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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(10)2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598968

RESUMEN

The article presents a series of four patients with primary anorectal melanoma presenting to our institute between 2016 and 2021. The primary objective of the series is to give an overview of the variable presentation of this rare entity from a high-volume colorectal tertiary care centre in a developing country. The patients ranged in age from 55 to 73 years and were mostly women (except one). The clinical presentation varied from bleeding per rectum to tenesmus and mucus in stools, overlapping with those of inflammatory bowel disease and primary anorectal adenocarcinoma. All patients were treated with surgery (laparoscopic or open), ranging from local excision to abdominoperineal resection. All our patients had a good outcome after surgery with no mortality at 30 or 90 days after surgery. The article aims to present a comprehensive overview of the various options of management with evidence from the surgical literature.


Asunto(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Melanoma , Neoplasias del Recto , Neoplasias Cutáneas , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/cirugía , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Melanoma/cirugía , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias del Recto/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Recto/cirugía , Recto
2.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 19(2): 300-304, 2021 Sep 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601520

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma, the most aggressive form of skin cancer worldwide is much often talked about in the western world and in Caucasian population as it is seen to be a rare disease in South Asians. This study aims to provide a better assessment on the spectrum of cutaneous melanomas in our context. METHODS: This was a retrospective, 11-year hospital-based study done in the Department of Pathology, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. The data collected included age, sex, anatomical site, Breslow thickness in millimeter, Clark's level of invasion, presence of ulceration, Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and melanoma subtypes. The anova test was used to compare the relationship between age and staging, whereas pearson's chi square test was used to determine the relationships of sex and histopathological subtype with staging. RESULTS: Out of total, 44 cases of primary cutaneous melanoma were seen, 23 (52.27%) were males and 21 (47.27%) were females. The mean age was 61.29 year with the majority in the age groups 61-70 and 71-80 comprising 11 cases each (25%). Lower extremity was the most frequent site (23 cases, 52.27 %). The largest group (18 cases) was composed of Nodular melanoma, followed by acral melanoma (17 cases). Nodular melanoma tended to occur at a higher stage than other types. Age and sex showed no correlation with staging. A significant association was found with histopathological type. CONCLUSIONS: Primary melanoma is a commonly encountered malignancy. It is commomly appreciated equally among both gender among elderly populations. Nodular melanoma present late and is the commonest variety with lower extremity being the commonest site Keywords: Breslow thickness; clark's level; cutaneous melanoma; nodular melanoma.


Asunto(s)
Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutáneas , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nepal/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Cutáneas/epidemiología , Centros de Atención Terciaria
3.
Prague Med Rep ; 122(3): 222-227, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606435

RESUMEN

Melanoma is a malignant neoplasm of the epidermal melanocytes. Awareness and early recognition of pigmented lesion inside oral cavity helps in initial diagnosis and further investigation and treatment. Oral malignant melanoma is a rare aggressive neoplasm commonly seen among middle age. The diagnosis of melanoma initiates from the pre-existing pigmented lesions. The poor prognosis of oral melanomas requires that pigmented lesions of undetermined origin be routinely biopsied. A case of malignant melanoma of hard palate with its clinical, radiological and histopathological presentation along with brief review is presented. Prognosis of these lesion is poor with survival rate of 5 years.


Asunto(s)
Melanoma , Neoplasias de la Boca , Neoplasias Cutáneas , Humanos , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias de la Boca/diagnóstico , Pronóstico
4.
Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi ; 118(10): 967-974, 2021.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629347

RESUMEN

Malignant melanoma is an aggressive tumor with a high potential for distant metastases. Autopsy studies have shown that gallbladder metastases are found in 15% of patients. However, metastatic melanoma of the gallbladder is rarely discovered in living patients. A 73-year-old man was reported. The patient underwent surgical removal of malignant melanoma on his back and lymphadenectomy of the axillary lymph nodes. In addition, the patient developed cutaneous metastases to the right axillary and the middle of the chest 1.5 years after the surgery. Consequently, nivolumab chemotherapy was started. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed a well-enhanced mass in the gallbladder 4 months after. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a 13-mm hypoechoic heterogeneous mass in the gallbladder with a hyperechoic layer on the mass surface. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that the gallbladder tumor showed high signal intensity on T1-weighted images, low signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and high signal intensity on diffusion-weighted images. Positron emission tomography-CT revealed the slight uptake of fluorodeoxyglucose at the tumor. Endoscopic ultrasonography showed a hypoechoic tumor infiltrating the submucosal layer. The patient underwent open cholecystectomy. Examination of the resected specimens revealed a black, nodular-type tumor in the gallbladder body. The histopathological diagnosis was malignant melanoma. It was judged as metastatic melanoma of the gallbladder.


