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1.
Clin Anat ; 31(7): 956-965, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30203858

RESUMEN

P.T. Barnum's career as the Greatest Showman on Earth began in 1835, when he "leased" and then publically exhibited a frail African American slave Joice Heth, who was reportedly the 161-year-old former nursemaid of George Washington, throughout New England; the contract was a lease, as slave ownership had recently become illegal in northern states. Barnum exhibited Heth 6 days a week for up to 12 hr a day. Under this grueling schedule, Heth became ill and died while under contract. Barnum sold tickets for her autopsy, which was performed by David L. Rogers, an accomplished New York surgeon, in front of an audience of 1,500 paying customers. Roger's autopsy determined that Heth was no more than 80 years old, and the penny newspapers, a new form of public media, called this a "humbug" and then published dozens of fabricated "fake news" stories about Barnum, Rogers, and Heth. Barnum and his business partner generated valuable publicity by telling different penny newspapers different stories. This whole spectacle launched Barnum's career as an entertainer. Five years earlier, Rogers performed a public dissection of Charles Gibbs, an infamous Caribbean pirate who was tried, convicted, and hung in New York City. This article describes the bizarre nature of American politics and culture in the 1830s that made all of these seem normal. I will also distinguish between "public dissection" and "public autopsy," and put these into an historical context. Finally, I will address the macabre concept of autopsy as a form of entertainment. Clin. Anat. 31:956-965, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Asunto(s)
Autopsia/historia , Personas Esclavizadas/historia , Personajes , Historia del Siglo XIX , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/historia
3.
Life Sci Soc Policy ; 14(1): 19, 2018 Aug 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30123943

RESUMEN

Synthetic biology is the engineering view on biotechnology that ultimately aims at fulfilling the quest of building an artificial cell. From the very first attempts of synthesizing life, this subject has made an impact on the media through, very often, misleading headlines and news. We review here the historical journalistic approach on synthetic biology and related disciplines, from the early twentieth century to the lastest achievements on designing protocells or genome reduction. However, it would be very naive to consider the research community and the media to be unidirectionally linked, with the latter being mere displayers (and disrupters) of the research "reality". On the contrary, the research community has also received a strong influence from the media, as evidenced by statements from researchers, common metaphors and, even, a trend to unconsciously develop shared techno-social paradigms. We conclude that, beyond overstatements from researchers and journalists' misunderstandings, both communities provide strong feedback to each other and, together, contribute to define the dream that synthetic biologists are aiming for.


Asunto(s)
Medios de Comunicación de Masas/historia , Biología Sintética/historia , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos
4.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 25(suppl 1): 105-124, 2018 08.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30133585

RESUMEN

This article analyzes the debate on neo-Malthusianism and eugenics in Spanish anarchist publications in the first third of the last century. Using theoretical frameworks that have been under-utilized thus far, it provides new interpretations of what the term "eugenics" meant in pro-anarchist neo-Malthusian journals. Framed within a "struggle over meaning," Spanish neo-Malthusianism re-signified eugenic ideas in an attempt to recover political ground that had been lost in the drive to promote individual control of human sexuality. This study also analyzes the role of the anarcho-syndicalist movement's "direct action" strategy, in which actions undertaken by individualist anarchists were seen as a complement to revolutionary action.


Asunto(s)
Eugenesia/historia , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/historia , Política , Dinámica Poblacional/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , España
5.
Ann Intern Med ; 168(8): 579-584, 2018 04 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29677267

RESUMEN

In 1919, three deadly outbreaks of botulism caused by consumption of canned olives packed in California captured national headlines. In all of the outbreaks, which occurred in separate locales, unsuspecting people died after consuming tainted food during a banquet or family meal. The press's sensational portrayal of canned food as hazardous aroused alarm among consumers at a time when commercial canning was becoming more common. Intent on restoring the image of their product as safe and wholesome, canning industry leaders funded a "botulism commission" of scientific experts in 1919 to investigate how to systematically eliminate the threat of botulism that had imperiled their business. The commissioners identified the scientific reasons for the outbreaks, and on the basis of their findings, the California Department of Public Health issued explicit recommendations for sterilization procedures intended to ensure safety. However, the department did not mandate inspections for all canneries. When commercially packed fruits and vegetables continued to cause botulism, industry leaders voluntarily backed a cannery inspection act to legally require all California canners to possess appropriate equipment and follow scientifically validated sterilization procedures. After the California legislature approved the act in 1925, canneries were inspected, regulations were enforced, and no further outbreaks occurred. This botulism epidemic is an example of a disease outbreak that was controlled when business interests became aligned with public health goals. The press's portrayal of afflicted persons as innocent victims and worthy citizens galvanized businessmen to implement safeguards to protect consumers from botulism intoxication. To preserve their customer base and salvage their corporations, leaders of the canning industry acknowledged the public health threat of their unregulated procedures and acted on the recommendations of scientists.


