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1.
Gerais (Univ. Fed. Juiz Fora) ; 13(1): 1-16, jan.-abr. 2020. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090454

RESUMEN

O presente artigo tem por objetivo investigar possíveis efeitos da atenção dividida no priming de repetição a partir de uma revisão seletiva da literatura. Foram selecionados estudos realizados com testes de priming perceptual e/ou conceitual, nos quais a divisão da atenção foi realizada na fase de codificação ou de recuperação. Em geral, as evidências indicaram que o priming, tanto o perceptual quanto o conceitual, foi afetado pela atenção dividida na codificação quando a tarefa secundária (ou distratora) foi mais demandante de atenção, exigindo resposta frequente e apresentada sincrônica ao estímulo alvo. Poucos estudos foram realizados na recuperação e eles indicaram imunidade do priming perceptual e conceitual à atenção dividida. Conclui-se que os processos de memória implícita podem exigir recursos atencionais na codificação. Implicações teóricas dos resultados são discutidas.


This article aims to investigate possible effects of divided attention on repetition priming from a selective review of the literature. Studies were included if they utilized perceptual and/or conceptual priming tasks, in which the division of attention was performed during encoding or retrieval. In general, the results suggested that perceptual and conceptual priming were affected by divided attention during encoding. This effect occurred when the secondary task (or distractor task) demanded higher levels of attention, requiring frequent task responses and it was presented simultaneously to the memory target stimulus. The few studies investigating retrieval showed that perceptual and conceptual priming are not sensitive to divided attention. Therefore, implicit memory processes may require attentional resources in the encoding. Theoretical implications of the results are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Atención , Memoria Implícita , Psicología , Memoria
2.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 201: 102954, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722258

RESUMEN

Previous research suggests that the perception of stimulus onset can be accelerated by a match between the contents of visual working memory and the stimulus presented alone in the peripheral visual field. This onset acceleration effect might contribute to previously reported effects of working memory on perceived stimulus duration. However, it remains possible that the contents of visual working memory may also modulate the offset perception of matching visual stimuli, thereby contributing to the modulation of duration perception by working memory. The present study directly tested this possibility by using a simple reaction time task to assess the effect of visual working memory on perceived stimulus offset. Participants were asked to maintain a sample stimulus in working memory and subsequently had to respond to the offset of a single visual target. Across three experiments, we showed that the offset response was reliably slower when the target matched the sample held in visual working memory, as compared with when the target did not. This effect was not likely attributed to the mechanism of repetition priming from the presentation of the sample, because we failed to observe a priming effect either when the sample was only passively viewed without working memory demands or when the sample was initially encoded into memory but did not need to be actively maintained in mind by the time the offset target appeared. The findings provide direct evidence indicating that active maintenance of information in visual working memory delays the perceived offset of matching visual stimuli.


Asunto(s)
Memoria a Corto Plazo/fisiología , Estimulación Luminosa/métodos , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Percepción Visual/fisiología , Adulto , Atención/fisiología , Cognición/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Memoria Implícita/fisiología , Adulto Joven
3.
J Vis ; 19(7): 14, 2019 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323664

RESUMEN

The staircase method has been widely used in measuring perceptual learning. Recently, Zhao, Lesmes, and Lu (2017, 2019) developed the quick Change Detection (qCD) method and applied it to measure the trial-by-trial time course of dark adaptation. In the current study, we conducted two simulations to evaluate the performance of the 3-down/1-up staircase and qCD methods in measuring perceptual learning in a two-alternative forced-choice task. In Study 1, three observers with different time constants (40, 80, and 160 trials) of an exponential learning curve were simulated. Each simulated observer completed staircases with six step sizes (1%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 60%) and a qCD procedure, each starting at five levels (+50%, +25%, 0, -25%, and -50% different from the true threshold in the first trial). We found the following results: Staircases with 1% and 5% step sizes failed to generate more than five reversals half of the time; and the bias and standard deviations of thresholds estimated from the post hoc segment-by-segment qCD analysis were much smaller than those from the staircase method with the other four step sizes. In Study 2, we simulated thresholds in the transfer phases with the same time constants and 50% transfer for each observer in Study 1. We found that the estimated transfer indexes from qCD showed smaller biases and standard deviations than those from the staircase method. In addition, rescoring the simulated data from the staircase method using the Bayesian estimation component of the qCD method resulted in much-improved estimates. We conclude that the qCD method characterizes the time course of perceptual learning and transfer more accurately, precisely, and efficiently than the staircase method, even with the optimal 10% step size.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación a la Oscuridad/fisiología , Aprendizaje Discriminativo/fisiología , Teorema de Bayes , Conducta de Elección/fisiología , Humanos , Curva de Aprendizaje , Memoria Implícita/fisiología , Umbral Sensorial/fisiología
4.
J Vis ; 19(7): 13, 2019 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323099