Asunto(s)
Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutáneas , Anciano , Fluorodesoxiglucosa F18 , Vesícula Biliar , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Melanoma/diagnóstico por imagen , Melanoma/cirugía , Neoplasias Cutáneas/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias Cutáneas/cirugía
6.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(9)2021 Sep 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577888

RESUMEN

Oral mucosal melanoma (OMM) represents an extremely rare entity that is associated with a poor prognosis due to late diagnosis and early metastasis. Here, extensive surgical therapy is the therapy of choice. In contrary, for OMM in situ, the respective therapeutical recommendations are lacking. In this case report, treatment modalities of an OMM in situ of the palate, including the maxillary alveolar process, are reported. The tumor relapsed twice despite adequate surgical therapy and reconstruction. Therefore, irradiation was performed as an adjuvant therapy. At a follow-up of two years, the patient was free from recurrences.


Asunto(s)
Melanoma , Neoplasias de la Boca , Neoplasias Cutáneas , Humanos , Melanoma/cirugía , Mucosa Bucal , Neoplasias de la Boca/cirugía , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia
7.
Chem Biol Interact ; 348: 109644, 2021 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508709

RESUMEN

Photoactivated chemotherapy (PACT) is an emerging strategy for targeted cancer therapy. Strained Ru complexes with pseudo-octahedral geometry may undergo photo-induced ligand dissociation, forming aquated photoproducts that are significantly more cytotoxic compared to the precursor complex. The complexes investigated were the strained complex [Ru(bpy)2BC]Cl2 (where bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine and BC = bathocuproine) and its unstrained control [Ru(bpy)2phen]Cl2 (where phen = 1,10-phenanthroline). The uptake of [Ru(bpy)2BC]Cl2, assessed by ICP/MS, started immediately post-incubation and plateaued after 24 h. Active transport was found as the main mode of intracellular transport. Cell viability assays on A375 cells indicated a mean phototoxicity index of 340-fold, and the effect was shown to be primarily mediated by the aquated photoproducts rather than the dissociating ligands. A significant increase in ROS production and DNA damage was also observed. Flow cytometry confirmed the induction of early apoptosis at 48 h that proceeds to late apoptosis/necrosis by 72 h post-treatment. Western blot analysis of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins revealed that apoptosis was mediated through an interplay between the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, as well as autophagy and via inhibition of the MAPK and PI3K pathways. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that [Ru(bpy)2BC]Cl2 is a multi-mechanistic PACT drug which exhibits promising anticancer potential.


Asunto(s)
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacología , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Melanoma/patología , Fenantrolinas/química , Rutenio/química , Línea Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Ligandos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasas/metabolismo
8.
Clin Plast Surg ; 48(4): 543-550, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503715

RESUMEN

In the Western population, 1 out of every 50 individuals will develop melanoma. The incidence of melanoma is increasing faster than any other malignancy. The development of melanoma is multifactorial arising from an interaction between genetic susceptibility and environmental exposures. Sixty to seventy percent of melanomas are thought to be caused by ultraviolet radiation. Most cutaneous melanomas are of increased risk. Prevention strategies involve mitigating the environmental risk factors and identifying individuals with phenotypic risk factors for increased surveillance.


Asunto(s)
Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutáneas , Humanos , Incidencia , Melanoma/epidemiología , Melanoma/etiología , Melanoma/prevención & control , Factores de Riesgo , Neoplasias Cutáneas/epidemiología , Neoplasias Cutáneas/etiología , Neoplasias Cutáneas/prevención & control , Rayos Ultravioleta/efectos adversos
9.
Clin Plast Surg ; 48(4): 551-560, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503716

RESUMEN

Melanoma is the most lethal type of skin cancer, originating from the uncontrolled proliferation of melanocytes. The transformation of normal melanocytes into malignant tumor cells has been a focus of research seeking to better understand melanoma's pathogenesis and develop new therapeutic targets. Over the past few decades, a conglomeration of studies has pinpointed several driver mutations and their associated signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize the key signaling pathways and the driver mutations involved in melanoma tumorigenesis and also discuss the potential underlying mechanisms.


