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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800621

RESUMEN

Government social media is widely used for providing updates to and engaging with the public in the COVID-19 pandemic. While Facebook is one of the popular social media used by governments, there is only a scant of research on this platform. This paper aims to understand how government social media should be used and how its engagement changes in prodromal, acute and chronic stages of the pandemic. We collected 1664 posts and 10,805 comments from the Facebook pages of the Macao government from 1 January to 31 October 2020. Using word frequency and content analysis, the results suggest that the engagement was relatively low at the beginning and then surged in the acute stage, with a decreasing trend in the chronic stage. Information about public health measures maintained their engagement in all stages, whereas the engagement of other information was dropping over time. Government social media can be used for increasing vigilance and awareness in the prodromal stage; disseminating information and increasing transparency in the acute stage; and focusing on mental health support and recovery policies in the chronic stage. Additionally, it can be a tool for controlling rumors, providing regular updates and fostering community cohesion in public health crises.


Asunto(s)
Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Gobierno , Humanos , Macao , Pandemias
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799609

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has led many countries to employ public health regulations to achieve behavioral change and stop the transmission of the virus. The factors influencing compliance with these regulations may differ from "classic" predictors for medical compliance. This study attempted to assess the effect of social communication and psychological factors on intention to comply. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted on healthy adults living in Israel (n = 697). The survey assessed the intention to comply with the state COVID-19 regulations and explored possible correlations with demographic and psychosocial factors. Data were collected during May 2020 using a Qualtrics online survey. Data were analyzed to find correlations between anxiety, uncertainty, media exposure and other variables and the level of intention to comply as self-reported. Moderation and mediation effects were studied by an integrative model of influencing factors. We found that media exposure change, trust in responsible agencies and anxiety were positively correlated with compliance, while uncertainty was correlated with noncompliance. The effect of media exposure on compliance had two components. First, media exposure was positively correlated with compliance. On the other hand, media exposure was positively correlated with uncertainty, and uncertainty was negatively correlated with compliance. Interestingly, anxiety, which was positively correlated with media exposure, also moderated the negative correlation between uncertainty and compliance. Our results highlight the important role of uncertainty and anxiety as moderators between media exposure and compliance. To increase public compliance with COVID-19 regulations, efforts should be directed at decreasing uncertainty and anxiety.


Asunto(s)
Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Israel/epidemiología , Pandemias
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804120

RESUMEN

Information on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a significant focus for the global public since the outbreak of the disease. In response, data visualization has become the main form of media used to inform the public about the global pandemic's progress. This paper studies the example of China, the main country affected by the virus in the early stage of the pandemic, to explain the problems regarding the differences in time, knowledge, and technology for information transmission. This paper also tries to explain the causes behind the dissemination of rumors, misjudgment of the public, and the difficulties of perception regarding pandemic information based on the three aspects of information collection, processing, and presentation. We argue that comprehensive information transmission with direct and clear visual presentation could help the public better understand the development of the pandemic, relieve social panic, and help authorities promptly adjust public health policies to absorb the social and economic impacts of the pandemic. Based on a case study, we propose that hierarchical presentation, comprehensive descriptions, and accurate visualizations of pandemic data can effectively improve information transmission, thus providing helpful references for authorities and organizations to improve the effectiveness of pandemic information transmission.


Asunto(s)
Medios de Comunicación Sociales , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias
4.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248811, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735309

RESUMEN

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been posing a substantial challenge to human survival and well-being, which rely on the actions and behaviors of individuals. It is essential that accurate information is distributed; however, misinformation has been spread via social media. Consequently, the resulting panic has to be addressed while putting essential public health measures in place. It is also important to explore the link between the social media exposure and well-being. Therefore, in the current study, we aimed to identify the levels of anxiety, depression, and social isolation among individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, we explored the relationship between exposure to misleading social media news and anxiety, depression, and social isolation. A cross sectional design was employed to collect data from 371 Saudi participants (aged 16-60 years), using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and de Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scale. Results showed that the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and social isolation was 47.82%, 47.57%, and 46.42%, respectively. Further, more than 83% of the participants reported using social media frequently during the pandemic. We found that exposure to misinformation via social media has a significant positive relationship with anxiety, depression, and social isolation. However, Due to the cross-sectional nature of this study it cannot be determined whether social media causes negative mental health outcomes, or if individuals experiencing greater depression, anxiety and social isolation turn to social media more than others, or if some third variable might explain both. Based on our findings, we present specific suggestions related to the COVID-19 pandemic to the government of Saudi Arabia. Minoring and filtering out misleading information with the cooperation of the World Health Organization (WHO) can promote the spread of accurate news in Saudi Arabia.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Aislamiento Social , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Adolescente , Adulto , Comunicación , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
5.
Evid Based Dent ; 22(1): 30-31, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772130