RESUMEN

Visual prime stimuli can affect the processing of following target stimuli even if their visibility is reduced due to visual masking. Prime visibility depends on the stimulus parameters of the prime and those of the mask. Here we explored the effects of prime stimuli and modulated their visibility by continuous flash suppression (CFS). CFS reduces the visibility of a stimulus presented to one eye by simultaneously presenting a series of high-contrast masking stimuli to the other eye. We manipulated the strength of CFS effects on perception and examined how action priming effects of the masked stimuli varied under the same conditions. Prime visibility was modulated by the contrast of the primes (Experiments 1 and 2), the contrast of the masks (Experiments 2 and 3), and by the stimulus onset asynchrony between prime and target stimuli (all experiments). Surprisingly, action priming effects were modulated by these experimental variables in a parallel way. In addition, individual differences between participants in prime visibility correlated with individual differences in action priming. Our findings suggest that action priming and prime perception depend in similar ways on prime contrast, mask contrast, stimulus onset asynchrony, and individual dispositions in CFS. These findings distinguish CFS from other perceptual suppression techniques, such as backward masking, that allow reducing prime visibility without parallel effects on action priming. Our results corroborate the view that CFS interferes with visual processing at early stages in the cortical hierarchy with similar effects on later processing for perception and action.


Asunto(s)
Percepción Visual/fisiología , Adulto , Sensibilidad de Contraste/fisiología , Femenino , Fijación Ocular/fisiología , Humanos , Individualidad , Masculino , Enmascaramiento Perceptual/fisiología , Estimulación Luminosa , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Memoria Implícita/fisiología
5.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 198: 102858, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276962

RESUMEN

In three task-switching experiments, we investigated the relationship of n-1 switch cost and n-2 repetition cost. N-1 switch cost is observed when participants are asked to switch from one classification task to another, e.g., from judging a digit as odd or even to judging a digit as smaller or larger than five. N-2 repetition cost is observed when participants are asked to switch among three tasks (thereafter called A, B, and C). This cost is observed when the task on trial n-2 is repeated in trial n (i.e., in task sequences like ABA) compared to when it is switched (i.e., in task sequences like CBA). So far, the n-1 switch cost is assumed to be caused either by reconfiguration processes or by episodic-memory inertia from the previously activated task-set. N-2 repetition cost is thought to reflect lingering inhibitory processes for resolving conflict among tasks. Whereas both views are integrated in some models, it is up to date unclear whether n-2 repetition cost is related to n-1 switch cost. To examine this relationship, we decomposed the processes underlying n-1 switch cost and n-2 repetition cost using a diffusion model analysis as well as a linear ballistic accumulator model. The results showed that n-1 switch cost reflects interference caused by the residual activation of the previous task set as indicated by slower evidence accumulation processes. In contrast, there were no consistent parameter modulations underlying n-2 repetition cost. These findings emphasize that different cognitive processes are involved in n-1 switch cost and n-2 repetition cost.


Asunto(s)
Cognición/fisiología , Modelos Psicológicos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Memoria Episódica , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Memoria Implícita , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas
6.
Biol Psychol ; 146: 107714, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185245

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to explore the neural correlates of the automatic activation of gender stereotypes by using the masked and unmasked priming technique. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants were presented with an Italian third-person singular pronoun (lui or lei) that were preceded by either a grammatically-marked (e.g., passeggeraFEM, pensionatoMASC) or stereotypically-associated (e.g., insegnanteFEM, conducenteMASC) role noun. Participants were required to judge the grammatical gender of the personal pronoun ignoring the preceding word. This word was presented in a masked or unmasked way. The results revealed slower reaction times and larger N400, in both the masked and unmasked conditions, when the pronouns were preceded by gender-incongruent than gender-congruent grammatical and stereotypical primes. A P300 effect also emerged in both masked and unmasked conditions for the grammatical gender mismatch between the antecedent and the pronoun. These results provide evidence that gender stereotypes can strongly influence our behavior even under unconscious conditions.