Asunto(s)
Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutáneas , Humanos , Melanocitos , Melanoma/genética , Transducción de Señal , Neoplasias Cutáneas/genética
10.
Clin Plast Surg ; 48(4): 561-576, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503717

RESUMEN

Despite the ability of immune-based interventions to dramatically increase the survival of patients with melanoma, a significant subset fail to benefit from this treatment, underscoring the need for accurate means to identify the patient population likely to respond to immunotherapy. Understanding how melanoma evades natural or manipulated immune responses could provide the information needed to identify such resistant individuals. Efforts to address this challenge are hampered by the vast immune diversity characterizing tumor microenvironments that remain largely understudied. It is thus important to more clearly elucidate the complex interactions that take place between the tumor microenvironment and host immune system.


Asunto(s)
Melanoma , Humanos , Inmunoterapia , Melanoma/terapia , Microambiente Tumoral
11.
Clin Plast Surg ; 48(4): 577-585, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503718

RESUMEN

Early detection of melanoma is important in improving patient survival. The treatment of melanoma is multidisciplinary and begins by obtaining an accurate diagnosis. The mainstays of melanoma diagnosis include examination of the lesion and surrounding areas and an excisional biopsy so that a pathologic diagnosis can be obtained. The pathology results will help guide treatment recommendations, and some information can be used for prognosis. Further workup of the patient may include laboratory studies and imaging for staging and surveillance.


Asunto(s)
Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutáneas , Biopsia , Humanos , Melanoma/diagnóstico por imagen , Melanoma/patología , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Pronóstico , Neoplasias Cutáneas/diagnóstico por imagen
12.
Clin Plast Surg ; 48(4): 587-598, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503719

RESUMEN

Conventional histopathology is the primary means of melanoma diagnosis. Both architectural and cytologic features aid in discrimination of melanocytic nevi from melanoma. Communication between the clinician and pathologist regarding the history, examination, differential diagnosis, prior biopsy findings, method of sampling, and specimen orientation is critical to an accurate diagnosis. A melanoma pathology report includes multiple prognostic indicators to guide surgical and medical management. In challenging cases, immunohistochemistry and molecular diagnostics may be of benefit.


Asunto(s)
Melanoma , Nevo Pigmentado , Neoplasias Cutáneas , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Inmunohistoquímica , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Melanoma/genética , Nevo Pigmentado/diagnóstico , Nevo Pigmentado/genética , Neoplasias Cutáneas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutáneas/genética
13.
Clin Plast Surg ; 48(4): 599-606, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503720

RESUMEN

The eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer melanoma staging system relies on assessments of the primary tumor (T), regional lymph nodes (N), and distant metastatic sites (M). Its notable updates include tumor thickness measurements to the nearest 0.1 mm, revision of T1a and T1b definitions, re-evaluation of N category descriptors, increased number of stage III subgroupings, and incorporation of a new M1d designation, among others. These changes were based on analyses of a large contemporary international melanoma database. Ultimately, these revisions were made to improve staging and prognostication, risk stratification, and selection of patients for clinical trials.


Asunto(s)
Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutáneas , Humanos , Metástasis Linfática , Melanoma/patología , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Pronóstico , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
14.
Clin Plast Surg ; 48(4): 607-616, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503721

RESUMEN

Melanoma tumor thickness and ulceration are the strongest predictors of nodal spread. The recommendations for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) have been updated in recent American Joint Committee on Cancer and National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines to include tumor thickness ≥0.8 mm or any ulcerated melanoma. Mitotic rate is no longer considered an indicator for determining T category. Improvements in disease-specific survival conferred from SLNB were demonstrated through level I data in the Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial (MSLT) I. The role for completion lymph node dissection has evolved to less surgery in lieu of recent domestic (MSLT II) and international (Dermatologic Cooperative Oncology Group Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial [DeCOG-SLT]) level I data having similar melanoma-specific survival. Treatment options for the prevention of treatment of lymphedema have progressed to include immediate lymphatic reconstruction, lymphovenous anastomosis, and vascularized lymph node transfer.