Asunto(s)
Botulismo/epidemiología , Botulismo/historia , Brotes de Enfermedades/historia , Industria de Alimentos/historia , Alimentos en Conserva/historia , California/epidemiología , Contaminación de Alimentos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Industria de Alimentos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/historia , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
6.
NTM ; 26(1): 1-30, 2018 03.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29404640

RESUMEN

In the mass media, the hormone Oxytocin is currently being debated as the biochemical basis of sociability and a powerful neuropharmacological solution for (re-)establishing societal cohesion. Given its beginning as a 'bodyhormone' early in the 20th century, this article will trace the extraordinary career of Oxytocin from a regulator of birth to a regulator of society. What makes so strong a claim intelligible and acceptable? Our analysis of the scientific discourse on Oxytocin (1906-1990), the mass media discourse since the 1990s, and its repercussions for the scientific discourse during the same period, suggest a series of re-configurations of scientific theories and practices, as well as of the conception of the substance itself. Oxytocin became established in the first half of the 20th century, and as a neurohormone as early as the 1950s, yet during the following decades attracted little scientific attention. Only following the mass media's focus on the suggested effects of Oxytocin on love and bonding did the substance increasingly become the focus of empirical research. This work argues that the reception of Oxytocin as a potential neurohormonal basis for individual sociability strongly relies on the mass media discourses, biopolitical linkages that had already been made in the first half of the 20th century aiming at the regulation of life, and a technoscientific mode of research on Oxytocin. At their intersection Oxytocin emerged as a social hormone.


Asunto(s)
Oxitocina/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales/historia , Amor , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/historia , Oxitocina/fisiología
8.
Am Psychol ; 72(8): 764-777, 2017 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29172579

RESUMEN

This article reviews psychology's attempts to influence public attitudes about both the science and the profession of psychology. The early history of the profession is reviewed, and the efforts of the American Psychological Association (APA) to shape the public's perception of psychology are discussed. The rise of social media is reviewed, and important social media outlets relevant to psychology are identified. The activities of the Society for Media Psychology and Technology (APA Division 46) are illustrated, and the presidents of the Division are identified. The work of those psychologists who are noted public intellectuals or who have received Nobel prizes or National Medal of Science awards for their research is briefly reviewed, and the public notoriety of 4 prominent media celebrities (Joy Browne, Joyce Brothers, Laura Schlessinger, and Phil McGraw) is discussed. Several controversies in the field of psychology that have influenced the public and their attitudes about psychology are also briefly reviewed. (PsycINFO Database Record


Asunto(s)
Medios de Comunicación de Masas/historia , Psicología/educación , Psicología/historia , Sociedades Científicas/historia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos
9.
Neurosurg Focus ; 43(3): E6, 2017 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28859561

RESUMEN

At the peak of his career, Walter J. Freeman II was a celebrated physician and scientist. He served as the first chairman of the Department of Neurology at George Washington University and was a tireless advocate of surgical treatment for mental illness. His eccentric appearance, engaging personality during interviews, and theatrical demonstrations of his surgical techniques gained him substantial popularity with local and national media, and he performed more than 3000 prefrontal and transorbital lobotomies between 1930 and 1960. However, poor patient outcomes, unfavorable portrayals of the lobotomy in literature and film, and increased regulatory scrutiny contributed to the lobotomy's decline in popularity. The development of antipsychotic medications eventually relegated the lobotomy to rare circumstances, and Freeman's reputation deteriorated. Today, despite significant advancements in technique, oversight, and ethical scrutiny, neurosurgical treatment of mental illness still carries a degree of social stigma. This review presents a historical account of Walter Freeman's life and career, and the popularization of the lobotomy in the US. Additionally, the authors pay special attention to the influence of popular literature and film on the public's perception of psychosurgery. Aided by an understanding of this pivotal period in medical history, neurosurgeons are poised to confront the ethical and sociological questions facing psychosurgery as it continues to evolve.


