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1.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0252062, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029357

RESUMEN

Transparency of Chinese media coverage became an international controversy when the COVID-19 outbreak initially emerged in Wuhan, the eventual crisis epicenter in China. Unlike studies characterizing mass media in authoritarian contexts as government mouthpieces during a crisis, this study aims to disaggregate Chinese media practices to uncover differences in when, where, and how the severity of COVID-19 was reported. We examine differences in how media institutions reported the severity of the COVID-19 epidemic in China during the pre-crisis period from 1 January 2020 to 20 January 2020 in terms of both the "vertical" or hierarchical positions of media institutions in the Chinese media ecosystem and the "horizontal" positions of media institutions' social proximity to Wuhan in terms of geographical human traffic flows. We find that the coverage of crisis severity is negatively associated with the media's social proximity to Wuhan, but the effect varies depending on the positional prominence of a news article and situation severity. Implications of the institutions' differentiated reporting strategies on future public health reporting in an authoritarian context are also discussed.


Asunto(s)
Acceso a la Información , /epidemiología , China , Revelación/legislación & jurisprudencia , Revelación/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/legislación & jurisprudencia , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Modelos Estadísticos , Sistemas Políticos
2.
Indian J Med Ethics ; VI(2): 1-24, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908364

RESUMEN

The Indian media's reportage of the Covid-19 pandemic has exposed the State's long-standing apathy towards low-income migrants and the structural neglect and violence faced by them in society. But how consistent were the country's print media in reporting on this population group before the crisis? This paper reports the findings of a study that examines the representation of migrants and refugees and their health in the Indian print media prior to the pandemic. A secondary objective was to examine any variations in their representation based on their social positions (for example, ethnicity, nationality, gender, religion). Using frame and content analyses, three English language newspapers were examined for the period January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2018. A total of 1,111 articles were retrieved. Analysis revealed that migrants were most frequently framed as "villains", posing a threat to the security, culture, health and economy in their destination states/cities, and less often as victims. On health coverage, the study found that the media frequently pathologised migrants and projected them as carriers of infection. Migrants' religion, ethnicity and class, and their proximity to the majoritarian population appeared most prominent in determining the frame imposed. The articles mostly relied on accounts of state officials and political leaders, whereas migrants' voices comprised less than a quarter of the sources of information. The media thus play a vital role in crystallising these disparities and, through acts of both omission and commission, end up vilifying migrants.


Asunto(s)
Apatía , Estado de Salud , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Refugiados/estadística & datos numéricos , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Socioeconómicos
3.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Apr 21.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879763

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: News about suicide may cause a contagion effect or a protective effect. For this reason, the World Health Organization (WHO) has published recommendations on responsible media coverage of suicide. Certain characteristics of suicide news articles and their frequency have been associated to such effects. Despite their importance, these aspects have been scarcely studied in the Spanish media. The objective of this study was to identify the characteristics of suicide news articles in the Spanish digital media. METHODS: We identified the adherence to WHO recommendations, avoidability, frequency, and typology of suicide news articles in the four main spanish digital media (El País, El Mundo, El Confidencial and ABC), according to Alexa (a website traffic statistics). Adherence was evaluated from a dichotomous and continuous perspective by using an ad hoc scale, and avoidability was conceptually defined. The evaluation period was 6 months (11/1/2016-04/30/2017). The statistical program used was R Core Team (2017). RESULTS: We analysed 141 suicide news articles. Of these, 99.12% did not adhere to the recommendations, the degree of adherence was 2.97 (95% CI, 2.19-3.75; range between +22 and -22), 34.51% were avoidable, 34.04% were about "suicide after murder", and 90.04% about death by suicide. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to WHO recommendations is very low in suicide news articles. Furthermore, almost one third of them are avoidable. The identified profile points out the need for interventions aimed at the media. Besides, it allows adjusting their contents to the identified specific needs.


