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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e040630, 2021 06 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078627

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Though exposure to alcohol imagery in films is a significant determinant of uptake and severity of alcohol consumption among young people, there is poor evidence regarding the content of alcohol imagery in films in low-income and middle-income countries. We have measured alcohol imagery content and branding in popular Indian films, in total and in relation to language and age rating. DESIGN: In this observational study we measured alcohol imagery semiquantitatively using 5-minute interval coding. We coded each interval according to whether it contained alcohol imagery or brand appearances. SETTING: India. PARTICIPANTS: None. Content analysis of a total of 30 national box office hit films over a period of 3 years from 2015 to 2017. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: To assess alcohol imagery in Indian films and its distribution in relation to age and language rating has been determined. RESULTS: The 30 films included 22 (73%) Hindi films and 8 (27%) in regional languages. Seven (23%) were rated suitable for viewing by all ages (U), and 23 (77%) rated as suitable for viewing by children subject to parental guidance for those aged under 12 (UA). Any alcohol imagery was seen in 97% of the films, with 195 of a total of 923 5-minute intervals, and actual alcohol use in 25 (83%) films, in 90 (10%) intervals. The occurrence of these and other categories of alcohol imagery was similar in U-rated and UA-rated films, and in Hindi and local language films. Episodes of alcohol branding occurred in 10 intervals in five films. CONCLUSION: Almost all films popular in India contain alcohol imagery, irrespective of age rating and language. Measures need to be undertaken to limit alcohol imagery in Indian films to protect the health of young people, and to monitor alcohol imagery in other social media platforms in future.


Asunto(s)
Etanol , Películas Cinematográficas , Adolescente , Anciano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Niño , Humanos , India , Medios de Comunicación de Masas
2.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e043991, 2021 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078634

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Promotional media coverage of early detection tests is an important driver of overdiagnosis. Following research evidence that global media coverage presents the benefits of testing healthy people far more frequently than harms, and gives little coverage to overdiagnosis, we sought to examine journalists' views on media reporting of tests, overdiagnosis, and strategies to improve critical reporting on tests. DESIGN: Qualitative study using semistructured telephone interviews. Interviews were conducted between February and March 2020 and were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Framework thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Twenty-two journalists (mainly specialising in health reporting, average 14.5 years' experience) based in Australia. RESULTS: This sample of journalists acknowledged the potential harms of medical tests but felt that knowledge of harms was low among journalists and the public at large. Most were aware of the term overdiagnosis, but commonly felt that it is challenging to both understand and communicate in light of strong beliefs in the benefits of early detection. Journalists felt that newsworthiness in the form of major public health impact was the key ingredient for stories about medical tests. The journalists acknowledged that factors, like the press release and 'click bait culture' in particular, can influence the framing of coverage about tests. Lack of knowledge and training, as well as time pressures, were perceived to be the main barriers to critical reporting on tests. Journalists felt that training and better access to information about potential harms would enable more critical reporting. CONCLUSIONS: Effectively communicating overdiagnosis is a challenge in light of common beliefs about the benefits of testing and the culture of current journalism practices. Providing journalists with training, support and better access to information about potential harms of tests could aid critical reporting of tests.


Asunto(s)
Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Salud Pública , Australia , Humanos , Uso Excesivo de los Servicios de Salud/prevención & control , Investigación Cualitativa
3.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0252034, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015013

RESUMEN

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has emerged as one of the most dramatic health crises of recent decades. This paper treats mainstream news about the current pandemic as a valuable entry point for analyzing the relationship between science and politics in the public sphere, where the outbreak must be both understood and confronted through appropriate public-health policy decisions. In doing so, the paper aims to examine which actors, institutions, and experts dominate the SARS-CoV-2 media narratives, with particular attention to the roles of political, medical, and scientific actors and institutions within the pandemic crisis. The study relies on a large dataset consisting of all SARS-CoV-2 articles published by eight major Italian national newspapers between January 1, 2020 and June 15, 2020. These articles underwent a quantitative analysis based on a topic modeling technique. The topic modeling outputs were further analyzed by innovatively combining ad-hoc metrics and a classifier based on the stacking ensemble method (combining regularized logistic regression and linear stochastic gradient descent) for quantifying scientific salience. This enabled the identification of relevant topics and the analysis of the roles that different actors and institutions engaged in making sense of the pandemic. The results show how the health emergency has been addressed primarily in terms of political regulation and concerns and only marginally as a scientific matter. Hence, science has been overwhelmed by politics, which, in media narratives, exerts a moral as well as regulatory authority. Media narratives exclude neither scientific issues nor scientific experts; rather, they configure them as a subsidiary body of knowledge and expertise to be mobilized as an ancillary, impersonal institution useful for legitimizing the expansion of political jurisdiction over the governance of the emergency.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Pandemias , Política , Salud Pública , Humanos , Italia , Conocimiento , Medios de Comunicación Sociales
4.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0252062, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029357

