to the infectious havoc of COVID-19, the pandemic has further altered the psychosocial milleu of our society which directly impacts the wellness and safety of our pediatric rheumatology patients. These psychosocial factors may be difficult to assess and triage solely using telehealth. The objective of this short review is to educate practitioners on the psychosocial concerns exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic and to discuss the possible hurdles in utilization of telehealth to care for our vulnerable patient population.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pediatría , Neumonía Viral , Reumatología , Telemedicina , Betacoronavirus , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños , Depresión , Humanos , Salud Mental , Atención Dirigida al Paciente , Medición de Riesgo , Medio Social , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias
7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239897, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045018

RESUMEN

Violence-free family ties, non-violent peers or attachment to society have been pointed out as protective factors against different types of extremism and violent radicalization by international literature. However, more detail needs to be provided about which specific aspects within these realms (friendship/family/community) are effective in challenging violence and how they operate in practice. Recent research conducted under the framework of the PROTON project (Horizon 2020) has analyzed the social and ethical impacts of counter-terrorism and organized crime policies in six European countries. In this article we discuss some identified common features among practices that, developed by organized actors operating at the local level (e.g.: grassroots-based associations, educational institutions, other type of organized networks for prevention, NGOs), are contributing to preventing youth violent radicalization, a phenomenon of growing concern in Europe and beyond. Standing on a solid rejection to violence, these shared features are the following: a bottom-up approach in setting allies with key stakeholders from the community or/and family members to intervene; the promotion of trustworthy and healthy friendship relationships; debunking the lure surrounding violent subjects ("false heroes") and violence in the different contexts, especially in the socioeducational one.


Asunto(s)
Controles Informales de la Sociedad/métodos , Medio Social , Participación de los Interesados , Violencia/prevención & control , Adolescente , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Violencia/psicología , Adulto Joven
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238475, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877439

RESUMEN

Regional resilience refers to the resilience of a country or region against the ecological environment, social economy, and other internal and external natural factors and human factors in the process of development. When this resilience is lower than a certain critical threshold, the country or region will be in a fragile state. The comprehensive embodiment of ecological resilience, social resilience, and economic resilience of a country or region is regional resilience. Due to the wide range of countries along "the Belt and Road", differences in natural background conditions and stages of economic and social development among different countries lead to different degrees of vulnerability, and the improvement of resilience is conducive to reducing vulnerability. At the same time, the research on the measurement and differentiation characteristics of regional resilience is of considerable significance to solve the weak foundation of environmental management and the lack of ability to deal with climate change of "the Belt and Road" countries. In this study, by using entropy weighting method and multi-index comprehensive evaluation method, 24 specific indicators are selected from three different dimensions: ecology, economy, and society, to construct a comprehensive evaluation index system about "the Belt and Road" countries resilience, and to evaluate the comprehensive resilience and spatial heterogeneity characteristics of China and 64 countries along "the Belt and Road", and use multiple linear regression analysis to identify the main influencing factors of comprehensive resilience and analyze its influencing mechanism. According to the research, the overall resilience level of "the Belt and Road" countries shows prominent differentiation characteristics of "extreme difference", the countries with low and low recovery status account for the vast majority; and the spatial differentiation characteristics of the levels of ecological resilience, economic resilience, and social resilience of countries along "the Belt and Road" are quite different. In countries with high levels of economic development, their comprehensive resilience is significantly higher than that of countries with low levels of economic development. There is no inevitable connection between a country's economic growth rate and its comprehensive resilience level. At the same time, the relationship between resource richness and comprehensive resilience of countries is not apparent, but for those countries that are over-dependent on resources, the level of resilience is generally below. There is a certain degree of correspondence between urbanization rate and comprehensive resilience, that is, the comprehensive resilience will increase with the increase of urbanization rate. When the urbanization rate rises to a certain level, the level of comprehensive resilience does not change much. In this study, it provides scientific guidance for enriching regional resilience and national sustainable development theory, solving the fragile ecological environment foundation of "the Belt and Road" countries, speeding up the transformation of economic growth mode and dealing with a series of social problems.