Asunto(s)
Adhesión a Directriz/estadística & datos numéricos , Internet , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/normas , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , España , Suicidio , Organización Mundial de la Salud
4.
J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs ; 34(2): 139-146, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811706

RESUMEN

PROBLEM: Suicide incidences among adolescents and youths during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdowns have been reported across the world. However, no studies have been carried out to investigate cumulative nature, patterns, and causative factors of such suicide incidences. METHODS: A purposive sampling of Google news between 15 February and 6 July was performed. After excluding duplicate reports, the final list comprised a total of 37-suicide cases across 11 countries. FINDINGS: More male suicides were reported (21-cases, i.e., 56.76%), and the mean age of the total victims was 16.6 ± 2.7 years (out of a total of 29 cases). About two-thirds of the suicides were from three countries named India (11-cases), UK (8-cases), and the USA (6-cases). Out of 23-student victims, 14 were school-going students. Hanging was the most common suicide method accounting in 51.4% of cases. The most common suicide causalities were related to mental sufferings such as depression, loneliness, psychological distress, and so forth, whereas either online schooling or overwhelming academic distress was placed as the second most suicide stressors followed by TikTok addiction-related psychological distress, and tested with the COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The finding of the temporal distribution of suicides concerning lockdowns may help in exploring and evolving public measures to prevent/decrease pandemic-related suicides in young people.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Suicidio Completo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Distrés Psicológico , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Adulto Joven
5.
J Med Syst ; 45(4): 50, 2021 Mar 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675427

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic changed expectations for information dissemination and use around the globe, challenging accepted models of communications, leadership, and social systems. We explore how social media discourse about COVID-19 in Italy was affected by the rapid spread of the virus, and how themes in postings changed with the adoption of social distancing measures and non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI). We used topic modeling and social network analysis to highlight critical dimensions of conversations around COVID-19: 1) topics in social media postings about the Coronavirus; 2) the scope and reach of social networks; and 3) changes in social media content as the nation moved from partial to full social distancing. Twitter messages sent in Italy between February 11th and March 10th, 2020. 74,306 Tweets sent by institutions, news sources, elected officials, scientists and social media influencers. Messages were retweeted more than 1.2 million times globally. Non-parametric chi-square statistic with residual analysis to identify categories, chi-square test for linear trend, and Social Network Graphing. The first phase of the pandemic was dominated by social media influencers, followed by a focus on the economic consequences of the virus and placing blame on immigrants. As the crisis deepened, science-based themes began to predominate, with a focus on reducing the spread of the virus through physical distancing and business closures Our findings highlight the importance of messaging in social media in gaining the public's trust and engagement during a pandemic. This requires credible scientific voices to garner public support for effective mitigation. Fighting the spread of an infectious disease goes hand in hand with stemming the dissemination of lies, bad science, and misdirection.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Comunicación en Salud/métodos , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , /prevención & control , Humanos , Italia , Salud Pública , Opinión Pública , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Red Social
6.
J Health Commun ; 26(3): 161-173, 2021 03 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787462

RESUMEN

Media framing of epidemics was found to influence public perceptions and behaviors in experiments, yet no research has been conducted on real-world behaviors during public health crises. We examined the relationship between Italian news media coverage of COVID-19 and compliance with stay-at-home orders, which could impact the spread of epidemics. We used a computational method for framing analysis (ANTMN) and combined it with Google's Community Mobility data. A time-series analysis using vector autoregressive models showed that the Italian media used media frames that were largely congruent with ones used by journalists in other countries: A scientific frame focusing on symptoms and health effects, a containment frame focusing on attempts to ameliorate risks, and a social frame, focusing on political and social impact. The prominence of different media frames over time was associated with changes in Italians' mobility patterns. Specifically, we found that the social frame was associated with increased mobility, whereas the containment frame was associated with decreased mobility. The results demonstrate that the ways the news media discuss epidemics can influence changes in community mobility, above and beyond the effect of the number of deaths per day.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Participación de la Comunidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Epidemias , Comunicación en Salud/métodos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Investigación Cualitativa , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
Pathog Glob Health ; 115(3): 178-187, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657984