RESUMEN

Transparency of Chinese media coverage became an international controversy when the COVID-19 outbreak initially emerged in Wuhan, the eventual crisis epicenter in China. Unlike studies characterizing mass media in authoritarian contexts as government mouthpieces during a crisis, this study aims to disaggregate Chinese media practices to uncover differences in when, where, and how the severity of COVID-19 was reported. We examine differences in how media institutions reported the severity of the COVID-19 epidemic in China during the pre-crisis period from 1 January 2020 to 20 January 2020 in terms of both the "vertical" or hierarchical positions of media institutions in the Chinese media ecosystem and the "horizontal" positions of media institutions' social proximity to Wuhan in terms of geographical human traffic flows. We find that the coverage of crisis severity is negatively associated with the media's social proximity to Wuhan, but the effect varies depending on the positional prominence of a news article and situation severity. Implications of the institutions' differentiated reporting strategies on future public health reporting in an authoritarian context are also discussed.


Asunto(s)
Acceso a la Información , COVID-19/epidemiología , China , Revelación/legislación & jurisprudencia , Revelación/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/legislación & jurisprudencia , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Modelos Estadísticos , Sistemas Políticos
5.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(2): 68, 2021 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977437

RESUMEN

Three interdependent factors are behind the current Covid-19 pandemic distorted narrative: (1) science´s culture of "publish or perish", (2) misinformation spread by traditional media and social digital media and (3) distrust of technology for tracing contacts and its privacy-related issues. In this short paper, I wish to tackle how these three factors have added up to give rise to a negative public understanding of science in times of a health crisis, such as the current Covid-19 pandemic and finally, how to confront all these problems.


Asunto(s)
Disciplinas de las Ciencias Biológicas/normas , COVID-19/psicología , Comunicación , Tecnología Digital , Difusión de la Información/ética , Comunicación Académica/normas , Ciencia/normas , Humanos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Revisión de la Investigación por Pares , Privacidad , Opinión Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Medios de Comunicación Sociales
6.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(4): 501-517, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014706

RESUMEN

Uncertainty is a defining feature of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, because uncertainty is an aversive state, uncertainty reduction theory (URT) holds that employees try to manage it by obtaining information. To date, most evidence for the effectiveness of obtaining information to reduce uncertainty stems from research conducted in relatively stable contexts wherein employees can acquire consistent information. Yet, research on crises and news consumption provides reasons to believe that the potential for information to mitigate uncertainty as specified by URT may break down during crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Integrating URT with research on crises and news consumption, we predict that consuming news information during crises-which tends to be distressing, constantly evolving, and inconsistent-will be positively related to uncertainty. This in turn may have negative implications for employee goal progress and creativity; two work outcomes that take on substantial significance in times of uncertainty and the pandemic. We further predict that death anxiety will moderate this relationship, such that the link between employees' news consumption and uncertainty is stronger for those with lower levels of death anxiety, compared to those with higher levels. We test our theorizing via an experience-sampling study with 180 full-time employees, with results providing support for our conceptual model. Our study reveals important theoretical and practical implications regarding information consumption during crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/psicología , Empleo/psicología , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Teletrabajo , Incertidumbre , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 202, 2021 05 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992111