RESUMEN

Design Randomised controlled trial.Intervention Undergraduate students aged 18 to 35 years were randomly allocated to either navigate a bespoke Instagram page featuring 'ideal' facial images as judged by five orthodontists (n = 71) or neutral images of nature (n = 61). Participants were allowed to view the Instagram page once and for a duration of five minutes.Outcome measures The primary outcome was facial dissatisfaction which was measured using the Facial Satisfaction Scale (FSS). Secondary outcomes included: body dissatisfaction, which was measured using the Body Satisfaction Scale (BSS), and overall body and facial dissatisfaction, measured as a sum of scores of BSS and FSS.Data analysis Data were analysed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multivariate regression analyses.Results Exposure to 'ideal' facial images on Instagram resulted in significantly lower facial satisfaction scores (-2.39; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.32, -0.46 P <0.016), with no significant difference in BSS (-2.74; CI: -5.66, 0.19) and overall scores (-3.49; CI: -6.10, -0.87) when compared to the control group. Based on the multivariate regression analysis, high baseline self-discrepancy scores negatively affected both FSS and BSS.Conclusions Exposure to 'ideal' facial images on Instagram resulted in an immediate and negative impact on FSS when compared to neutral images of nature. While this study is interesting, further robust research to clarify the effect of various social networking sites on facial and bodily satisfaction remains necessary.


Asunto(s)
Insatisfacción Corporal , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Adolescente , Adulto , Imagen Corporal , Humanos , Satisfacción Personal , Sonrisa , Adulto Joven
6.
Br J Nurs ; 30(6): 374-376, 2021 Mar 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769872

RESUMEN

University of Southampton, discusses strategies to enhance vaccination uptake among certain groups in society who are influenced by anti-vaxxers.


Asunto(s)
Movimiento Anti-Vacunación , Comunicación , /epidemiología , /efectos adversos , Miedo , Humanos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Vacunación/psicología
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e24883, 2021 03 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651705

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Effective communication during a health crisis can ease public concerns and promote the adoption of important risk-mitigating behaviors. Public health agencies and leaders have served as the primary communicators of information related to COVID-19, and a key part of their public outreach has taken place on social media platforms. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the content and engagement of COVID-19 tweets authored by Canadian public health agencies and decision makers. We propose ways for public health accounts to adjust their tweeting practices during public health crises to improve risk communication and maximize engagement. METHODS: We retrieved data from tweets by Canadian public health agencies and decision makers from January 1, 2020, to June 30, 2020. The Twitter accounts were categorized as belonging to either a public health agency, regional or local health department, provincial health authority, medical health officer, or minister of health. We analyzed trends in COVID-19 tweet engagement and conducted a content analysis on a stratified random sample of 485 tweets to examine the message functions and risk communication strategies used by each account type. RESULTS: We analyzed 32,737 tweets authored by 118 Canadian public health Twitter accounts, of which 6982 tweets were related to COVID-19. Medical health officers authored the largest percentage of COVID-19-related tweets (n=1337, 35%) relative to their total number of tweets and averaged the highest number of retweets per COVID-19 tweet (112 retweets per tweet). Public health agencies had the highest frequency of daily tweets about COVID-19 throughout the study period. Compared to tweets containing media and user mentions, hashtags and URLs were used in tweets more frequently by all account types, appearing in 69% (n=4798 tweets) and 68% (n=4781 tweets) of COVID-19-related tweets, respectively. Tweets containing hashtags also received the highest average retweets (47 retweets per tweet). Our content analysis revealed that of the three tweet message functions analyzed (information, action, community), tweets providing information were the most commonly used across most account types, constituting 39% (n=181) of all tweets; however, tweets promoting actions from users received higher than average retweets (55 retweets per tweet). When examining tweets that received one or more retweet (n=359), the difference between mean retweets across the message functions was statistically significant (P<.001). The risk communication strategies that we examined were not widely used by any account type, appearing in only 262 out of 485 tweets. However, when these strategies were used, these tweets received more retweets compared to tweets that did not use any risk communication strategies (P<.001) (61 retweets versus 13 retweets on average). CONCLUSIONS: Public health agencies and decision makers should examine what messaging best meets the needs of their Twitter audiences to maximize sharing of their communications. Public health accounts that do not currently employ risk communication strategies in their tweets may be missing an important opportunity to engage with users about the mitigation of health risks related to COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Toma de Decisiones/ética , Salud Pública , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/tendencias , Canadá/epidemiología , Humanos , /aislamiento & purificación
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e24593, 2021 03 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646963