RESUMEN

During the Covid-19 pandemic, rich countries employed lockdown and physical distancing policies for transmission control. However, the question still remains whether these measures are also suitable in countries with a fragile economy, which rests mainly on the informal sector. The impacts of lockdown measures in disadvantaged population strata in six low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) were reviewed using i) 93 media reports and ii) 17 published scientific papers. This review showed that those who suffered the most from the lockdown were migrants, workers in the large informal sector, small businesses, slum dwellers, women and elderly, revealing the social, cultural and economic inequalities of societies. Financial and food support for the poor was inadequate and sometimes mismanaged. In the better organized societies, the resilience was stronger (South Korea, Kerala/India) but here also the poor had to suffer the most. It is strongly recommended that outbreak response strategies should particularly focus on the poor and vulnerable population.


Asunto(s)
/economía , Países en Desarrollo/economía , Asia/epidemiología , /psicología , Países en Desarrollo/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Publicaciones/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos
8.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 203, 2021 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711946

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: It is well known that recruitment is a challenging aspect of any study involving human subjects. This challenge is exacerbated when the population sought is reticent to participate in research as is the case with pregnant women and individuals with depression. This paper compares recruitment methods used for the Food, Feelings, and Family Study, an observational, longitudinal pilot study concerning how diet and bisphenol A exposure affect maternal mood and cognitive function during and after pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant women were recruited to this study over a period of 15 months using traditional methods, social media including paid and unpaid posts, and emails broadcast to the university community. Contingency analysis using the Pearson's Chi-square test was used to determine if recruitment method was associated with likelihood of participation. T-tests were used to analyze Facebook advertisement success. ANOVAs and Fisher exact tests were used to determine if recruitment method was related to continuous and categorical demographics, respectively. RESULTS: Social media resulted in the largest number of recruits, followed by traditional methods and broadcast email. Women recruited through social media were less likely to participate. In contrast, use of broadcast email resulted in a smaller pool of recruits but these recruits were more likely to be eligible for and complete the study. Most women recruited via social media were the result of unpaid posts to the study's Facebook page. Paid posts lasting at least 4 days were the most successful. Recruitment method was not associated with participant demographics. CONCLUSIONS: Social media has the potential to recruit a large pool of potential subjects; however, when studies require a large time investment such as the case here, women recruited through social media are less likely to participate and complete the study than women recruited through other means. TRIAL REGISTRATION: N/A. This study does not describe a health care intervention.


Asunto(s)
Afecto/fisiología , Cognición/fisiología , Correo Electrónico/estadística & datos numéricos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Selección de Paciente , Mujeres Embarazadas/psicología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Investigación sobre la Eficacia Comparativa , Familia/psicología , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Difusión de la Información/métodos , Encuestas Nutricionales , Embarazo
9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 273, 2021 02 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535996

RESUMEN

AIMS: The study assessed how the Canadian print media represented essential healthcare services during the COVID-19 pandemic, including the controversial decision to include liquor and cannabis stores in essential services lists. METHODS: Mixed-method content analysis of 67 articles published in major Canadian English language newspapers between March 23 and April 1, 2020. Articles were analyzed and coded by two raters. Ratings were analyzed in SPSS. RESULTS: Few articles in the sample discussed essential healthcare services and the inclusion of liquor and cannabis stores in essential services lists. Majority of the articles that discussed both topics framed the discussion positively and consistently with current knowledge and evidence. CONCLUSION: Canadian print media representations of essential healthcare services and associated public debate are largely descriptive and, therefore, fail to engage critically with or advance public understanding of an important health policy issue.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Política de Salud , Servicios de Salud , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Pública , /epidemiología , Canadá/epidemiología , Humanos
10.
Psychiatry Res ; 298: 113799, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611165