Asunto(s)
Linfedema , Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutáneas , Humanos , Escisión del Ganglio Linfático , Ganglios Linfáticos/cirugía , Metástasis Linfática , Linfedema/cirugía , Melanoma/cirugía , Estudios Multicéntricos como Asunto , Biopsia del Ganglio Linfático Centinela , Neoplasias Cutáneas/cirugía
15.
Clin Plast Surg ; 48(4): 617-629, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503722

RESUMEN

As our knowledge and understanding of melanoma evolve, melanoma surveillance guidelines will reflect these findings. Currently, there is no consensus across international guidelines for melanoma follow-up. However, it is accepted that more aggressive surveillance is recommended for more advanced disease. When examining high-risk individuals, a systematic approach should be followed. Future considerations include the use of noninvasive imaging techniques, 'liquid biopsies,' and artificial intelligence to enhance detection of melanomas.


Asunto(s)
Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutáneas , Inteligencia Artificial , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Melanoma/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias Cutáneas/diagnóstico por imagen
16.
Clin Plast Surg ; 48(4): 631-642, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503723

RESUMEN

Malignant melanoma is the 5th most common cancer and stage IV melanoma accounts for approximately 4% of new melanoma diagnoses in the United States. The prognosis for regionally advanced disease is poor, but there have been numerous recent advances in the medical management of melanoma in-transit metastases. The goal of this paper is to review currently accepted treatment options for in-transit metastases and introduce emerging therapies. Therapies to be discussed include limb perfusion and infusion, immunotherapy, checkpoint inhibitors, and radiation therapy.


Asunto(s)
Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutáneas , Humanos , Inmunoterapia , Melanoma/terapia , Neoplasias Cutáneas/terapia , Estados Unidos
17.
Clin Plast Surg ; 48(4): 643-649, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503724

RESUMEN

While primary treatment for melanoma consists of surgical resection and chemotherapeutics, radiation can be used as either definitive or adjuvant therapy in certain clinical scenarios. This chapter aims to explore the indications for primary definitive radiotherapy as well as adjuvant treatment following resection. Delivery, dose, fractionation, and toxicity of radiation treatment will be discussed. As our understanding of melanoma tumor biology increases, the role of radiotherapy may expand for more effective treatment of oligometastatic disease.


Asunto(s)
Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutáneas , Humanos , Melanoma/radioterapia , Neoplasias Cutáneas/radioterapia , Resultado del Tratamiento
18.
Clin Plast Surg ; 48(4): 651-658, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503725

RESUMEN

Adjuvant therapy plays an integral role in the treatment algorithm for stage III and stage IV cutaneous melanoma. Current ongoing clinical trials are exploring the effects of neoadjuvant therapeutics, specifically for the presurgical treatment of high-risk, borderline resectable disease. In both the adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings, the early chemotherapeutic and biochemical antitumor agents are making way to newer immune therapies, mutation-specific targeted therapies, and oncolytic vaccines that are transforming the treatment of malignant melanoma. The use of these systemic therapies in addition to surgical resection has been shown to increase both overall and progression-free survival.


Asunto(s)
Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutáneas , Quimioterapia Adyuvante , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Melanoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Terapia Neoadyuvante , Neoplasias Cutáneas/terapia
19.
Clin Plast Surg ; 48(4): 659-668, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503726

RESUMEN

The incidence of melanoma is continuing to rise in the United States, and head and neck melanomas account for 25% of all cutaneous melanomas. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network guideline recommendations for surgical margins and sentinel lymph node biopsy in head and neck melanomas are the same as cutaneous melanoma located in other regions, but require special considerations when performing wide local excision, sentinel lymph node biopsy, and completion lymph node dissection and reconstruction taking into account the location of the melanoma and structures involved in and around the suggested margins.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello , Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutáneas , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/epidemiología , Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/cirugía , Humanos , Escisión del Ganglio Linfático , Ganglios Linfáticos , Melanoma/epidemiología , Melanoma/cirugía , Cuello , Estudios Retrospectivos , Biopsia del Ganglio Linfático Centinela , Neoplasias Cutáneas/epidemiología , Neoplasias Cutáneas/cirugía
20.
Clin Plast Surg ; 48(4): 669-675, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503727

RESUMEN

Lentigo maligna (LM) is a melanocytic neoplasm found on chronically sun-exposed areas of the body, particularly the head and neck. It commonly occurs in the elderly and has been referred to as a "senile freckle." It has also been termed "Hutchinson melanotic freckle," as it was first described by John Hutchinson in 1892. LM is defined as melanoma in situ and thus confined to the epidermis. LM lesions that invade the dermis are termed lentigo maligna melanoma, 1 of the 4 subtypes of malignant melanoma.


Asunto(s)
Peca Melanótica de Hutchinson , Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutáneas , Anciano , Humanos
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