Asunto(s)
Potenciales Evocados/fisiología , Enmascaramiento Perceptual/fisiología , Memoria Implícita/fisiología , Conducta Estereotipada/fisiología , Estereotipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Electroencefalografía/métodos , Femenino , Humanos , Lenguaje , Masculino , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Semántica , Adulto Joven
7.
Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.) ; 19(2): 191-202, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-183856

RESUMEN

This study analyses the validity of the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) as an implicit measure on in-group and out-group bias in Spanish participants from Catalonian (n= 17) and from the Rest of Spain (n= 16). The IRAP required to respond relationally in alternating trial-blocks. In the pro-Catalan block, participants had to respond as if the word Catalan, with the Catalonian flag behind it, were related with positive attributes (e.g. polite) and the word Spanish, with the Spanish flag behind it, were related with negative attributes (e.g. rude). In contrast, in the pro-Spanish block participants had to respond as if the word Spanish, with the Spanish flag behind it, were related with positive attributes (e.g. innovative) and the word Catalan, with the Catalonian flag behind it, were related with negatives attributes (e.g. opportunist). Participants also completed a demographic questionnaire and an explicit measure with stimuli analogous to the IRAP ones. The results showed more a favourable bias toward the ingroup in both groups, but this favourable bias is more pronounced in the Catalan Group. These results highlight the validity of the IRAP to measure intergroup biases


No disponible


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Identificación Social , Competencia Cultural/psicología , Psicometría/métodos , Memoria Implícita , Distribución por Edad y Sexo , Imágenes en Psicoterapia
8.
eNeuro ; 6(2)2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072907

RESUMEN

Word familiarity and predictive context facilitate visual word processing, leading to faster recognition times and reduced neuronal responses. Previously, models with and without top-down connections, including lexical-semantic, pre-lexical (e.g., orthographic/phonological), and visual processing levels were successful in accounting for these facilitation effects. Here we systematically assessed context-based facilitation with a repetition priming task and explicitly dissociated pre-lexical and lexical processing levels using a pseudoword (PW) familiarization procedure. Experiment 1 investigated the temporal dynamics of neuronal facilitation effects with magnetoencephalography (MEG; N = 38 human participants), while experiment 2 assessed behavioral facilitation effects (N = 24 human participants). Across all stimulus conditions, MEG demonstrated context-based facilitation across multiple time windows starting at 100 ms, in occipital brain areas. This finding indicates context-based facilitation at an early visual processing level. In both experiments, we furthermore found an interaction of context and lexical familiarity, such that stimuli with associated meaning showed the strongest context-dependent facilitation in brain activation and behavior. Using MEG, this facilitation effect could be localized to the left anterior temporal lobe at around 400 ms, indicating within-level (i.e., exclusively lexical-semantic) facilitation but no top-down effects on earlier processing stages. Increased pre-lexical familiarity (in PWs familiarized utilizing training) did not enhance or reduce context effects significantly. We conclude that context-based facilitation is achieved within visual and lexical processing levels. Finally, by testing alternative hypotheses derived from mechanistic accounts of repetition suppression, we suggest that the facilitatory context effects found here are implemented using a predictive coding mechanism.


Asunto(s)
Corteza Cerebral/fisiología , Reconocimiento Visual de Modelos/fisiología , Lectura , Memoria Implícita/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografía , Masculino , Psicolingüística , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
9.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 197: 94-105, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128518

RESUMEN

Rosner, Lopez-Benitez, D'Angelo, Thomson, and Milliken (2018, see also Collins, Rosner & Milliken, 2018) reported a novel recognition memory effect. In an incidental study phase, participants saw prime-target word pairs and were asked to name aloud just the target. Primes were unmasked, but participants were not required to attend to them. On repeated trials the prime and target were the same word, whereas on not-repeated trials the prime and target were different words. In the following test phase, recognition memory was better for not-repeated targets than for repeated targets. The present study explores whether this effect is influenced by the spacing between primes and targets. The results replicated prior studies in that immediate repetition resulted in a repetition decrement effect, but spaced repetition (by about 10 min) resulted in the opposite effect - better recognition for repeated than not-repeated targets. The results are discussed in relation to deficient processing theories of the spacing effect.