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Smoking is a plausible risk factor for COVID-19 progression and complications. Smoking cessation digital platforms transcend pandemic-driven social distancing and lockdown measures in terms of assisting smokers in their quit attempts. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine trends in the number of visitors, followers, and subscribers on smoking cessation digital platforms from January to April 2020 and to compare these traffic data to those observed during the same 4-month period in 2019. The examination of prepandemic and postpandemic trends in smoking cessation digital platform traffic can reveal whether interest in smoking cessation among smokers is attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We obtained cross-sectional data from daily visitors on the SmokeFree website; the followers of six SmokeFree social media accounts; and subscribers to the SmokeFree SMS text messaging and mobile app interventions of the National Cancer Institute's SmokeFree.gov initiative platforms, which are publicly available to US smokers. Average daily percentage changes (ADPCs) were used to measure trends for the entire 2020 and 2019 study periods, whereas daily percentage changes (DPCs) were used to measure trends for each time segment of change within each 4-month period. Data analysis was conducted in May and June 2020. RESULTS: The number of new daily visitors on the SmokeFree website (between days 39 and 44: DPC=18.79%; 95% CI 5.16% to 34.19%) and subscribers to the adult-focused interventions QuitGuide (between days 11 and 62: DPC=1.11%; 95% CI 0.80% to 1.43%) and SmokeFreeTXT (between days 11 and 89: DPC=0.23%; 95% CI 0.004% to 0.47%) increased, but this was followed by declines in traffic. No comparable peaks were observed in 2019. The number of new daily subscribers to quitSTART (ie, the teen-focused intervention) trended downward in 2020 (ADPC=-1.02%; 95% CI -1.88% to -0.15%), whereas the overall trend in the number of subscribers in 2019 was insignificant (P=.07). The number of SmokeFree social media account followers steadily increased by <0.1% over the 4-month study periods in 2019 and 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Peaks in traffic on the SmokeFree website and adult-focused intervention platforms in 2020 could be attributed to an increased interest in smoking cessation among smokers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Coordinated campaigns, especially those for adolescents, should emphasize the importance of smoking cessation as a preventive measure against SARS-CoV-2 infection and raise awareness of digital smoking cessation platforms to capitalize on smokers' heightened interest during the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/estadística & datos numéricos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , /virología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Cese del Hábito de Fumar/métodos
9.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0246949, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657145

RESUMEN

We construct a novel database containing hundreds of thousands geotagged messages related to the COVID-19 pandemic sent on Twitter. We create a daily index of social distancing-at the state level-to capture social distancing beliefs by analyzing the number of tweets containing keywords such as "stay home", "stay safe", "wear mask", "wash hands" and "social distancing". We find that an increase in the Twitter index of social distancing on day t-1 is associated with a decrease in mobility on day t. We also find that state orders, an increase in the number of COVID-19 cases, precipitation and temperature contribute to reducing human mobility. Republican states are also less likely to enforce social distancing. Beliefs shared on social networks could both reveal the behavior of individuals and influence the behavior of others. Our findings suggest that policy makers can use geotagged Twitter data-in conjunction with mobility data-to better understand individual voluntary social distancing actions.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/tendencias , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Manejo de Datos/métodos , Bases de Datos Factuales , Humanos , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , /patogenicidad
10.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247642, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657152