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Female breast cancer was the most diagnosed cancer in 2020, with more than two million new cases worldwide. Access to scientifically correct information can assist patients in early detection or prevention of the disease. However, misinformation on social networking sites (SNSs) about breast cancer can be propagated rapidly, posing a threat to health communication efforts. The aim of this study is to analyse the characteristics of the most shared news stories referencing the disease that circulated on SNSs, including the credibility of this content. METHODS: This is an exploratory quali-quantitative study. Data collection was conducted between June 2019 and June 2020. We performed statistical and content analysis of the stories that had at least 1,000 total shares. Each story was classified in accordance to the following aspects: credibility; type of rumour; source; content type; mentions prevention or early detection/screening exams. RESULTS: The abundance of news stories in our sample (n = 1,594) were not classified according to their credibility, as they do not address science, risk factors, prevention, treatment, or other aspects which can be assessed for scientific accuracy. However, content classified as "rumours" are 3.29 times more shared than those considered scientifically correct. Regarding content type, most stories are classified as 'real-life story' or 'solidarity' (67.69%). In our sample, 5.08% of the total comment on prevention and 19.7% reference early detection. CONCLUSION: We consider it can be a good strategy, in SNSs, to combine content of greater popularity, such as real-life stories, with subjects that can make a difference in a patient's life, such as early detection, breast cancer symptoms and disease prevention strategies. Doctors, scientists and health journalists can expand the dialogue with the lay public regarding breast cancer, helping to counteract online misinformation.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Neoplasias de la Mama/diagnóstico , Comunicación , Femenino , Humanos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Tamizaje Masivo , Red Social
8.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250935, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951092

RESUMEN

Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, social and traditional media have disseminated predictions from experts and nonexperts about its expected magnitude. How accurate were the predictions of 'experts'-individuals holding occupations or roles in subject-relevant fields, such as epidemiologists and statisticians-compared with those of the public? We conducted a survey in April 2020 of 140 UK experts and 2,086 UK laypersons; all were asked to make four quantitative predictions about the impact of COVID-19 by 31 Dec 2020. In addition to soliciting point estimates, we asked participants for lower and higher bounds of a range that they felt had a 75% chance of containing the true answer. Experts exhibited greater accuracy and calibration than laypersons, even when restricting the comparison to a subset of laypersons who scored in the top quartile on a numeracy test. Even so, experts substantially underestimated the ultimate extent of the pandemic, and the mean number of predictions for which the expert intervals contained the actual outcome was only 1.8 (out of 4), suggesting that experts should consider broadening the range of scenarios they consider plausible. Predictions of the public were even more inaccurate and poorly calibrated, suggesting that an important role remains for expert predictions as long as experts acknowledge their uncertainty.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Predicción , Adulto , COVID-19/patología , COVID-19/virología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Incertidumbre , Reino Unido/epidemiología
9.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009444

RESUMEN

Due to the prevalence and harmful consequences of alcohol consumption, universal measures for alcohol prevention are also necessary in adolescence. An example of such a universal measure, "Aktion Glasklar," has been implemented mainly in the school setting for more than 15 years. Through print media, lesson proposals, a quiz with regular prize lotteries, and a website including interactive elements, young people are informed about alcohol in an age-appropriate manner and are encouraged to reflect on alcohol critically. Parents receive suggestions on how to address alcohol consumption with their children. For adult caregivers, such as teachers or youth group leaders, Aktion Glasklar provides prepared teaching suggestions. In a cluster-randomized study, the effects of participation in an intervention on alcohol-related knowledge and the frequency of binge drinking were shown. Thus, even a low-threshold and less intensive measure may contribute to the education and reduction of risky forms of consumption in adolescence.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Cuidadores , Niño , Alemania , Humanos , Prevalencia
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e047166, 2021 05 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011600

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Crime reports of suicide incidents routinely feature in the Indian mass media, with minimal coverage of suicide as a broader public health issue. To supplement our recently published content analysis study, we undertook qualitative interviews to examine media professionals' perspectives and experiences in relation to media reporting of suicide-related news in India. DESIGN AND SETTING: In 2017-2018, we undertook semistructured qualitative interviews with media professionals with experience reporting on suicide-related news. A semistructured interview guide was designed to initiate discussions around their perspectives and experiences in relation to reporting on suicide. Interviews were digitally audio-recorded and transcribed, and a deductive and inductive approach to thematic analysis was used. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-eight interviews were undertaken with media professionals in Delhi, Chandigarh and Chennai. RESULTS: A clear role for media in suicide prevention framed around educating and informing the public was articulated by several participants and a majority of participants also reported concerns and anecdotal accounts that their reporting may negatively influence vulnerable people in the population. Nonetheless, a fatalistic attitude towards suicide was evident among several participants including dismissing or minimising concerns around imitation suicides. Several participants also expressed doubts around the quality of suicide helplines in India and were hesitant to add such contact details to their reports. Participants were largely very receptive to the idea of developing voluntary media guidelines for the Indian context, although doubts were raised around compliance unless additional initiatives were taken to engage media professionals at the highest levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal the perspectives of media professionals operating in the Indian context and can be used to support constructive partnerships between media professionals and suicide prevention experts. There is a clear need for a genuine and sustained partnership between suicide prevention experts and media professionals at all levels.