Asunto(s)
Estimulación Luminosa/métodos , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Memoria Implícita/fisiología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
10.
J Psycholinguist Res ; 48(5): 1087-1110, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102173

RESUMEN

In the present study, we showed evidence of an integration between two unconscious semantic representations. In experiment 1, two masked Chinese words of the same or different categories ("orange apple" or "grape hammer") were simultaneously presented in the prime, followed by two Chinese words also of same or different categories in the target. We examined possible prime/target visual feature priming, semantic category priming and motor response priming effects. Moreover, two ISI intervals (53, 163 ms) between the prime and the target words were used to examine the positive and negative priming. The results revealed a negative motor response priming and a positive semantic category priming effect independent of the ISI when the target words were of the same category. Experiment 2 eliminated an alternative interpretation of the effect based on different number of category words changed across the prime and the target. Experiment 3 eliminated a potential confound of unequal numbers of trials for motor congruent and incongruent conditions in Experiment 1. Overall, these results indicated an integration between the meanings of the two subliminally perceived words in the prime. The difference between simultaneous and sequential presentations, and the reason why positive priming was not observed when the interval between the prime and the target was short were discussed in the context of unconscious semantic integration.


Asunto(s)
Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Memoria Implícita/fisiología , Semántica , Adulto , China , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
11.
J Gen Psychol ; 146(4): 339-364, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946000

RESUMEN

It has been theorized that differential cognitive resources may be involved in the processing of information pertaining to natural and man-made categories, commonly referred to as category specificity. The present study used four experiments to assess whether a natural priming advantage exists and, if so, whether color, texture, color diagnosticity, object complexity, and familiarity could account for the categorical difference. To do so, a repetition priming paradigm was used in which masked primes were briefly presented, and targets were categorized as natural or man-made. Across four experiments, a greater degree of priming was observed for natural as opposed to man-made stimuli. Examination of stimulus characteristics that could account for the differences revealed that the natural priming advantage was in part driven by color diagnosticity and familiarity. Results of this study support the notion that different cognitive resources represent and/or are involved in the processing of natural and man-made categories.


Asunto(s)
Señales (Psicología) , Recuerdo Mental/fisiología , Reconocimiento Visual de Modelos/fisiología , Estimulación Luminosa/métodos , /fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Memoria Implícita , Estudiantes/psicología , Adulto Joven
12.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 72(7): 1855-1862, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931821

RESUMEN

In a single experiment, we investigate the Ranschburg effect for tactile stimuli. Employing an immediate serial recall (ISR) procedure, participants recalled sequences of six rapidly presented finger stimulations by lifting their fingers in the order of original stimulation. Within-sequence repetition of an item separated by two intervening items resulted in impaired recall for the repeated item (the Ranschburg effect), thus replicating the findings of Roe et al. Importantly, this impairment persisted with concurrent articulation, suggesting that the Ranschburg effect is not reliant upon verbal recoding. These data illustrate that the Ranschburg effect is evident beyond verbal memory and further suggest commonality in process for both tactile and verbal order memory.


Asunto(s)
Memoria a Corto Plazo , Percepción del Tacto , Tacto , Conducta Verbal , Adulto , Atención , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Recuerdo Mental , Estimulación Física , Memoria Implícita
13.
Biol Psychol ; 145: 96-111, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034858

RESUMEN

The extent to which explicit memory (EM) and implicit memory (IM) involve similar or differential neural substrates remains unclear. To address this issue, this study provides a direct, meta-analytic comparison of functional neuroimaging studies involving EM and IM tasks. The meta-analysis comprised two separate meta-analytic comparisons. First, to compare EM and IM in terms of encoding activity, subsequent memory effects (remembered > forgotten) and repetition suppression effects (first > repeated) were directly compared. Second, to compare EM and IM in terms of retrieval activity, retrieval success effects (hit > correct rejection) and repetition suppression effects were directly compared. Based on the notion that reduced activity during repeated processing is a 'by-product' or direct consequence of the stimulus processing performed in the same regions at initial exposure, regions showing repetition suppression were thought to play an important role in both IM-encoding and IM-retrieval activities. The results indicated that subsequent memory and repetition suppression effects had extensive overlaps and no significant separations, suggesting that EM- and IM-encoding activities involve largely common regions. Retrieval success and repetition suppression effects had strong segregations and only modest overlaps, suggesting that EM- and IM-retrieval activities involve largely separate regions. Consistent with these results, Explicit/Implicit Memory Encoding and Retrieval (EIMER), a neurocognitive model of EM and IM that suggests a common-encoding, separate-retrieval hypothesis for EM and IM is proposed herein.