Asunto(s)
Medios de Comunicación de Masas/ética , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/historia , Psicocirugía/ética , Psicocirugía/historia , Historia del Siglo XIX , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/historia , Trastornos Mentales/cirugía , Neurocirujanos/ética , Neurocirujanos/historia
10.
J Hist Behav Sci ; 53(2): 113-132, 2017 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28191910

RESUMEN

The scientific pollsters (Archibald Crossley, George H. Gallup, and Elmo Roper) emerged onto the American news media scene in 1935. Much of what they did in the following years (1935-1948) was to promote both the political and scientific legitimacy of their enterprise. They sought to be recognized as the sole legitimate producers of public opinion. In this essay I examine the, mostly overlooked, rhetorical work deployed by the pollsters to publicize the scientific credentials of their polling activities, and the central role the concept of sampling has had in that pursuit. First, they distanced themselves from the failed straw poll by claiming that their sampling methodology based on quotas was informed by science. Second, although in practice they did not use random sampling, they relied on it rhetorically to derive the symbolic benefits of being associated with the "laws of probability."


Asunto(s)
Recolección de Datos/historia , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/historia , Opinión Pública/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Ciencia , Estados Unidos
11.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 24(1): 201-221, jan.-mar. 2017. graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-840684

RESUMEN

Resumen Este artículo rescata la obra de teatro guiñol Las calenturas de Don Ferruco, televisada a finales de la década de 1950 para promover la erradicación del paludismo en México como un útil instrumento de educación para la salud. Se analiza cómo la difusión del teatro guiñol educativo en la televisión mexicana evidenció la necesidad de mantener vigente la enseñanza dirigida a prevenir enfermedades y se subraya la importancia de la televisión como una producción educativa para promover la salud hacia mediados del siglo XX. El artículo muestra los inicios de su uso como una herramienta de especial importancia para lo que posteriormente sería la masificación de los discursos emitidos por la Secretaría de Salubridad y Asistencia.


This article resurrects the puppet show Las calenturas de Don Ferruco (Don Ferruco’s Fevers), which was televised in the late 1950s in order to help eradicate malaria in Mexico, as a useful instrument for health education. It analyzes how the spread of educational puppet shows on Mexican television showed the need to keep updating preventive healthcare pedagogy and it underlines the importance of television as an educational health-promotion production in the mid-twentieth century. The article discusses the early use of puppet shows as an especially important tool for what would later become mass-media transmission of discourses from the Secretaría de Salubridad y Asistencia (Department of Health and Healthcare).


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Historia del Siglo XX , Juego e Implementos de Juego , Televisión/historia , Educación en Salud/historia , Malaria/historia , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/historia , Higiene/educación , Higiene/historia , Educación en Salud/métodos , Promoción de la Salud/historia , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Malaria/prevención & control , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/historia , México
12.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 24(1): 201-221, 2017.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27737374

RESUMEN

This article resurrects the puppet show Las calenturas de Don Ferruco (Don Ferruco's Fevers), which was televised in the late 1950s in order to help eradicate malaria in Mexico, as a useful instrument for health education. It analyzes how the spread of educational puppet shows on Mexican television showed the need to keep updating preventive healthcare pedagogy and it underlines the importance of television as an educational health-promotion production in the mid-twentieth century. The article discusses the early use of puppet shows as an especially important tool for what would later become mass-media transmission of discourses from the Secretaría de Salubridad y Asistencia (Department of Health and Healthcare).


Asunto(s)
Educación en Salud/historia , Malaria/historia , Juego e Implementos de Juego , Televisión/historia , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/historia , Educación en Salud/métodos , Promoción de la Salud/historia , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Higiene/educación , Higiene/historia , Malaria/prevención & control , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/historia , México
13.
Uisahak ; 26(3): 417-454, 2017 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29311533