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Suicide reports during the COVID pandemic is an increasing cause for concern. However, there is a limited understanding of suicide among individuals with positive/suspected COVID diagnosis specifically. Hence, this study, using online newspaper reports, aimed to determine factors influencing suicide among individuals withCOVID-19 infection status. METHODOLOGY: Information regarding positive/suspected COVID related suicide was obtained from online newspapers published in 4 languages between 30th Jan 2020 to 16th August 2020 using google news aggregator. Of 235 online identified, 93 were eligible for analysis after the exclusion and analysed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Median Age of COVID related suicide victims was 45 years (range 15 - 80) wherein 61.3% belonged to 30-59 year age group, and 75.3% were males. 50% of suicides occurred within the first week of COVID diagnosis confirmation, and 50% suicides occurred at COVID centres. Hanging (53.8%) was the commonest method of suicide, followed by jumping (12.9%). CONCLUSION: Higher risk for suicide was observed among male gender and those with positive/suspected COVID infection within the first week, while receiving treatment in COVID care centres. Hanging and jumping were the two commonest methods. The above highlight an urgent need to integrate suicide preventive strategies into standard care protocols of COVID-19 positive and suspected cases.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Suicidio/psicología , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , India , Internet/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(2)2021 01 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431567

RESUMEN

Although widespread declines in insect biomass and diversity are increasing concerns within the scientific community, it remains unclear whether attention to pollinator declines has also increased within information sources serving the general public. Examining patterns of journalistic attention to the pollinator population crisis can also inform efforts to raise awareness about the importance of declines of insect species providing ecosystem services beyond pollination. We used the Global News Index developed by the Cline Center for Advanced Social Research at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign to track news attention to pollinator topics in nearly 25 million news items published by two American national newspapers and four international wire services over the past four decades. We found vanishingly low levels of attention to pollinator population topics relative to coverage of climate change, which we use as a comparison topic. In the most recent subset of ∼10 million stories published from 2007 to 2019, 1.39% (137,086 stories) refer to climate change/global warming while only 0.02% (1,780) refer to pollinator populations in all contexts, and just 0.007% (679) refer to pollinator declines. Substantial increases in news attention were detectable only in US national newspapers. We also find that, while climate change stories appear primarily in newspaper "front sections," pollinator population stories remain largely marginalized in "science" and "back section" reports. At the same time, news reports about pollinator populations increasingly link the issue to climate change, which might ultimately help raise public awareness to effect needed policy changes.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Extinción Biológica , Insectos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/tendencias , Polinización , Animales , Cambio Climático , Difusión de la Información , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos
13.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(2): e24585, 2021 02 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480853

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is severely affecting people worldwide. Currently, an important approach to understand this phenomenon and its impact on the lives of people consists of monitoring social networks and news on the internet. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to present a methodology to capture the main subjects and themes under discussion in news media and social media and to apply this methodology to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. METHODS: This work proposes a methodology based on topic modeling, namely entity recognition, and sentiment analysis of texts to compare Twitter posts and news, followed by visualization of the evolution and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. We focused our analysis on Brazil, an important epicenter of the pandemic; therefore, we faced the challenge of addressing Brazilian Portuguese texts. RESULTS: In this work, we collected and analyzed 18,413 articles from news media and 1,597,934 tweets posted by 1,299,084 users in Brazil. The results show that the proposed methodology improved the topic sentiment analysis over time, enabling better monitoring of internet media. Additionally, with this tool, we extracted some interesting insights about the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. For instance, we found that Twitter presented similar topic coverage to news media; the main entities were similar, but they differed in theme distribution and entity diversity. Moreover, some aspects represented negative sentiment toward political themes in both media, and a high incidence of mentions of a specific drug denoted high political polarization during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified the main themes under discussion in both news and social media and how their sentiments evolved over time. It is possible to understand the major concerns of the public during the pandemic, and all the obtained information is thus useful for decision-making by authorities.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Comunicación en Salud/métodos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Brasil , Humanos
14.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(2): e25651, 2021 02 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513563