Asunto(s)
Neuroimagen Funcional , Memoria/fisiología , Recuerdo Mental/fisiología , Memoria Implícita/fisiología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Can J Exp Psychol ; 73(2): 105-117, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896186

RESUMEN

In a simplified repetition blindness (RB) paradigm, university students named target words (C2) that were presented for 72 ms and followed by a pattern mask. A prime word (C1) that was identical or unrelated to the target was read silently at the beginning of each trial, and there was an intervening distractor item displayed for 120 ms between prime and target. When the distractor was a word, there was a large repetition cost for target accuracy at both prime durations (Experiments 1A and 1B). The cost with word distractors was not abolished when instructions about repeats were given (Experiments 2A and 2B). When the distractor was selected from a set of random-letter strings, there was a repetition benefit in target accuracy for a 120-ms prime and no effect for a 480-ms prime (Experiments 3A and 3B). The cost of distractor lexicality implicates competitive effects in event registration and ordering. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Atención/fisiología , Recuerdo Mental/fisiología , Reconocimiento Visual de Modelos/fisiología , Memoria Implícita/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Lectura , Adulto Joven
15.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 81(5): 1262-1282, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820777

RESUMEN

In the contingent-capture protocol, singleton cues that have a target's searched-for feature capture attention, but cues that do not have the target's searched-for feature do not, a result labeled the contingent-capture effect. The contingent-capture effect is usually regarded as evidence for the observers' ability to establish search settings for certain nonspatial features in a top-down manner. However, in recent years it has become increasingly clear that selection history is also a powerful mediator of attentional capture. In this vein, it has been suggested that contingent-capture effects could emerge as a result of (intertrial) priming: The idea is that features that have been encountered previously in the target are primed, so that cues that have these features automatically capture attention in a subsequent encounter. Here we tested a strong version of the priming account of the contingent-capture effect. We wanted to know whether cues that had target features would capture attention when the corresponding features were not part of the instructions (i.e., when the corresponding features were task-irrelevant). The results suggested that a strong version of the priming account of contingent capture is not supported. In five experiments, we found little evidence that the contingent-capture effect could be explained by (intertrial) priming of task-irrelevant features alone. These results show that processes beyond priming through task-irrelevant features are critical for contingent-capture effects.


Asunto(s)
Atención/fisiología , Memoria Implícita/fisiología , Adulto , Señales (Psicología) , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulación Luminosa , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas
16.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 81(5): 1589-1608, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864108

RESUMEN

The human visual system has an extraordinary capacity to compute three-dimensional (3D) shape structure for both geometrically regular and irregular objects. The goal of this study was to shed new light on the underlying representational structures that support this ability. Observers (N = 85) completed two complementary perceptual tasks. Experiment 1 involved whole-part matching of image parts to whole geometrically regular and irregular novel object shapes. Image parts comprised either regions of edge contour, volumetric parts, or surfaces. Performance was better for irregular than for regular objects and interacted with part type: volumes yielded better matching performance than surfaces for regular but not for irregular objects. The basis for this effect was further explored in Experiment 2, which used implicit part-whole repetition priming. Here, we orthogonally manipulated shape regularity and a new factor of surface diagnosticity (how predictive a single surface is of object identity). The results showed that surface diagnosticity, not object shape regularity, determined the differential processing of volumes and surfaces. Regardless of shape regularity, objects with low surface diagnosticity were better primed by volumes than by surfaces. In contrast, objects with high surface diagnosticity showed the opposite pattern. These findings are the first to show that surface diagnosticity plays a fundamental role in object recognition. We propose that surface-based shape primitives-rather than volumetric parts-underlie the derivation of 3D object shape in human vision.