Asunto(s)
Ecología/tendencias , Desarrollo Económico/tendencias , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias , China , Humanos , Internacionalidad , Medio Social , Análisis Espacial , Urbanización
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238376, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877467

RESUMEN

The purpose of this paper is to assess the level of material deprivation in European Union countries in 2016 from both a local and a global perspective. The Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) was used in the study. Based on research, five main types of the level of the material deprivation of European Union countries were identified. Research findings suggest that the population of old EU countries is less severely affected by material deprivation than people living in new member states. Also, the level of global material deprivation was assessed. The study was based on 2016 statistical data delivered by Eurostat.


Asunto(s)
Estado de Salud , Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , Pobreza/tendencias , Calidad de Vida , Características de la Residencia , Medio Social , Factores Socioeconómicos , Unión Europea , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos
10.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003283, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877401

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Since 2011, the protracted Syrian war has had tragic consequences on the lives of the Syrian people, threatening their stability, health, and well-being. The most vulnerable are children, who face interruption of schooling and child labor. This study explored the relationship between social capital and the physical health and emotional well-being of Syrian refugee working children in rural areas of Lebanon. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this cross-sectional study, we surveyed 4,090 Syrian refugee children working in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon in 2017. Children (8-18 years) gave direct testimony on their living and social environment in face-to-face interviews. Logistic regressions assessed the association of social capital and social cohesion with the health and emotional well-being of Syrian refugee working children; specifically, poor self-rated health, reporting a health problem, engaging in risky health behavior, feeling lonely, feeling optimistic, and being satisfied with life. Of the 4,090 working children in the study, 11% reported poor health, 16% reported having a health problem, and 13% were engaged in risky behaviors. The majority (67.5%) reported feeling lonely, while around 53% were optimistic and 59% were satisfied with life. The study findings suggest that positive social capital constructs were associated with better health. Lower levels of social cohesion (e.g., not spending time with friends) were significantly associated with poor self-rated health, reporting a physical health problem, and feeling more lonely ([adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 2.4; CI 1.76-3.36, p < 0.001], [AOR, 1.9; CI 1.44-2.55, p < 0.001], and [AOR, 0.5; CI 0.38-0.76, p < 0.001], respectively). Higher levels of social support (e.g., having good social relations), family social capital (e.g., discussing personal issues with parents), and neighborhood attachment (e.g., having a close friend) were all significantly associated with being more optimistic ([AOR, 1.5; CI 1.2-1.75, p < 0.001], [AOR, 1.3; CI 1.11-1.52, p < 0.001], and [AOR, 1.9; CI 1.58-2.29, p < 0.001], respectively) and more satisfied with life ([AOR, 1.3; CI 1.01-1.54, p = 0.04], [AOR, 1.2; CI 1.01-1.4, p = 0.04], and [AOR, 1.3; CI 1.08-1.6, p = 0.006], respectively). The main limitations of this study were its cross-sectional design, as well as other design issues (using self-reported health measures, using a questionnaire that was not subject to a validation study, and giving equal weighting to all the components of the health and emotional well-being indicators). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the association between social capital, social cohesion, and refugee working children's physical and emotional health. In spite of the poor living and working conditions that Syrian refugee children experience, having a close-knit network of family and friends was associated with better health. Interventions that consider social capital dimensions might contribute to improving the health of Syrian refugee children in informal tented settlements (ITSs).


Asunto(s)
Calidad de Vida/psicología , Refugiados/psicología , Adolescente , Niño , Trabajo Infantil , Estudios Transversales , Emociones , Femenino , Humanos , Líbano/etnología , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa , Capital Social , Medio Social , Apoyo Social , Siria
11.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(9): 811-817, 2020 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867523

RESUMEN

Causal pathways to disruptive behavior disorders, even within the same diagnostic category, are varied. Both equifinality and multifinality pose considerable challenges to uncovering underlying mechanisms and understanding varied developmental trajectories associated with disruptive behavior disorders. Uncovering genetic causes requires improved granularity in how we operationalize presentation and developmental trajectories associated with disruptive behavior disorders. If we want to integrate the study of genetic, environmental, and neurocognitive factors within a longitudinal framework, we need to improve measurement. Furthermore, brain changes associated with disruptive behavior disorders should not simply be understood as outcomes of genetic and environmental influences, but also as factors that reciprocally influence future social environments over time in ways that are important in contributing to risk and resilience. Advancing the field with regard to these challenges will result in more truly integrated investigation of disruptive behavior disorders, which holds the promise of improving our ability to develop more effective preventive and intervention approaches.