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study is to understand the reality of imperial medicine by exploring the strategic attitude of the Japanese authority targeting the public who were not patients of Hansen's disease. For this purpose, this study examines the mass media data related to Hansen's disease published in Korea and Japan during the Japanese colonial rule. Research on Hansen's disease can be divided into medical, sociohistorical, social welfare, and human rights approach. There are medical studies and statistics on the dissemination of medical information about Hansen's disease and management measures, the history of the management of the disease, guarantee of the rights of the patients and the welfare environment, and studies on the autobiographical, literary writings and oral statements on the life and psychological conflicts of the patients. Among existing research, the topics of the study on Hansen's disease under the Japanese colonial rule include the history of the Sorokdo Island Sanatorium, investigation on the forced labor of the patients in the island, human rights violations against the patients, oral memoirs of the patients and doctors who practiced at that time. All of these studies are important achievements regarding the research on the patients. An important study of Hansen's disease in modern Japan is the work of Hujino Utaka, which introduces the isolation of and discrimination against the patients of Hansen's disease. Hujino Utaka's study examines the annihilation of people with infectious diseases in Japan and its colonies by the imperial government, which was the consequence of the imperial medical policies, and reports on the isolation of Hansen's disease patients during the war. Although these researches are important achievements in the study of Hansen's disease in modernity, their focus has mainly been on the history of isolation and exploitation in the Sorokdo Island Sanatorium and discrimination against the patients within the sanatorium, which was controlled by the director of the sanatorium. Consequently, the research tends to perceive the problem within the frame of antagonism between the agent of imperialism and the victims of exploitation by the hands of imperialism. Hence, it has limitations in that it has not fully addressed the problem of the people who were not Hansen's disease patients and as such, existed somewhere in between the two extremes in the process of administering medicine under the imperial rule. The purpose of this study is to identify the direction of imperial medicine in the history of Hansen's disease in Japan and to comprehend the characteristics of policy on Hansen's disease developed by Mitsuda Kensuke, who was behind the policy of imperial medicine, and examine the process of imperial medicine reaching out to the people (of Japan and its colonies). To achieve the goal, this study explores how the agent of imperial medicine gain the favor the public, who are not Hansen's disease patients, by means of the mass media. Specifically, this paper examines data in the Japanese language related to Korean patients of Hansen's disease including the mass media data on Hansen's disease in the source book titled The Collection of Data on Hansen's Disease in Joseon under the Colonial Rule(8 volumes) compiled by Takio Eiji, which has not been studied until now. It also reviews the cultural and popular magazines published in Japan and Joseon at that time.


Asunto(s)
Colonialismo/historia , Política de Salud/historia , Lepra/historia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Japón , Corea (Geográfico) , Lepra/terapia , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/historia , Derechos del Paciente/historia
15.
Contraception ; 94(4): 295-302, 2016 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27343747

RESUMEN

The introduction of the birth control pill (the Pill) in 1960 revolutionized the options for contraception, sparking vibrant discussion in the scientific and social science literature and in the media. Much attention focused on issues of women's rights, including ethics and personal choice. But the Pill also introduced new questions about risk. Shortly after its introduction, the risk of thromboembolic disease was recognized [1]. After more than half a century, controversies about the relationship between the Pill and thromboembolic disease have persisted. The scientific and media communities have been active in the discussion, debate and delivery of information about this risk. Scientific and public attention to thromboembolism and the Pill has had dramatic consequences, both good and bad. The spotlight on risk has helped to change norms regarding the public's right to know and assess dangers; it has sparked Pill scares linked to increased unplanned pregnancy, birth and abortion rates; and it has led to a change in federally mandated policies regarding how new contraceptive products are studied and brought to market. This paper charts the narrative of the thromboembolic risk of the Pill from its introduction in 1960 until today and reviews the corresponding media response to this history. How does the story of the thromboembolic risk of the Pill - explored through the lens of science, media and contemporary social dynamics - frame contemporary understanding of risk for researchers, clinicians, individuals and the public?


Asunto(s)
Anticoncepción/efectos adversos , Anticoncepción/historia , Anticonceptivos Orales/efectos adversos , Anticonceptivos Orales/historia , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/historia , Tromboembolia/inducido químicamente , Tromboembolia/historia , Investigación Biomédica , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo , Salud de la Mujer , Derechos de la Mujer
16.
J Relig Health ; 55(5): 1748-62, 2016 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27234639

RESUMEN

A spiritual-yet not religious-practice, meditation has been touted as beneficial to boosting the immune system, lowering blood pressure, alleviating migraines, and increasing gray matter in parts of the brain. While scientific research on meditation is beginning to quantify its benefits, there is increasing concern among the scientific community that news outlets glorify the potential benefits of meditation. This paper considers coverage of meditation in mainstream print media by analyzing 764 articles printed in English from worldwide media outlets from 1979 to 2014. Frame theory analysis is employed to better understand how meditation is presented in print media and how the perception of the practice is interpreted by readers. Results indicate that articles reflect the health and wellness challenges present in contemporary culture, together with a desire for personal relief from such issues. The paper suggests that the practice of meditation as "spiritual hygiene" is indicative of a sociocultural shift in which meditative techniques are becoming increasingly recognized, encouraged, and practiced.