Asunto(s)
Suicidio , Crimen , Humanos , India , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Investigación Cualitativa , Suicidio/prevención & control
11.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34057538

RESUMEN

Alcohol consumption in Germany continues to be high relative to its European neighbors. A long-term reduction of alcohol consumption can result in a reduction of the morbidity and mortality associated with alcohol. For many years now, the Federal Centre for Health Education (BZgA) has directed its focus in the field of addiction prevention on alcohol prevention and implemented three national multilevel campaigns intended for this target group. "Null Alkohol - Voll Power" (No Alcohol - Full Power) addresses adolescents between the ages of 12 and 16 and the campaign "Alkohol? Kenn dein Limit." (Alcohol? Know Your Limit.) comprises two separate campaigns dedicated to adults and 16- to 20-year-olds, respectively. Further, the BZgA provides sports clubs with the opportunity to participate in a program entitled "Alkoholfrei Sport genießen" (Enjoying Sports Without Alcohol). In this contribution, these measures and their foundational concepts are presented.The campaigns are interconnected to form a prevention chain that serves to bundle the individual efforts. All are based on the principles of social marketing and are continually quality checked. At the center of these efforts lies internet communication, complemented by direct communication in the lives of the target groups as well as mass communication in the form of billboards, TV and radio spots, ads, and print media. The BZgA is able to implement these programs in schools, clubs, and at the municipal level because of the good cooperation and coordination it maintains with the individual federal states. For decades now, the BZgA has conducted monitoring in the form of regular representative surveys, among others, on the subject of alcohol consumption behavior among 12- to 25-year-olds in Germany. The results show that although overall alcohol consumption may be on the decline over the long term, it still remains high.


Asunto(s)
Publicidad , Educación en Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Alemania , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas
12.
Soc Sci Med ; 278: 113944, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940436

RESUMEN

The present study examines whether people respond heterogeneously to statewide social distancing mandates as a function of factors that proxy for health risk, economic insecurity, and media consumption. Using longitudinal data of 7400 American adults between March 10 and June 23, 2020, the study examines social-distancing and mask-wearing behaviors. We use a staggered difference-in-difference model to explore whether state policies lead to preventive behaviors. We further examine heterogeneity in individual responses to state mandates by including interaction terms with health risk, economic insecurity, and media consumption. The study finds that state policies lead to increased adoption of these behaviors. Our findings also suggest that old age and living with the elderly are key predictors of preventive behavior adoption in the presence or even absence of state mandates. However, the economically insecure, such as the unemployed, those with low incomes and net worth, or without health insurance, are less likely to adopt preventive behaviors regardless of the mandates. The adoption of the behaviors is also polarized between CNN users and Fox News/Social Media users, with greater compliance by the former.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Adulto , Anciano , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
13.
Cuad Bioet ; 32(104): 63-73, 2021.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812365

RESUMEN

One of the keys to overcoming the COVID-19 pandemic is the development of the vaccine in order to immunize the population. In addition to the medical complications to obtain the vaccine, we highlight the presence of other problems, such as the dissemination of fake news that add difficulties to overcoming the global problem, especially due to its incidence in the field of anti-vaccine movements, which have developed, with special presence in Italy in recent years. For this, we warn of the need to be prepared to overcome the two pandemics that are developing in parallel, the one caused by the virus and the one generated by the fake news.


Asunto(s)
Movimiento Anti-Vacunación , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevención & control , Decepción , Inmunización , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Opinión Pública , Humanos
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 334, 2021 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836650

