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PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248221, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720951


PURPOSE: Virus epidemics may be mitigated if people comply with directives to stay at home and keep their distance from strangers in public. As such, there is a public health interest in social distancing compliance. The available evidence on distancing practices in public space is limited, however, by the lack of observational data. Here, we apply video observation as a method to examine to what extent members of the public comply with social distancing directives. DATA: Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) footage of interactions in public was collected in inner-city Amsterdam, the Netherlands. From the footage, we observed instances of people violating the 1.5-meter distance directives in the weeks before, during, and after these directives were introduced to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: We find that people complied with the 1.5-meter distance directives when these directives were first introduced, but that the level of compliance started to decline soon after. We also find that violation of the 1.5-meter distance directives is strongly associated with the number of people observed on the street and with non-compliance to stay-at-home directives, operationalized with large-scale aggregated location data from cell phones. All three measures correlate to a varying extent with temporal patterns in the transmission of the COVID-19 virus, temperature, COVID-19 related Google search queries, and media attention to the topic. CONCLUSION: Compliance with 1.5 meter distance directives is short-lived and coincides with the number of people on the street and with compliance to stay-at-home directives. Potential implications of these findings are that keep- distance directives may work best in combination with stay-at-home directives and place-specific crowd-control strategies, and that the number of people on the street and community-wide mobility as captured with cell phone data offer easily measurable proxies for the extent to which people keep sufficient physical distance from others at specific times and locations.

/patología , Salud Pública , /transmisión , Medios de Comunicación , Bases de Datos Factuales , Humanos , Países Bajos , Temperatura , Grabación en Video
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e20545, 2021 02 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556031


COVID-19 cases are exponentially increasing worldwide; however, its clinical phenotype remains unclear. Natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning approaches may yield key methods to rapidly identify individuals at a high risk of COVID-19 and to understand key symptoms upon clinical manifestation and presentation. Data on such symptoms may not be accurately synthesized into patient records owing to the pressing need to treat patients in overburdened health care settings. In this scenario, clinicians may focus on documenting widely reported symptoms that indicate a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19, albeit at the expense of infrequently reported symptoms. While NLP solutions can play a key role in generating clinical phenotypes of COVID-19, they are limited by the resulting limitations in data from electronic health records (EHRs). A comprehensive record of clinic visits is required-audio recordings may be the answer. A recording of clinic visits represents a more comprehensive record of patient-reported symptoms. If done at scale, a combination of data from the EHR and recordings of clinic visits can be used to power NLP and machine learning models, thus rapidly generating a clinical phenotype of COVID-19. We propose the generation of a pipeline extending from audio or video recordings of clinic visits to establish a model that factors in clinical symptoms and predict COVID-19 incidence. With vast amounts of available data, we believe that a prediction model can be rapidly developed to promote the accurate screening of individuals at a high risk of COVID-19 and to identify patient characteristics that predict a greater risk of a more severe infection. If clinical encounters are recorded and our NLP model is adequately refined, benchtop virologic findings would be better informed. While clinic visit recordings are not the panacea for this pandemic, they are a low-cost option with many potential benefits, which have recently begun to be explored.

Atención Ambulatoria/normas , Medios de Comunicación/normas , Registros Electrónicos de Salud/normas , Aprendizaje Automático/normas , Procesamiento de Lenguaje Natural , Humanos , Fenotipo
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467179


We analysed issues concerning the establishment of compulsory vaccination against COVID-19, as well as the role of misinformation as a disincentive-especially when published by health professionals-and citizen acceptance of measures in this regard. Data from different surveys revealed a high degree of hesitation rather than outright opposition to vaccines. The most frequent complaint related to the COVID-19 vaccination was the fear of side effects. Within the Spanish and European legislative framework, both compulsory vaccination and government regulation of FN (Fake News) appear to be feasible options, counting on sufficient legal support, which could be reinforced by additional amendment. However, following current trends of good governance, policymakers must have public legitimation. Rather than compulsory COVID-19 vaccination, an approach based on education and truthful information, persuading the population of the benefits of a vaccine on a voluntary basis, is recommended. Disagreements between health professionals are positive, but they should be resolved following good practice and the procedures of the code of ethics. Furthermore, citizens do not support the involvement of government authorities in the direct control of news. Collaboration with the media and other organizations should be used instead.