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During COVID-19, studies have reported the appearance of internet searches for disease symptoms before their validation by the World Health Organization. This suggested that monitoring of these searches with tools including Google Trends may help monitor the pandemic itself. In Europe and North America, dermatologists reported an unexpected outbreak of cutaneous acral lesions (eg, chilblain-like lesions) in April 2020. However, external factors such as public communications may also hinder the use of Google Trends as an infodemiology tool. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess the impact of media announcements and lockdown enforcement on internet searches related to cutaneous acral lesions during the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020. METHODS: Two searches on Google Trends, including daily relative search volumes for (1) "toe" or "chilblains" and (2) "coronavirus," were performed from January 1 to May 16, 2020, with the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Spain, and Germany as the countries of choice. The ratio of interest over time in "chilblains" and "coronavirus" was plotted. To assess the impact of lockdown enforcement and media coverage on these internet searches, we performed an interrupted time-series analysis for each country. RESULTS: The ratio of interest over time in "chilblains" to "coronavirus" showed a constant upward trend. In France, Italy, and the United Kingdom, lockdown enforcement was associated with a significant slope change for "chilblain" searches with a variation coefficient of 1.06 (SE 0.42) (P=0.01), 1.04 (SE 0.28) (P<.01), and 1.21 (SE 0.44) (P=0.01), respectively. After media announcements, these ratios significantly increased in France, Spain, Italy, and the United States with variation coefficients of 18.95 (SE 5.77) (P=.001), 31.31 (SE 6.31) (P<.001), 14.57 (SE 6.33) (P=.02), and 11.24 (SE 4.93) (P=.02), respectively, followed by a significant downward trend in France (-1.82 [SE 0.45]), Spain (-1.10 [SE 0.38]), and Italy (-0.93 [SE 0.33]) (P<.001, P=0.004, and P<.001, respectively). The adjusted R2 values were 0.311, 0.351, 0.325, and 0.305 for France, Spain, Italy, and the United States, respectively, suggesting an average correlation between time and the search volume; however, this correlation was weak for Germany and the United Kingdom. CONCLUSIONS: To date, the association between chilblain-like lesions and COVID-19 remains controversial; however, our results indicate that Google queries of "chilblain" were highly influenced by media coverage and government policies, indicating that caution should be exercised when using Google Trends as a monitoring tool for emerging diseases.


Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Internet , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Vigilancia en Salud Pública/métodos , Política Pública , Motor de Búsqueda/tendencias , Enfermedades de la Piel/virología , /epidemiología , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
15.
Anxiety Stress Coping ; 34(2): 130-144, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496211

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Research during prior virus outbreaks has examined vulnerability factors associated with increased anxiety and fear. DESIGN: We explored numerous psychopathology, sociodemographic, and virus exposure-related variables associated with anxiety and perceived threat of death regarding COVID-19. METHOD: We recruited 908 adults from Eastern China for a cross-sectional web survey, from 24 February to 15 March 2020, when social distancing was heavily enforced in China. We used several machine learning algorithms to train our statistical model of predictor variables in modeling COVID-19-related anxiety, and perceived threat of death, separately. We trained the model using many simulated replications on a random subset of participants, and subsequently externally tested on the remaining subset of participants. RESULTS: Shrinkage machine learning algorithms performed best, indicating that stress and rumination were the most important variables in modeling COVID-19-related anxiety severity. Health anxiety was the most potent predictor of perceived threat of death from COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Results are discussed in the context of research on anxiety and fear from prior virus outbreaks, and from theory on outbreak-related emotional vulnerability. Implications regarding COVID-19-related anxiety are also discussed.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Miedo/psicología , Aprendizaje Automático , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto , China , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Estadísticos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
16.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 22, 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407249