Asunto(s)
Déficit de la Atención y Trastornos de Conducta Disruptiva , Encéfalo , Déficit de la Atención y Trastornos de Conducta Disruptiva/epidemiología , Déficit de la Atención y Trastornos de Conducta Disruptiva/etiología , Déficit de la Atención y Trastornos de Conducta Disruptiva/prevención & control , Déficit de la Atención y Trastornos de Conducta Disruptiva/psicología , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Encéfalo/crecimiento & desarrollo , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Interacción Gen-Ambiente , Humanos , Problema de Conducta/psicología , Psicología del Desarrollo/métodos , Psicología del Desarrollo/tendencias , Psicopatología , Factores de Riesgo , Medio Social
13.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg ; 48(10): 969-976, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826151

RESUMEN

The aim of the study was to describe the attractiveness of a newborn with CL/P and the maternal reaction in relation to the child. Another purpose was to explore and describe the experience and subjectively perceived reaction of the mother and the social environment to the child before and after cleft lip surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A study to describe and evaluate mothers' experiences, feelings and emotions (n = 84) regarding having a child with CL/P was performed. Therefore mothers were asked to complete a self-reported, standardized Likert-scale questionnaire. The questions were focused on the mother's own experiences, and the reaction of close family members and the social environment (friends, unknown people) to the child. Therefore two essential situations during the first year of life were analyzed: the first contact with the child, and a second one after lip surgery. The influence of lip reconstruction on the attractiveness of the child and the following reactions were analyzed. The timeline includes surveys from 01/2014 to 12/2016. RESULTS: 84 mothers of affected children (CL/P) replied to the questionnaire (84/103). Most mothers (n = 64) described the attractiveness of their child at birth as "very good" (n = 37) and "good" (n = 27). After lip reconstruction the subjective attractiveness in the mothers' opinions increased to 90.5% (n = 76): 24 "good" (p = 0.23) and 52 "very good" (p = 0.73). 50 mothers defined the postoperative surgical result as "very good", 21 did not see any improvement (p = 0.001). Poor postoperative evaluations like "very poor" (n = 0), "insufficient" (n = 1) or "sufficient" (n = 1) were found two times. The majority of mothers (n = 78) reported negative reactions of the social environment to the child before lip surgery. Friends reacted in general more positively to the child with the visible deformity than did the social environment. 41 mothers described that their life partner or husband reacted "always" more positively to the child (p = 0.018). After surgical lip closure, strangers (n = 22) and even friends (n = 27) did not change their reactions obviously. CONCLUSION: For the mother, the attractiveness of a child with CL/P is not significantly affected by the visible facial malformation. Even if the lip reconstruction increases the child's attractiveness from the mother's perspective, the often negative reactions of the family and social environment did not change.


Asunto(s)
Labio Leporino/cirugía , Fisura del Paladar/cirugía , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Madres , Estudios Retrospectivos , Autoinforme , Medio Social
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237332, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790761

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Neighborhood socioeconomic (nSES) factors have been implicated in prostate cancer (PCa) disparities. In line with the Precision Medicine Initiative that suggests clinical and socioenvironmental factors can impact PCa outcomes, we determined whether nSES variables are associated with time to PCa diagnosis and could inform PCa clinical risk assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample included 358 high risk men (PCa family history and/or Black race), aged 35-69 years, enrolled in an early detection program. Patient variables were linked to 78 nSES variables (employment, income, etc.) from previous literature via geocoding. Patient-level models, including baseline age, prostate specific antigen (PSA), digital rectal exam, as well as combined models (patient plus nSES variables) by race/PCa family history subgroups were built after variable reduction methods using Cox regression and LASSO machine-learning. Model fit of patient and combined models (AIC) were compared; p-values<0.05 were significant. Model-based high/low nSES exposure scores were calculated and the 5-year predicted probability of PCa was plotted against PSA by high/low neighborhood score to preliminarily assess clinical relevance. RESULTS: In combined models, nSES variables were significantly associated with time to PCa diagnosis. Workers mode of transportation and low income were significant in White men with a PCa family history. Homeownership (%owner-occupied houses with >3 bedrooms) and unemployment were significant in Black men with and without a PCa family history, respectively. The 5-year predicted probability of PCa was higher in men with a high neighborhood score (weighted combination of significant nSES variables) compared to a low score (e.g., Baseline PSA level of 4ng/mL for men with PCa family history: White-26.7% vs 7.7%; Black-56.2% vs 29.7%). DISCUSSION: Utilizing neighborhood data during patient risk assessment may be useful for high risk men affected by disparities. However, future studies with larger samples and validation/replication steps are needed.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de la Próstata/epidemiología , Adulto , Afroamericanos , Anciano , Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Características de la Residencia , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Medio Social , Factores Socioeconómicos
15.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e155, 2020 Aug 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787989