Medios de Comunicación/normas , Vacunación/psicología , Comunicación , Gobierno , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-01-25.
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53221


Vaccine- and vaccination-related crises require a communication response that is different from the communication strategies used to promote the benefits and importance of vaccines in general. This document presents the technical guidance needed to develop a communication plan that is appropriate for managing crises related to vaccine safety. This guidance will be useful for managers in the areas of immunization and vaccine and vaccination safety. They will also help preparedness and response teams working in safety crises to optimize their communication plans in order to regain, maintain, or strengthen trust in vaccines, vaccination, and immunization programs in general. Each chapter presents a phase (preparation, implementation, and evaluation) with suggested actions and support tools to prepare, implement, and evaluate a communication response in a crisis situation. Also, some sections can also be used to strengthen routine national communication activities such as interaction with media, message generation, spokespeople preparation among others. The current document complements the Manual for the surveillance of events supposedly attributable to vaccination or immunization (ESAVI) in the Region of the Americas. This document is published within the framework of a joint project that aims to promote communication-related to safe vaccination in the Region of the Americas and support health authorities that need to develop a communication plan to manage crises related to vaccine safety. Some of the sections in this publication are based on the guidance documents available in the WHO Regional Office for Europe’s virtual library and can be consulted on their website.

Vacunación , Inmunización , Comunicación , Medios de Comunicación , Prevención de Enfermedades , Salud Pública
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-01-25.
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53220


Las crisis relacionadas con las vacunas y la vacunación requieren una respuesta de comunicación diferente a las estrategias comunicacionales para promover los beneficios y la importancia de las vacunas en general. Este documento presenta las orientaciones técnicas necesarias para desarrollar un plan de comunicación adecuado para manejar las crisis relacionadas con la seguridad de las vacunas y de la vacunación. Estas orientaciones les serán útiles a los actores relevantes de nivel gerencial en el área de la inmunización y de la seguridad de las vacunas y la vacunación. Y también servirán a los equipos de preparación y respuesta a dichas crisis de seguridad para optimizar el desarrollo de planes comunicacionales que ayuden a recuperar, mantener o fortalecer la confianza en las vacunas, la vacunación y el programa de inmunizaciones en general. Cada capítulo recoge una fase (preparación, implementación y evaluación) con acciones sugeridas y herramientas de apoyo para preparar, implementar y evaluar una respuesta comunicacional a la crisis. Además, algunas de las secciones pueden servir para fortalecer actividades nacionales de comunicación habituales como es la interacción con los medios, la creación de mensajes, la preparación de voceros, entre otros. El actual documento complementa al Manual para la vigilancia de eventos supuestamente atribuibles a la vacunación o la inmunización (ESAVI) en la Región de las Américas.

Vacunación , Vacunas , Comunicación , Medios de Comunicación , Prevención de Enfermedades , Inmunización , Salud Pública
Arch Sex Behav ; 50(2): 629-646, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398696


We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from a U.S. nationally representative survey of individuals ages 14-24 years old on what sources of information from the past year they considered to be the most helpful about how to have sex (n = 600 adolescents ages 14-17 years old, and n = 666 young adults ages 18-24 years old). Among the 324 adolescents who indicated that they had been helped by at least one source of information, helpful information was most likely to have come from parents (31.0%) and friends (21.6%). Only 8.4% of adolescents said pornography was helpful. However, for those in the 18-24-year-old age group, pornography was the most commonly endorsed helpful source (24.5%), as compared to other possible options such as sexual partners, friends, media, and health care professionals. Multivariable regression analyses revealed that indicating that pornography was the most helpful source of information about how to have sex, compared to the other sources, was inversely associated with being female (OR = 0.32, p = .001), inversely associated with identifying as bisexual compared to heterosexual (OR = 0.15, p = .038), positively associated with being Black compared to being white non-Hispanic (OR = 4.26, p = .021), inversely associated with reporting a household income of either $25 K to $49,999 (OR = 0.31, p = .010) or $50 K to $74,999 (OR = 0.36, p = .019) compared to more than $75 K, and positively associated with having masturbated (OR = 13.20, p = .005). Subsequent research should investigate the role of pornography in both adolescent and adult sexual development, including why one-quarter of U.S. young adults say that pornography is a helpful source of information about how to have sex and what they think that they are learning from it.