RESUMEN

Vaccinations are without doubt one of the greatest achievements of modern medicine, and there is hope that they can constitute a solution to halt the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. However, the anti-vaccination movement is currently on the rise, spreading online misinformation about vaccine safety and causing a worrying reduction in vaccination rates worldwide. In this historical time, it is imperative to understand the reasons of vaccine hesitancy, and to find effective strategies to dismantle the rhetoric of anti-vaccination supporters. For this reason, we analyzed the behavior of anti-vaccination supporters on the platform Twitter. Here we identify that anti-vaccination supporters, in comparison with pro-vaccination supporters, share conspiracy theories and make use of emotional language. We demonstrate that anti-vaccination supporters are more engaged in discussions on Twitter and share their contents from a pull of strong influencers. We show that the movement's success relies on a strong sense of community, based on the contents produced by a small fraction of profiles, with the community at large serving as a sounding board for anti-vaccination discourse to circulate online. Our data demonstrate that Donald Trump, before his profile was suspended, was the main driver of vaccine misinformation on Twitter. Based on these results, we welcome policies that aim at halting the circulation of false information about vaccines by targeting the anti-vaccination community on Twitter. Based on our data, we also propose solutions to improve the communication strategy of health organizations and build a community of engaged influencers that support the dissemination of scientific insights, including issues related to vaccines and their safety.


Asunto(s)
Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/psicología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/tendencias , Vacunación/psicología , Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Movimiento Anti-Vacunación/tendencias , Escala de Evaluación de la Conducta , Comunicación , Humanos , Salud Pública , /patogenicidad , Vacunas/inmunología
11.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0246757, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705405

RESUMEN

The proliferation of fake news on social media is now a matter of considerable public and governmental concern. In 2016, the UK EU referendum and the US Presidential election were both marked by social media misinformation campaigns, which have subsequently reduced trust in democratic processes. More recently, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the acceptance of fake news has been shown to pose a threat to public health. Research on how to combat the false acceptance of fake news is still in its infancy. However, recent studies have started to focus on the psychological factors which might make some individuals less likely to fall for fake news. Here, we adopt that approach to assess whether individuals who show high levels of 'emotional intelligence' (EQ) are less likely to fall for fake news items. That is, are individuals who are better able to disregard the emotionally charged content of such items, better equipped to assess the veracity of the information. Using a sample of UK participants, an established measure of EQ and a novel fake news detection task, we report a significant positive relationship between individual differences in emotional intelligence and fake news detection ability. We also report a similar effect for higher levels of educational attainment, and we report some exploratory qualitative fake news judgement data. Our findings are discussed in terms of their applicability to practical short term (i.e. current Facebook user data) and medium term (i.e. emotional intelligence training) interventions which could enhance fake news detection.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Inteligencia Emocional , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Adolescente , Adulto , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Pública , Adulto Joven
12.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248384, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705462

RESUMEN

Prior studies indicated that actively using social network sites (SNSs) is positively associated with well-being by enhancing social support and feelings of connectedness. Conversely, passively using SNSs is negatively associated with well-being by fostering upward social comparison and envy. However, the majority of these studies has focused on Facebook. The present research examined the relationships between well-being-satisfaction with life, negative affect, positive affect-and using actively or passively various SNSs-Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, TikTok-during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, two mediators were tested: social support and upward social comparison. One thousand four persons completed an online survey during the quarantine measures; the analyses employed structural equation modeling. Results showed that passive usage of Facebook is negatively related to well-being through upward social comparison, whereas active usage of Instagram is positively related to satisfaction with life and negative affect through social support. Furthermore, active usage of Twitter was positively related to satisfaction with life through social support; while passive usage was negatively related to upward social comparison, which, in turn, was associated with more negative affect. Finally, TikTok use was not associated with well-being. Results are discussed in line with SNSs' architectures and users' motivations. Future research is required to go beyond methodological and statistical limitations and allow generalization. This study concludes that SNSs must be differentiated to truly understand how they shape human interactions.