RESUMEN

AIMS: To investigate behavioural problems throughout childhood and adolescent, and its relationship with socioeconomic position (SEP) and early parenting environment. METHODS: Using data from the Millennium Cohort Study conducted in the UK, behavioural problems of 14 452 children were analysed using a growth curve model. The children were followed from birth to adolescence, and their behavioural problems were measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The SDQ was sub-scaled into externalising and internalising problems. After assessing the general trajectory of children's behavioural problems, variables representing SEP and parenting environments were introduced to the model to analyse the association with children's outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, children's trajectories in externalising problems showed a decreasing trend while internalising problems increased as they aged. Household income and maternal education in early childhood were independently associated with children's behavioural problems, while the association for maternal occupation was significantly weaker. Positive early parenting environments attenuated the association between SEP and children's behavioural problems. Also, with regards to children's behavioural problems, positive parenting explained more variance between children compared to SEP. Favourable parent-child relationship buffered the income gradient in children's behavioural problems during early childhood, and although this buffering effect did not last until adolescence, those who had good parent-child relationships developed better outcomes regardless of their SEP. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study emphasise the importance of a positive early parenting environment for improving and reducing the socioeconomic gap in children's behavioural problems and encourages policies to promote better parenting circumstances.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Conducta Infantil/psicología , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Responsabilidad Parental , Problema de Conducta/psicología , Clase Social , Medio Social , Adolescente , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Renta , Control Interno-Externo , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Reino Unido
16.
Am J Occup Ther ; 74(5): 7405205140p1-7405205140p17, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804632

RESUMEN

IMPORTANCE: Autistic adults face decreased community participation for employment, education, and social activities plus barriers to driving and transportation. However, little is known about their experiences of moving around community environments. OBJECTIVE: To explore contextual issues and experiences of independent community mobility and driving for autistic adults and to determine the modes of community mobility, regions studied, and methodologies used. DATA SOURCES: Seven databases were searched from 2000 to 2019. All empirical research relating to autism, community mobility, and driving for people older than age 5 yr was mapped. Studies examining experiences of community mobility and driving were selected for scoping review. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA COLLECTION: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews methodology was used. Thirteen studies reporting specifically on autistic adults' experiences with public transportation, driving, and pedestrian navigation of community environments were included. These studies were analyzed using concepts from the Person-Environment-Occupation-Performance Model. FINDINGS: Nine studies examined experiences of autistic adults. Seven studies explored proxy perspectives. Those studies examining driving primarily focused on learner driver experiences. Although most studies reported on personal and environmental factors, some studies reported on broader social communication and personal narrative factors. None used inclusive methodology involving autistic adults. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: A broader focus on the contextual experiences of community mobility and driving is needed to support participation of autistic adults in their communities. Linking community mobility experiences with participation outcomes and expanding research to include experienced drivers and nonurban populations is an important component of this work. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: Occupational therapy interventions should address community mobility and driving skills before school transition. Autistic adults' skill development may be affected by person factors such as motivation, anxiety, social skills, communication, and occupational performance desires. Environmental factors such as parental concerns, community safety, pedestrian environments, traffic volume, and public transportation design are important. Further research partnering with autistic adults could better inform future occupational therapy interventions for community mobility and driving.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Autístico , Conducción de Automóvil , Terapia Ocupacional , Adulto , Humanos , Medio Social , Transportes
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237597, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853232