Literatura Erótica/psicología , Conducta Exploratoria , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Parejas Sexuales/psicología , Adolescente , Medios de Comunicación , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Heterosexualidad/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Educación Sexual/métodos , Conducta Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2021. (WHO/2019-nCoV/vaccination/demand_planning/template/2021.1).
en Inglés, Portugués, Ruso, Chino | WHO IRIS | ID: who-339463
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2021. (WHO/2019-nCoV/vaccination/demand_planning/tool/2021.1).
en Inglés, Chino | WHO IRIS | ID: who-339449
J Homosex ; 68(1): 88-111, 2021 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241421


In June 2015, the U.S. Supreme Court made a landmark decision to legalize marriage for same-sex couples amid nationwide debate and media coverage of this controversial issue. Using a content analysis of newspaper articles and television transcripts (N = 286) from top news outlets, this study examines the frames used in news coverage of same-sex marriage before and after the decision and tone of coverage by frame and medium. Findings suggest that frames and tone differed by medium, with television generally presenting more negative coverage and print more positive coverage. Results also suggest that some coverage frames were more negative than others and that the dominant frames of coverage differed from pre- to post-decision. This study helps improve our understanding of how the public was informed before and after a historic decision and illuminates the differences between frame and tone of coverage by medium, and by medium over time.

Medios de Comunicación , Matrimonio/legislación & jurisprudencia , Decisiones de la Corte Suprema , Derechos Civiles , Composición Familiar , Humanos , Política , Religión y Sexo , Estados Unidos
Clin Anat ; 34(1): 82-89, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32648289


COVID-19 has generated a global need for technologies that enable communication, collaboration, education and scientific discourse whilst maintaining physical distance. University closures due to COVID-19 and physical distancing measures disrupt academic activities that previously occurred face-to-face. Restrictions placed on universities due to COVID-19 have precluded most conventional forms of education, assessment, research and scientific discourse. Anatomists now require valid, robust and easy-to-use communication tools to facilitate remote teaching, learning and research. Recent advances in communication, video conferencing and digital technologies may facilitate continuity of teaching and research activities. Examples include highly-interactive video conferencing technology, collaborative tools, social media and networking platforms. In this narrative review, we examine the utility of these technologies in supporting effective communication and professional activities of anatomists during COVID-19 and after.

Anatomía/educación , Medios de Comunicación , Educación a Distancia , Investigación , Anatomía/métodos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Conducta Cooperativa , Educación Médica/métodos , Humanos , Redes Sociales en Línea , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Interfaz Usuario-Computador , Comunicación por Videocoferencia
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(12)2020 Dec 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317190


Background and Objectives: The population has been overwhelmed with false information related to the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) crisis, spreading rapidly through social media and other channels. We aimed to investigate if frontline healthcare workers affected by infodemia show different psychological consequences than frontline clinicians who do not declare to be affected by false news related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty-six frontline healthcare workers from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and Emergency Departments in Romania completed a survey to assess stress, depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders, between March and April 2020. We split the sample of frontline healthcare workers into two groups based on the self-evaluated criteria: if they were or were not affected by infodemia in their activity. Results: Considering limitations such as the cross-sectional design, the lack of causality relationship, and the sample size, the results show that, the frontline medical workers who declared to be affected by false news were significantly more stressed, felt more anxiety, and suffered more from insomnia than healthcare workers who are not affected by false information related to pandemic time. Conclusions: The infodemia has significant psychological consequences such as stress, anxiety, and insomnia on already overwhelmed doctors and nurses in the outbreak of the COVID-19 crisis. These findings suggest that medical misinformation's psychological implications must be considered when different interventions regarding frontline healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic are implemented.