Asunto(s)
Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Celos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Motivación , Pandemias , Satisfacción Personal , Cuarentena , Red Social , Apoyo Social , Adulto Joven
14.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0234855, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725021

RESUMEN

This study aimed to investigate the knowledge, practices, and attitudes of medical professionals toward Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for the prevention and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). All 401 medical professionals were surveyed using an anonymous with an investigator using the Questionnaire star APP. The participants answered 14 questions; of the 401 participants, 55.2% agreed with the statement "TCM can be used for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19," 40.4% remained neutral, and 4.4% disagreed. Moreover, 75.3% agreed with the statement "There is no specific drug for COVID-19," 67% agreed with the statement "TCM can develop immunity to COVID-19" and 62.1% agreed with "TCM can alleviate the symptoms of patients with COVID-19." Meanwhile, 69.1% were aware that TCM has been recommended for COVID-19 by the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. Regarding the selection of sources of knowledge on whether "TCM can be used for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19," There were 277, 123, 82, 369, and 17 participants selected sources from "Hospital training," "Academic journals," "Academic Conferences," "Social media platforms (such as WeChat)" and "Others," respectively. Further, 358 participants will take TCM for the prevention of COVID-19. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age, major and received TCM treatment within the last five years were independent factors affecting the participants' attitudes. In the absence of specific drugs for COVID-19, more than half of the participants agreed that TCM could be used for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 and most participants are willing to take TCM to prevent COVID-19, although unsure about its effectiveness. The main information sources on TCM for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 were social platforms and hospital training.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Conocimiento , Medicina China Tradicional , Práctica Profesional , Profesionalismo , Adulto , /patología , China , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
15.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e25977, 2021 03 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651709

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Vaccines are one of the most important achievements of modern medicine. However, their acceptance is only partial, with vaccine hesitancy and refusal representing a major health threat. Influenza vaccines have low compliance since repeated, annual vaccination is required. Influenza vaccines stimulate discussions both in the real world and online. Social media is currently a significant source of health and medical information. Elucidating the association between social media engagement and influenza vaccination is important and may be applicable to other vaccines, including ones against COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study is to characterize profiles of social media engagement regarding the influenza vaccine and their association with knowledge and compliance in order to support improvement of future web-associated vaccination campaigns. METHODS: A weblink to an online survey in Hebrew was disseminated over social media and messaging platforms. The survey answers were collected during April 2020. Anonymous and volunteer participants aged 21 years and over answered 30 questions related to sociodemographics; social media usage; influenza- and vaccine-related knowledge and behavior; health-related information searching, its reliability, and its influence; and COVID-19-related information searching. A univariate descriptive data analysis was performed, followed by multivariate analysis via building a decision tree to define the most important attributes associated with vaccination compliance. RESULTS: A total of 213 subjects responded to the survey, of whom 207 were included in the analysis; the majority of the respondents were female, were aged 21 to 40 years, had 1 to 2 children, lived in central Israel, were secular Israeli natives, had higher education, and had a salary close to the national average. Most respondents (128/207, 61.8%) were not vaccinated against influenza in 2019 and used social media. Participants that used social media were younger, secular, and living in high-density agglomerations and had lower influenza vaccination rates. The perceived influence and reliability of the information on social media about COVID-19 were generally similar to those perceptions about influenza. CONCLUSIONS: Using social media is negatively linked to compliance with seasonal influenza vaccination in this study. A high proportion of noncompliant individuals can lead to increased consumption of health care services and can, therefore, overload these health services. This is particularly crucial with a concomitant outbreak, such as COVID-19. Health care professionals should use improved and targeted health communication campaigns with the aid of experts in social media. Targeted communication, based on sociodemographic factors and personalized social media usage, might increase influenza vaccination rates and compliance with other vaccines as well.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Vacunas contra la Influenza/administración & dosificación , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Israel/epidemiología , Masculino , Pandemias , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e27015, 2021 03 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661753