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Postnatal care (PNC) visits provide a huge benefit for ensuring appropriate breastfeeding practices, to monitor the overall health status of the newborn, to timely diagnose and intervene birth-related complications, and to plan future family planning options. Despite delayed PNC attendance have a great impact on the survival of the mother and the newborn it still receives less emphasis. As a result, most mothers do not receive PNC services early. We, therefore, aimed to determine individual and community level factors associated with delayed first Postnatal Care attendance among reproductive age group women in Ethiopia. METHODS: We used the most recent Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS 2016) data to determine associated factors of delayed first PNC in Ethiopia. A weighted sample of 4308 women with a live birth in the two years preceding the survey was included. A multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data. Variables with p-value < 0.05 in the multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis were declared significantly associated with delayed first PNC attendance. RESULTS: In this study, both individual level and community level factors were associated with delayed PNC attendance. Among the individual level factors: having four or more antenatal care visit [Adjusted Odd Ratio (AOR) = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.92], delivery at a health facility [AOR = 0.04; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.05], and perceiving distance from the health facility as not a big problem [AOR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.91] were associated with lower odds of delayed first PNC attendance. Of community level factors: being in Oromia [AOR = 2.31; 95% CI: 1.38, 3.83] and Gambela [AOR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.13, 3.56] regions were associated higher odds of delayed first PNC attendance. CONCLUSIONS: Both individual level and community level factors were found to be associated with delayed PNC attendance. Strengthening antenatal care utilization, institutional delivery, and appropriate distributions of maternal health services in each region and areas far apart from the health facility are recommended.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Atención Posnatal/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico/estadística & datos numéricos , Etiopía , Femenino , Educación en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Salud del Lactante/estadística & datos numéricos , Recién Nacido , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Embarazo , Salud Pública/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos
17.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245533, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513175

RESUMEN

We examine gender bias in media by tallying the number of men and women quoted in news text, using the Gender Gap Tracker, a software system we developed specifically for this purpose. The Gender Gap Tracker downloads and analyzes the online daily publication of seven English-language Canadian news outlets and enhances the data with multiple layers of linguistic information. We describe the Natural Language Processing technology behind this system, the curation of off-the-shelf tools and resources that we used to build it, and the parts that we developed. We evaluate the system in each language processing task and report errors using real-world examples. Finally, by applying the Tracker to the data, we provide valuable insights about the proportion of people mentioned and quoted, by gender, news organization, and author gender. Data collected between October 1, 2018 and September 30, 2020 shows that, in general, men are quoted about three times as frequently as women. While this proportion varies across news outlets and time intervals, the general pattern is consistent. We believe that, in a world with about 50% women, this should not be the case. Although journalists naturally need to quote newsmakers who are men, they also have a certain amount of control over who they approach as sources. The Gender Gap Tracker relies on the same principles as fitness or goal-setting trackers: By quantifying and measuring regular progress, we hope to motivate news organizations to provide a more diverse set of voices in their reporting.


Asunto(s)
Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Procesamiento de Lenguaje Natural , Sexismo/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Anxiety Stress Coping ; 34(2): 145-156, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350343

RESUMEN

Background and Objectives: This research aimed at investigating the psychological impact of national quarantine in Italy, and the psychosocial factors that are may influence this impact.Methods: A convenience sample of 1569 people living in Italy responded to an online survey using virtual snowball sampling. The questionnaire included measures of mental health symptoms, well-being, worry about the epidemic of COVID-19, likelihood of infection, coping efficacy, trust in the institutional response to the epidemic of COVID-19, financial loss, perceived house size, and media exposure to COVID-19 outbreak.Results: Gender (women), lower age, occupational status (employed), lower media exposure, higher worry, lower coping efficacy, lower trust in institutions, and negative attitudes toward quarantine measures predicted mental health symptoms. In addition, results showed that gender (men), higher age, socioeconomic status, occupational status (unemployed), higher coping efficacy and trust in institutions, and positive attitudes toward quarantine measures predicted well-being. The estimated prevalence of common mental disorders was 31.7% among men and 52.3% among women. The scores on well-being were significantly lower in the current study than in a previous validation study.Conclusion: The results of the study provided both theory and practical implications in understanding mental health and its psychosocial predictors during national quarantine.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Cuarentena/psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Empleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(50): e23298, 2020 Dec 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327257