Asunto(s)
Medios de Comunicación de Masas/historia , Meditación/historia , Meditación/métodos , Espiritualidad , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos
17.
FEBS J ; 283(18): 3325-34, 2016 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27191544

RESUMEN

Two decades ago, we discovered 'superagonistic' monoclonal antibodies specific for the CD28 molecule which are able to polyclonally activate T cells, in particular regulatory T cells, and are therapeutically active in many rodent models of autoimmunity, inflammation, transplantation, and tissue repair. A phase I trial of the human CD28 superagonist TGN1412 failed in 2006 due to an unexpected cytokine release syndrome, but after it became clear that dose-reduction allows to preferentially address regulatory T cells also in humans, clinical development was resumed under the name TAB08. Here, I recount the story of CD28 superagonist development from a personal perspective with an emphasis on the dramatic events during and after the 2006 phase I trial, the reasons for the failure of preclinical research to warn of the impending cytokine storm, and on the research which allowed resumption of clinical development.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/historia , Antígenos CD28/agonistas , Animales , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/uso terapéutico , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/toxicidad , Antígenos CD28/historia , Ensayos Clínicos Fase I como Asunto/historia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Evaluación Preclínica de Medicamentos/historia , Alemania , Voluntarios Sanos , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Londres , Activación de Linfocitos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/historia , Ratones , Ratas , Linfocitos T Reguladores/inmunología , Insuficiencia del Tratamiento
18.
Transfus Clin Biol ; 23(1): 49-54, 2016 Feb.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26774418

RESUMEN

Anecdotes, such as found in the media and chiefly the humor journals and magazines aim at bringing revisited insights on society subjects, which can even be the most serious. Anecdotes reported here on blood transfusion and the transfusion environment, that were retrieved from French news released in the media press between the 1950s to 1980s give a view on what has been achieved since then, but also on what is at a standstill by some incapability in moving forward or in changing minds. Those anecdotes would be used to stimulate or refresh debates in transfusion related-ethics.


Asunto(s)
Donantes de Sangre/historia , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/historia , Altruismo , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Donantes de Sangre/ética , Donantes de Sangre/psicología , Francia , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Motivación , Opinión Pública , Remuneración , Ingenio y Humor como Asunto
19.
J Bioeth Inq ; 13(1): 35-45, 2016 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26732400

RESUMEN

Reconstructing some of the experiences of people living with tuberculosis in Argentina in the first half of the twentieth century, as reflected not only in written and oral accounts but also in individual and collective actions, this article explores the ways in which patients came to grips with medical expertise in times of biomedical uncertainty. These negotiations, which inevitably included adaptations as well as confrontations, highlight a much less passive and submissive patient-physician relationship than is often assumed. Though patients were certainly subordinate to medical doctors' knowledge and practices, that subordination, far from absolute, was limited and often overthrown. The article focuses on patients' demands to gain access to a vaccine not approved by the medical establishment. By engaging with media organizations, the sick invoked their "right to health" in order to obtain access to experimental treatments when biomedicine was unable to deliver efficient therapies.


Asunto(s)
Política de Salud/historia , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud/historia , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Negociación , Derechos del Paciente , Pacientes/historia , Rol del Médico , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Vacunas contra la Tuberculosis/historia , Tuberculosis/historia , Argentina/epidemiología , Terapias Complementarias/historia , Terapias Complementarias/métodos , Congresos como Asunto , Política de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Historia del Siglo XX , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/historia , Derechos del Paciente/historia , Pacientes/psicología , Rol del Médico/historia , Relaciones Médico-Paciente/ética , Descanso , Tuberculosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Tuberculosis/terapia , Vacunas contra la Tuberculosis/administración & dosificación , Incertidumbre
20.
Tob Control ; 25(5): 492-7, 2016 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26614760

RESUMEN

The 'common knowledge' defence is a legal strategy which has been successfully used by defendant tobacco companies to avoid legal responsibility for the harms caused by smoking. Tobacco companies have hired professional historians to try to persuade courts about a longstanding high level of public awareness regarding the risks of tobacco use. To support this argument, they have used archival news clippings and media reports. Two historians were hired by tobacco companies to offer this defence during a recent class action trial in Canada, following which they were required to submit to the court the collection of media materials which had been gathered by history students to assist their testimony. Included in this collection were tobacco advertisements and other news items about tobacco products which the students had inadvertently also collected. Quantifying this collection reveals that even by the tobacco industry's own construct, the information environment surrounding Quebec smokers in the middle 20th century included more prosmoking messages than information about the risks of smoking.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Industria del Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia , Fumar Tabaco/efectos adversos , /historia , Testimonio de Experto , Historia del Siglo XX , Humanos , Medios de Comunicación de Masas/historia , Quebec , Estudiantes , Fumar Tabaco/legislación & jurisprudencia
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