Medios de Comunicación , Información de Salud al Consumidor , Personal de Salud/psicología , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/psicología , Comunicación , Estudios Transversales , Decepción , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades Profesionales/psicología , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Rumanía/epidemiología , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/epidemiología , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/psicología
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 81(12): 1-3, 2020 Dec 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377831


This editorial explores how technology has helped clinicians during the COVID-19 pandemic, from patient care to education, the changes that have been made and the numerous exciting possibilities of where technology can amalgamate with health care.

/epidemiología , Medios de Comunicación/tendencias , Prestación de Atención de Salud/tendencias , Prácticas Clínicas/tendencias , Educación Médica/tendencias , Humanos , Aplicaciones Móviles , Pandemias , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/tendencias , Telemedicina
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(4): 942-959, out.-dez. 2020. ilus, tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145570


A mídia funciona como uma ponte entre a medicina e o público, e impacta como a informação é organizada e apresentada às pessoas. Realizou-se uma análise de conteúdo, quantitativo e qualitativo, dos enquadramentos principais nas matérias sobre medicina regenerativa publicadas pela Folha de São Paulo e O Globo, entre janeiro de 2012 e maio do 2019. A análise mostrou algumas limitações nas informações publicadas: um número bastante escasso de relatos, com poucas matérias sobre controvérsias sociais e regulatórias e matérias de tons otimistas demais sobre os benefícios das terapias celulares. Conclui-se que falta uma contribuição mais sistemática da imprensa à legitimação social e institucional desta área de ponta no país, desenvolvida com recursos públicos e que oferece uma oportunidade imperdível no aumento da consciência em saúde coletiva, assim como, na participação competitiva do Brasil no cenário global.

Mass media works as a bridge between medicine and the public and produces an impact according to how information is organized and presented. A quantitative and qualitative content analysis was developed on the main framings on regenerative medicine found in reports by the newspapers Folha de São Paulo and O Globo between January 2012 and May 2019. The analysis found limitations in the information published: a reduced number of stories, the presence of few articles on social and regulatory controversies and a portrayal of over-optimistic accounts on the benefits of cellular-based therapies. The article concludes that there is a lack of a more systematic contribution of the printed press to the social and institutional legitimation of the local area, one developed with public resources and that offers a valuable opportunity to raise awareness on collective health, as well as, for a competitive inclusion of Brazil at the global level.

Los medios de comunicación masiva funcionan como un puente entre la medicina y el público, e impactan en los públicos según cómo la información sea organizada y presentada. Se realizó un análisis de contenido, cuantitativo y cualitativo, de los encuadramientos principales en los diarios: Folha de S.Paulo y O Globo sobre la medicina regenerativa entre enero de 2012 y mayo de 2019. El análisis demostró las limitaciones de los contenidos: um número bastante escaso de reportajes, pocas noticias sobre debates y controversias sociales y de tono demasiado optimista acerca de los beneficios de las terapias celulares. Se concluye que falta una contribución sistemática de la prensa a la legitimación social e institucional de esta área de punta em el país, desarrollada com recursos públicos y que ofrece una valiosa oportunidad para un aumento de conciencia sobre la salud colectiva y una participación competitiva de Brazil en el escenario global.

Humanos , Medios de Comunicación , Medicina Regenerativa , Tratamiento Basado en Trasplante de Células y Tejidos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Brasil , Medios de Comunicación/clasificación , Medios de Comunicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Asignación de Recursos , Gobierno Electrónico
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(4): 857-869, out.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145475


Este artigo trabalha na perspectiva histórica e na revisão bibliográfica de autores que analisam os recursos da linguagem, como a metáfora, para perceber a construção discursiva do HIV/aids na medicina, na mídia, no campo literário, na militância LGBTI e nos relatos em canais no YouTube de pessoas vivendo com HIV. O objetivo é utilizar as análises da terminologia e da história de luta pela significação de termos associados à doença e ao vírus em cada período. Dessa forma, verificamos que as representações iniciais sobre a condição clínica relacionada à culpa e ao julgamento moral de grupos, já vulneráveis antes da epidemia, não foram totalmente superadas no discurso. Observamos ainda os esforços, ao longo desses 40 anos, no campo da ciência para reduzir o estigma e a discriminação a partir da palavra.