RESUMEN

Several factors influence the environmental performance simultaneously but ethnic fractionalization, political freedom, financial development and institutional quality have a substantial impact to explain the environmental performance across economies. This study focuses to explore that how environmental performance is affected by these economic, political and social indicators by using the annual data of 163 developed and developing countries covering the time period of 1996-2016.The data is collected from World Development Indicators, World Governance Indicators, Freedom House and Cline Centre. The stationarity of variables is analyzed through LLC, IPS and ADF Fisher Chi-square test. Before applying panel ARDL approach to find out the long run relationship among variables, order of integration is determined through Pedroni's cointegration test. The findings of study highlight that ethnic diversity; institutional quality and political freedom play a significant role to decrease CO2emissions while energy consumption, GDP growth and financial development are increasing the environmental degradation. Ethnic diversity is a source of creative and innovative approaches about problem solving of environmental degradation. Political freedom allows people to participate in decision making that posits much compliance with environmental agreements. The foreign direct investment is attracted by good quality institutions which cause to advent of more environment friendly technology along with attractions for further innovations that may helpful to reduce CO2 emissions. Contrary, GDP growth, financial development and energy consumption enhance the industrialization and urbanization leading to increase the level of CO2 emissions. It is suggested for policy makers that cohesion among different ethnic groups; improving institutional quality; providing political freedom to people and inclusive financial sector will acknowledge the less pollutant environment.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Desarrollo Económico , Desarrollo Industrial , Medio Social , Urbanización , Humanos
18.
Biol Lett ; 16(8): 20200468, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750272

RESUMEN

Dominance hierarchies confer benefits to group members by decreasing the incidences of physical conflict, but may result in certain lower ranked individuals consistently missing out on access to resources. Here, we report a linear dominance hierarchy remaining stable over time in a closed population of birds. We show that this stability can be disrupted, however, by the artificial mass loading of birds that typically comprise the bottom 50% of the hierarchy. Mass loading causes these low-ranked birds to immediately become more aggressive and rise-up the dominance hierarchy; however, this effect was only evident in males and was absent in females. Removal of the artificial mass causes the hierarchy to return to its previous structure. This interruption of a stable hierarchy implies a strong direct link between body mass and social behaviour and suggests that an individual's personality can be altered by the artificial manipulation of body mass.


Asunto(s)
Columbidae , Predominio Social , Agresión , Animales , Femenino , Jerarquia Social , Humanos , Masculino , Conducta Social , Medio Social
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731379

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Due to different social and physical environments across Africa, understanding how these environments differ in interacting with placental disorders will play an important role in developing effective interventions. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted, to identify current knowledge on interactions between the physical and social environment and the incidence of placental disease in Africa. RESULTS: Heavy metals were said to be harmful when environmental concentrations are beyond critical limits. Education level, maternal age, attendance of antenatal care and parity were the most investigated social determinants. CONCLUSIONS: More evidence is needed to determine the relationships between the environment and placental function in Africa. The results show that understanding the nature of the relationship between social determinants of health (SDH) and placental health outcomes plays a pivotal role in understanding the risk in the heterogenous communities in Africa.


Asunto(s)
Cesárea , Enfermedades Placentarias/epidemiología , Nacimiento Prematuro , África/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Edad Materna , Embarazo , Medio Social
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781551

RESUMEN

Participation in everyday activities at home and in the community is essential for children's development and well-being. Limited information exists about participation patterns of preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examines these participation patterns in both the home and community, and the extent to which environmental factors and social communication abilities are associated with participation. Fifty-four parents of preschool-aged children with ASD completed the Participation and Environment Measure for Young Children and the Autism Classification System of Functioning: Social Communication. The children had a mean age of 48.9 (8.4) months. Patterns of participation were studied using descriptive statistics, radar graphs, and Spearman correlations. Children with ASD participated in a variety of activities at home and in the community, but showed a higher participation frequency at home. Parents identified different barriers (e.g., social demands) and supports (e.g., attitudes) in both settings. There was a moderate positive association between children's social communication abilities and their levels of involvement during participation and the diversity of activities. This study highlights the importance of social communication abilities in the participation of preschool children with ASD, and the need to support parents while they work to improve their child's participation, especially within their communities.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Comunicación , Medio Social , Participación Social , Habilidades Sociales , Desarrollo Infantil , Preescolar , Familia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Padres , Conducta Verbal
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