Asunto(s)
Percepción de Forma/fisiología , Reconocimiento Visual de Modelos/fisiología , Memoria Implícita/fisiología , Visión Ocular/fisiología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas
17.
Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.) ; 19(1): 111-119, mar. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-183826

RESUMEN

The European Union (EU) is a relatively recent political institution which, in last years, is particularly crossed by centrifugal tensions, making difficult for European citizens to feel a full EU identity, and making their emergent attitudes and beliefs towards EU uncertain. In this vein, an important research issue may be the spontaneous evaluations of EU which, in line with the recent literature, may be considered as embryonic precursors of successive explicit/reflexive beliefs and attitudes. The present study is aimed at investigating implicit attitudes towards EU administering an adaptation of the Implicit Association Test (EU-IAT) to a sample of 210 EU participants (147 males) aged average 38.7 (SD= 15.7), along with the PVQ-21, a scale designed to measure basic values. Results showed: 1) An adequate reliability for the EU-IAT; 2) A positive value for mean IAT scores which is significantly different from zero, indicating that participants associate more strongly EU with good attributes rather than with bad attributes (and Rest of the world with Bad attributes rather than with good attributes); and 3) A significant positive correlation of the EU-IAT with conservation values (in particular with conformity) and a significant negative correlation with openness to change values (in particular with self-direction) with a moderate/high effect size. These results provide first evidence for reliability and criterion validity of the EU-IAT, and suggest that EU citizens showed an automatic and emergent bias in favour of EU that is related to conservation values


No disponible


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Identificación Social , Construcción Social de la Identidad Étnica , Memoria Implícita , Actitud , Disposición en Psicología , Unión Europea , Procesos de Grupo , Psicometría/instrumentación , Pruebas Psicológicas/estadística & datos numéricos
18.
Exp Psychol ; 66(1): 12-22, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30777513

RESUMEN

Whenever individuals reveal personally relevant information to a stranger, they have to remember their self-disclosure for future interactions. Relying on instance-based theories of automaticity, we hypothesized that knowledge about having revealed private information to someone unfamiliar is retrieved automatically whenever this person is encountered again. In two studies, participants were orally interviewed by two different persons and instructed to be honest to one of them and to lie to the other. This instruction was either related to the identity of the interviewers (Experiment 1) or their gender (Experiment 2). Afterward, the target words honest and dishonest had to be identified in a categorization task in which pictures of the interviewers and of unknown persons served as task-irrelevant prime stimuli. In line with the hypothesis, results revealed congruence effects, indicating faster identification of the target word honest following the picture of a person whom one had told the truth.


Asunto(s)
Recuerdo Mental/fisiología , Autorrevelación , Análisis de Varianza , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulación Luminosa , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Memoria Implícita/fisiología , Revelación de la Verdad , Adulto Joven
19.
Biol Psychol ; 143: 41-52, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772402

RESUMEN

Two studies using event-related potentials ERPs) combined with emotional versions of 2-back tasks were performed to examine the effects of negative context on working memory (WM) updating task performance among anxiously attached individuals. One study also assessed the soothing effect of priming memories of attachment security on task performance. Three types of information, including negative attachment pictures, general negative pictures and neutral pictures, were used as materials in the present study. Impairment in WM updating capacity was found in the context of negative attachment pictures in both studies, and the ERP results revealed the following dynamic process: the participants showed enhanced attention to negative attachment stimuli during the initial encoding stage, as expressed by a larger P1, but undue immersion in negative emotion led to a reduced P300 during the elaborate stage. However, security priming was useful in reducing mood disturbance in the context of a WM updating task, and the participants performed better on the task after secure attachment activation. The implications of these findings for emotional WM updating capacity and information processing patterns among anxiously attached individuals are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Memoria a Corto Plazo/fisiología , Apego a Objetos , Memoria Implícita/fisiología , Adulto , Atención/fisiología , Cognición , Emociones/fisiología , Potenciales Evocados , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas , Adulto Joven
20.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 81(5): 1426-1441, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30644057

RESUMEN

Two experiments investigated positive priming and negative priming effects in a lexical decision task. A priming task was used in which participants were required to make a verbal naming response to a prime target word, flanked by a distractor word, followed by a lexical decision response to a probe target word or nonword, flanked by a distractor word. The longevity of both positive and negative priming was explored in short-lag and long-lag conditions in which stimuli were presented once and only once, except in order to fulfill the priming manipulations. The results showed significant immediate positive priming and negative priming effects, but only negative priming was sustained for over 8 minutes with many intervening trials, whereas there was no evidence of positive priming after the same delay. These intriguing results have implications for the nature of inhibitory processing and differing predictions between inhibition-based and episodic retrieval accounts of priming.


Asunto(s)
Atención/fisiología , Tiempo de Reacción/fisiología , Memoria Implícita/fisiología , Adulto , Toma de Decisiones/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulación Luminosa/métodos , Semántica , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
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