This article works in the historical perspective and in the bibliographic review of authors who analyze language resources, such as the metaphor, to understand the discursive construction of HIV/AIDS in medicine, in the media, in the literary field, in LGBTI activism and in reports on YouTube channels of people living with HIV. The objective is to use the analysis of terminology and history of struggle for the meaning of terms associated with the disease and the virus in each period. We found that the initial representations about the clinical condition related to guilt and the moral judgment of groups, already vulnerable before the epidemic, were not completely overcome in the discourse. We also observe the efforts, over these 40 years, in the field of science to reduce stigma and discrimination based on words.

Este artículo trabaja en la perspectiva histórica y en la revisión bibliográfica de autores que analizan recursos del lenguaje, como la metáfora, para comprender la construcción discursiva del VIH/SIDA en la medicina, en los medios de comunicación, en el campo literario, en el activismo LGBTI y en canales de YouTube de personas que viven con el VIH. El objetivo es utilizar el análisis de la terminología y la historia de las luchas por el significado de los términos asociados a la enfermedad y al virus en cada período. Así, encontramos que las representaciones iniciales sobre el cuadro clínico relacionado con la culpa y el juicio moral de grupos, ya vulnerables antes de la epidemia, no fueron superadas por completo en el discurso. También hemos visto esfuerzos, durante estos 40 años, en el campo de la ciencia para reducir el estigma y la discriminación basados en las palabras.

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Semántica , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/historia , VIH , Metáfora , Difusión por la Web como Asunto , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Prejuicio , Conducta Sexual , Medios de Comunicación , Periodismo , Estigma Social , Epidemias , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Narrativa Personal , Terminología como Asunto
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017934


Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading factors for death cause of human beings. In the past decade, heart sound classification has been increasingly studied for its feasibility to develop a non-invasive approach to monitor a subject's health status. Particularly, relevant studies have benefited from the fast development of wearable devices and machine learning techniques. Nevertheless, finding and designing efficient acoustic properties from heart sounds is an expensive and time-consuming task. It is known that transfer learning methods can help extract higher representations automatically from the heart sounds without any human domain knowledge. However, most existing studies are based on models pre-trained on images, which may not fully represent the characteristics inherited from audio. To this end, we propose a novel transfer learning model pre-trained on large scale audio data for a heart sound classification task. In this study, the PhysioNet CinC Challenge Dataset is used for evaluation. Experimental results demonstrate that, our proposed pre-trained audio models can outperform other popular models pre-trained by images by achieving the highest unweighted average recall at 89.7 %.

Medios de Comunicación , Ruidos Cardíacos , Dispositivos Electrónicos Vestibles , Acústica , Humanos , Aprendizaje Automático
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2129-2132, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018427


Cardiovascular diseases are the biggest threat to human being's health all over the world, and carotid atherosclerotic plaque is the leading cause of ischemic cardiovascular diseases. To determine the location and shape of the plaque, it is of great significance to detect the intima-media (IM). In this paper, a new IM detection method based on convolution neural network (IMD-CNN) is proposed for the detection of IM of blood vessels in longitudinal ultrasonic images. In IMD-CNN, firstly the region of interest (ROI) is automatically extracted by morphological processing, then the patch-wise training data are constructed, and finally a simple CNN is trained to detect the IM. The experimental results obtained on 23 images show that the test accuracy of IMD-CNN is over 86% and the performance of IMD-CNN is also visually proved to be effective.

Medios de Comunicación , Placa Aterosclerótica , Grosor Intima-Media Carotídeo , Humanos , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagen , Ultrasonografía
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2147-2150, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018431


Preterm newborns are prone to late-onset sepsis, leading to a high risk of mortality. Video-based analysis of motion is a promising non-invasive approach because the behavior of the newborn is related to his physiological state. But it is needed to analyze only images where the newborn is solely present in incubator. In this context, we propose a method for video-based detection of newborn presence. We use deep transfer learning: bottleneck features are extracted from a pre-trained deep neural network and then a classifier is trained with these features on our database. Moreover, we propose a strategy that allows to take advantage of temporal consistency. On a database of 11 newborns with 56 days of video recordings, the results show a balanced accuracy of 80%.

Medios de Comunicación , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Bases de Datos Factuales , Humanos , Incubadoras , Recién Nacido , Aprendizaje Automático