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Existing evidence showed that Human Immunodeficiency Virus counselling and testing uptake among Ethiopian youths is low, and factors contributing to it are not well studied. Therefore, this study aims to assess the status of uptake and identify its determinants using the 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey data. METHOD: Data of 10,903 Ethiopian youths were extracted from the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey. The association between the response variable and the predictors was modeled by multilevel binary logistic regression, whereas adjusted odds ratio and confidence intervals were used to measure associations and their statistical significance. The variation in the uptake of counselling and testing of HIV across regions of Ethiopia was quantified by intra-class correlation. RESULT: The current study revealed that, overall, 34.9% (95% CI: 33.5, 36.2%) Ethiopian youths were ever tested for human immunodeficiency virus. Results show that about 9% of the variation in the probability of being tested for the disease was due to the regional variations. Moreover, having moderate and comprehensive HIV knowledge, being rich, having risky sexual behaviour, having a better educational level, having professional work, being married, owning of mobile, and having access to media were positively associated with human immunodeficiency virus voluntary counselling and testing uptake. On the other hand, being male, following protestant religion, following Muslim religion, and following other religions than orthodox religion were negatively associated with the uptake of human immunodeficiency virus counselling and testing. CONCLUSION: Voluntary human immunodeficiency virus counselling and testing uptake among Ethiopian youths is very low and varies across the regions which might hamper the ambitious plan of Ethiopia to end the disease as a public health threat by 2030. Emphasis should be given to promoting the youths' HIV-related knowledge through community-based education, encouraging and empowering the youths to participate in professional works by giving due focus to poor youths, and promoting mass media utilization to better achieve the plan.


Asunto(s)
Consejo/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Escolaridad , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Oportunidad Relativa , Prevalencia , Religión , Conducta Sexual , Adulto Joven
15.
Ann Ig ; 33(4): 360-370, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908601

RESUMEN

Introduction: The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have changed into a global crisis. Psychologically, this process of alteration can lead to feelings of fear, insecurity, and anxiety. This fear and anxiety can be caused by a variety of factors. However, due to the lack of extensive studies at this time, there are little data on these conditions related to COVID-19. Therefore, in this narrative review, we have tried to identify the most important possible causes of anxiety and fear due to this disease, based on logical shreds of evidence. Then we tried to discuss the consequences and ways to manage and prevent them. Methods: The current focus was on three major axes of corona-phobia, fear and anxiety. PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar and authoritative news and information sources were considered as the data sources. Results: Findings from the analysis of the results revealed that, in addition to the real and the logical reasons which belong to the intrinsic properties of SARS-CoV-2, some misleadings and misconceptions induced by media, governmental policies, public awareness level, and non-scientific speculations and contradictory data expressed by experts, researchers and scientific societies, could provide the way for the development of corona-phobia, and fear. Conclusions: Each of these causal components, in its place, leads to some degrees of psychological disorders and subsequent consequences and complications. Finally, here we reviewed, summarized the previous research findings on how to prevent and manage this type of psychological disorder, and made comparisons.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/etiología , COVID-19/psicología , Miedo/psicología , Pandemias , Trastornos Fóbicos/etiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Ansiedad/prevención & control , Ansiedad/psicología , Comunicación , Información de Salud al Consumidor , Cultura , Disentimientos y Disputas , Testimonio de Experto , Política de Salud , Humanos , Difusión de la Información , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Trastornos Fóbicos/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Confianza
16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 603603, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33855006

RESUMEN

Background: The widespread use of social media represents an unprecedented opportunity for health promotion. We have more information and evidence-based health related knowledge, for instance about healthy habits or possible risk behaviors. However, these tools also carry some disadvantages since they also open the door to new social and health risks, in particular during health emergencies. This systematic review aims to study the determinants of infodemics during disease outbreaks, drawing on both quantitative and qualitative methods. Methods: We searched research articles in PubMed, Scopus, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Sociological abstracts, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Additional research works were included by searching bibliographies of electronically retrieved review articles. Results: Finally, 42 studies were included in the review. Five determinants of infodemics were identified: (1) information sources; (2) online communities' structure and consensus; (3) communication channels (i.e., mass media, social media, forums, and websites); (4) messages content (i.e., quality of information, sensationalism, etc.,); and (5) context (e.g., social consensus, health emergencies, public opinion, etc.). Studied selected in this systematic review identified different measures to combat misinformation during outbreaks. Conclusion: The clarity of the health promotion messages has been proven essential to prevent the spread of a particular disease and to avoid potential risks, but it is also fundamental to understand the network structure of social media platforms and the emergency context where misinformation might dynamically evolve. Therefore, in order to prevent future infodemics, special attention will need to be paid both to increase the visibility of evidence-based knowledge generated by health organizations and academia, and to detect the possible sources of mis/disinformation.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Comunicación , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas
17.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(4): 1565-1574, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886783

RESUMEN

This study analyzed how news coverage about suicides is published in the Brazilian electronic media and evaluated if the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) were complied with in the online media. This quantitative, documentary and retrospective study investigated 89 published news items about suicide in 2017 in the Brazilian newspaper sites with the largest circulation. Descriptive statistics and tests of association were used for data analysis. The majority of news items contained neither content to be avoided nor aspects recommended by the WHO. The most frequent characteristics of the reported cases do not correspond directly to the epidemiological profile of suicidal behavior, but to media interests. Actions are needed to foster media involvement in suicide prevention, dissemination of resources and strategies to support and reduce stigma and the contagion effect.