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In February 2020, the Chinese government imposed a complete lockdown of Wuhan and other cities in Hubei Province to contain a spike of COVID-19 cases. Although such measures are effective in preventing the spread of the virus, medical professionals strongly voiced a caveat concerning the pandemic emotional burnout at the individual level. Although the lockdown limited individuals' interpersonal communication with people in their social networks, it is common that individuals turn to social media to seek and share health information, exchange social support, and express pandemic-generated feelings. OBJECTIVE: Based on a holistic and multilevel perspective, this study examines how pandemic-related emotional exhaustion enacts intrapersonal, interpersonal, and hyperpersonal emotional regulation strategies, and then evaluates the effectiveness of these strategies, with a particular interest in understanding the role of hyperpersonal-level regulation or social media-based regulation. METHODS: Using an online panel, this study sampled 538 Chinese internet users from Hubei Province, the epicenter of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. Survey data collection lasted for 12 days from February 7-18, 2020, two weeks after Hubei Province was placed under quarantine. The sample had an average age of 35 (SD 10.65, range 18-78) years, and a majority were married (n=369, 68.6%). RESULTS: Using structural equation modeling, this study found that intrapersonal-level (B=0.22; ß=.24; P<.001) and interpersonal-level (B=0.35; ß=.49; P<.001) emotional regulation strategies were positively associated with individuals' outcome reappraisal. In contrast with intrapersonal and interpersonal regulations, hyperpersonal (social media-based) regulation strategies, such as disclosing and retweeting negative emotions, were negatively related to the outcome reappraisal (B=-1.00; ß=-.80; P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with previous literature, intrapersonal-level regulation (eg, cognitive reappraisal, mindfulness, and self-kindness) and interpersonal-level supportive interaction may generate a buffering effect on emotional exhaustion and promote individuals' reappraisal toward the stressful situation. However, hyperpersonal-level regulation may exacerbate the experienced negative emotions and impede reappraisal of the pandemic situation. It is speculated that retweeting content that contains pandemic-related stress and anxiety may cause a digital emotion contagion. Individuals who share other people's negative emotional expressions on social media are likely to be affected by the negative affect contagion. More importantly, the possible benefits of intrapersonal and interpersonal emotion regulations may be counteracted by social media or hyperpersonal regulation. This suggests the necessity to conduct social media-based health communication interventions to mitigate the social media-wide negative affect contagion if lockdown policies related to highly infectious diseases are initiated.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Regulación Emocional/fisiología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e27078, 2021 03 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661755

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has led to an increase in anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and psychological stress experienced by the general public in various degrees worldwide. However, effective, tailored mental health services and interventions cannot be achieved until we understand the patterns of mental health issues emerging after a public health crisis, especially in the context of the rapid transmission of COVID-19. Understanding the public's emotions and needs and their distribution attributes are therefore critical for creating appropriate public policies and eventually responding to the health crisis effectively, efficiently, and equitably. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to detect the temporal patterns in emotional fluctuation, significant events during the COVID-19 pandemic that affected emotional changes and variations, and hourly variations of emotions within a single day by analyzing data from the Chinese social media platform Weibo. METHODS: Based on a longitudinal dataset of 816,556 posts published by 27,912 Weibo users in Wuhan, China, from December 31, 2019, to April 31, 2020, we processed general sentiment inclination rating and the type of sentiments of Weibo posts by using pandas and SnowNLP Python libraries. We also grouped the publication times into 5 time groups to measure changes in netizens' sentiments during different periods in a single day. RESULTS: Overall, negative emotions such as surprise, fear, and anger were the most salient emotions detected on Weibo. These emotions were triggered by certain milestone events such as the confirmation of human-to-human transmission of COVID-19. Emotions varied within a day. Although all emotions were more prevalent in the afternoon and night, fear and anger were more dominant in the morning and afternoon, whereas depression was more salient during the night. CONCLUSIONS: Various milestone events during the COVID-19 pandemic were the primary events that ignited netizens' emotions. In addition, Weibo users' emotions varied within a day. Our findings provide insights into providing better-tailored mental health services and interventions.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Emociones/fisiología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , /virología , China/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , /aislamiento & purificación
18.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e24948, 2021 03 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674257