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Good communication strategies are essential in times of crisis, such as the coronavirus pandemic. The dissemination of inaccurate information and the need for social isolation to control coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have shown a negative impact on the population, causing damage to mental health, with the appearance or worsening of symptoms of stress, fear, anxiety, and depression. Thus, the systematic review study is intended to gather evidence on the impact of information about COVID-19 on the mental health of the population. METHODS: This systematic review protocol is conducted using the guidelines of the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses protocols and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. The review aims to include published studies that address the exposure of the general population to information about COVID-19, through observational and experimental studies, which consider the following outcomes: fear, stress, anxiety, and depression. Thus, a comprehensive research strategy will be conducted in the following databases: PubMed / Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, EMBASE, Science Direct, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). Two independent reviewers will perform all procedures, such as study selection, data collection, and methodological evaluation. Disagreements will be forwarded to a third reviewer. RevMan 5.3 software will be used for data analysis. RESULTS: This systematic review will provide evidence of the influence of access to and consumption of media and scientific information about COVID-19 on the mental health of the population. It will consider information about the characterization of the study and the population studied, clinical and epidemiological information on mental health, and data on access to and consumption of media and scientific information. DISCUSSION: The results should inform about the consequences of communication about the new coronavirus on the emergence or worsening of psychological and psychiatric symptoms, allowing to develop strategies to achieve effective communication of information to promote the mental health of the population. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42020182918.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Comunicación en Salud/métodos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Miedo/psicología , Humanos , Pandemias , Proyectos de Investigación , Aislamiento Social , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología
20.
Front Public Health ; 8: 583408, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33344397

RESUMEN

The current study investigates how public attitudes and perceptions about the COVID-19 pandemic evolve over time and influence self-reported health behaviors (e. g., social distancing). Specific attention was paid to respondents' exposure to different news media channels (public vs. commercial). We used data from a two-wave panel study with a 3-week interval (W1 at the start and W2 at the peak of the pandemic) and a large sample of the adult population in Flanders, Belgium (n = 870). The results of mixed ANOVAs indicate that besides a time-effect there was also a significant effect of the different types of news media exposure and respondents' support for protective health measures and behaviors. Whereas, perceived vulnerability to disease, feelings of loneliness, and solidarity were mostly determined by respondents' overall frequency of media exposure, support of governmental measures and self-reported health behaviors were mostly determined by the type of news media exposure. Respondents with a predominantly public/quality news media diet had the highest scores on these variables. A stepwise linear regression analysis with individual's change scores demonstrated that (self-)protective behavior was positively determined by respondents' age, solidarity, and the belief that the measures are necessary, but negatively determined by one's cumulative exposure to commercial/tabloid news media. This longitudinal study provides a new perspective on the role of news media in times of a public health crisis. It offers support for (A) the "double bind hypothesis" (i.e., while news media consumption encourages (self-)isolation, it fosters feelings of loneliness); and (B) the "dual effects hypothesis" (i.e., exposure to commercial/tabloid news media generates different outcomes than exposure to public/quality news media). Affective responses and socio-psychological perceptions are influenced by overall news media exposure, whereas support for the government and its handling of the crisis are mainly determined by one's selection of media channels, whereby audiences of public news media evaluate these outcomes more positively than the audiences of commercial news media channels.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Salud , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/estadística & datos numéricos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/tendencias , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Opinión Pública , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Bélgica , Femenino , Predicción , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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