Asunto(s)
Suicidio , Brasil/epidemiología , Humanos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Estudios Retrospectivos , Ideación Suicida
18.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Apr 21.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879763

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: News about suicide may cause a contagion effect or a protective effect. For this reason, the World Health Organization (WHO) has published recommendations on responsible media coverage of suicide. Certain characteristics of suicide news articles and their frequency have been associated to such effects. Despite their importance, these aspects have been scarcely studied in the Spanish media. The objective of this study was to identify the characteristics of suicide news articles in the Spanish digital media. METHODS: We identified the adherence to WHO recommendations, avoidability, frequency, and typology of suicide news articles in the four main spanish digital media (El País, El Mundo, El Confidencial and ABC), according to Alexa (a website traffic statistics). Adherence was evaluated from a dichotomous and continuous perspective by using an ad hoc scale, and avoidability was conceptually defined. The evaluation period was 6 months (11/1/2016-04/30/2017). The statistical program used was R Core Team (2017). RESULTS: We analysed 141 suicide news articles. Of these, 99.12% did not adhere to the recommendations, the degree of adherence was 2.97 (95% CI, 2.19-3.75; range between +22 and -22), 34.51% were avoidable, 34.04% were about "suicide after murder", and 90.04% about death by suicide. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to WHO recommendations is very low in suicide news articles. Furthermore, almost one third of them are avoidable. The identified profile points out the need for interventions aimed at the media. Besides, it allows adjusting their contents to the identified specific needs.


Asunto(s)
Adhesión a Directriz/estadística & datos numéricos , Internet , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/normas , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , España , Suicidio , Organización Mundial de la Salud
19.
J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs ; 34(2): 139-146, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811706

RESUMEN

PROBLEM: Suicide incidences among adolescents and youths during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdowns have been reported across the world. However, no studies have been carried out to investigate cumulative nature, patterns, and causative factors of such suicide incidences. METHODS: A purposive sampling of Google news between 15 February and 6 July was performed. After excluding duplicate reports, the final list comprised a total of 37-suicide cases across 11 countries. FINDINGS: More male suicides were reported (21-cases, i.e., 56.76%), and the mean age of the total victims was 16.6 ± 2.7 years (out of a total of 29 cases). About two-thirds of the suicides were from three countries named India (11-cases), UK (8-cases), and the USA (6-cases). Out of 23-student victims, 14 were school-going students. Hanging was the most common suicide method accounting in 51.4% of cases. The most common suicide causalities were related to mental sufferings such as depression, loneliness, psychological distress, and so forth, whereas either online schooling or overwhelming academic distress was placed as the second most suicide stressors followed by TikTok addiction-related psychological distress, and tested with the COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The finding of the temporal distribution of suicides concerning lockdowns may help in exploring and evolving public measures to prevent/decrease pandemic-related suicides in young people.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Suicidio Completo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , COVID-19/psicología , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Distrés Psicológico , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Adulto Joven
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803397

RESUMEN

Journalists play a crucial role in the dissemination of health-related information. In developing countries, such as Nepal, the media are integral in shaping the national agenda and informing the public of important health issues. With an increasing need for a collaborative effort to attain optimal health for people, animals, and the environment, the One Health approach was used to characterize health reporting in Nepal. A comprehensive survey was administered to health journalists regarding their public, animal, and environmental health reporting habits. Seventy-one journalists completed the survey across three study sites. Many journalists indicated a history of reporting across all three sectors but did not routinely focus on health reporting in general. The majority of journalists perceived the quality and overall coverage of health-related topics increased over the last five years. However, few journalists reported receiving specialized training in any health sector. Although the overall quality of health reporting in the Nepali media showed improvements, many journalists acknowledged a lack of understanding of common health topics and a desire to learn more skills related to accurate health reporting. One Health provides a conceptual framework for understanding and promoting health communication through mass media to benefit humans, animals, and ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Salud Única , Animales , Ecosistema , Humanos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Nepal
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