RESUMEN

During disease outbreaks or pandemics, policy makers must convey information to the public for informative purposes (eg, morbidity or mortality rates). They must also motivate members of the public to cooperate with the guidelines, specifically by changing their usual behavior. Policy makers have traditionally adopted a didactic and formalistic stance by conveying dry, statistics-based health information to the public. They have not yet considered the alternative of providing health information in the form of narrative evidence, using stories that address both cognitive and emotional aspects. The aim of this viewpoint paper is to introduce policy makers to the advantages of using narrative evidence to provide health information during a disease outbreak or pandemic such as COVID-19. Throughout human history, authorities have tended to employ apocalyptic narratives during disease outbreaks or pandemics. This viewpoint paper proposes an alternative coping narrative that includes the following components: segmentation; barrier reduction; role models; empathy and support; strengthening self-efficacy, community efficacy, and coping tools; preventing stigmatization of at-risk populations; and communicating uncertainty. It also discusses five conditions for using narrative evidence to produce an effective communication campaign on social media: (1) identifying narratives that reveal the needs, personal experiences, and questions of different subgroups to tailor messaging to produce targeted behavioral change; (2) providing separate and distinct treatment of each information unit or theory that arises on social networks; (3) identifying positive deviants who found creative solutions for stress during the COVID-19 crisis not found by other members of the community; (4) creating different stories of coping; and (5) maintaining a dialogue with population subgroups (eg, skeptical and hesitant groups). The paper concludes by proposing criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of a narrative.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Informática Aplicada a la Salud de los Consumidores , Difusión de la Información/métodos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Red Social , Humanos , Medicina Narrativa , Pandemias
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e23272, 2021 03 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684054

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has led to a global pandemic. The World Health Organization has also declared an infodemic (ie, a plethora of information regarding COVID-19 containing both false and accurate information circulated on the internet). Hence, it has become critical to test the veracity of information shared online and analyze the evolution of discussed topics among citizens related to the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This research analyzes the public discourse on COVID-19. It characterizes risk communication patterns in four Asian countries with outbreaks at varying degrees of severity: South Korea, Iran, Vietnam, and India. METHODS: We collected tweets on COVID-19 from four Asian countries in the early phase of the disease outbreak from January to March 2020. The data set was collected by relevant keywords in each language, as suggested by locals. We present a method to automatically extract a time-topic cohesive relationship in an unsupervised fashion based on natural language processing. The extracted topics were evaluated qualitatively based on their semantic meanings. RESULTS: This research found that each government's official phases of the epidemic were not well aligned with the degree of public attention represented by the daily tweet counts. Inspired by the issue-attention cycle theory, the presented natural language processing model can identify meaningful transition phases in the discussed topics among citizens. The analysis revealed an inverse relationship between the tweet count and topic diversity. CONCLUSIONS: This paper compares similarities and differences of pandemic-related social media discourse in Asian countries. We observed multiple prominent peaks in the daily tweet counts across all countries, indicating multiple issue-attention cycles. Our analysis identified which topics the public concentrated on; some of these topics were related to misinformation and hate speech. These findings and the ability to quickly identify key topics can empower global efforts to fight against an infodemic during a pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Comunicación , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , /virología , Humanos , Pandemias , /aislamiento & purificación
20.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(2): 595-599, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714134

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The government of India recently planned to start the process of the mass vaccination program to end the COVID-19 crises. However, the process of vaccination was not made mandatory, and there are a lot of aspects that arise skepticism in the minds of common people regarding COVID-19 vaccines. This study using machine learning techniques analyzes the major concerns Indian citizens voice out about COVID-19 vaccines in social media. METHODS: For this study, we have used social media posts as data. Using Python, we have scrapped the social media posts of Indian citizens discussing about the COVID- 19 vaccine. In Study 1, we performed a sentimental analysis to determine how the general perception of Indian citizens regarding the COVID-19 vaccine changes over different months of COVID-19 crises. In Study 2, we have performed topic modeling to understand the major issues that concern the general public regarding the COVID- 19 vaccine. RESULTS: Our results have indicated that 47% of social media posts discussing vaccines were in a neutral tone, and nearly 17% of the social media posts discussing the COVID-19 vaccine were in a negative tone. Fear of health and allergic reactions towards the vaccine are the two prominent issues that concern Indian citizens regarding the COVID-19 vaccine. CONCLUSION: With the positive sentiments regarding vaccine is just over 35%, the Indian government needs to focus especially on addressing the fear of vaccines before implementing the process of mass vaccination.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , /prevención & control , Miedo , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Humanos , India , Aprendizaje Automático , Procesamiento de Lenguaje Natural
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