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1.
Neurology ; 102(9): e209298, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569140

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mounting evidence supports sex differences in Alzheimer disease (AD) risk. Vascular and hormonal factors may together contribute to AD risk in female adults. We investigated whether age at menopause, vascular risk, and history of hormone therapy (HT) containing estrogens together influence cognition over a 3-year follow-up period. We hypothesized that earlier menopause and elevated vascular risk would have a synergistic association with lower cognitive scores at follow-up and that HT containing estrogens would attenuate this synergistic association to preserve cognition. METHODS: We used data from postmenopausal female participants and age-matched male participants in the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging. Vascular risk was calculated using a summary score of elevated blood pressure, antihypertensive medications, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, diabetes, smoking, and obesity. Cognition was measured with a global cognitive composite at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Linear models tested independent and interactive associations of age at menopause, vascular risk, and HT history with cognition at 3-year follow-up, adjusting for baseline cognition, baseline age, years of education, and test language (English/French). RESULTS: We included 8,360 postmenopausal female participants (mean age at baseline = 65.0 ± 8.53 years, mean age at menopause = 50.1 ± 4.62 years) and 8,360 age-matched male participants for comparison. There was an interaction between age at menopause and vascular risk, such that earlier menopause and higher vascular risk were synergistically associated with lower cognitive scores at follow-up (ß = 0.013, 95% CI 0.001-0.025, p = 0.03). In stratified analyses, vascular risk was associated with lower cognitive scores in female participants with earlier menopause (menopausal ages 35-48 years; ß = -0.044, 95% CI -0.066 to -0.022, p < 0.001), but not average (ages 49-52 years; ß = -0.007, 95% CI -0.027 to 0.012, p = 0.46) or later menopause (ages 53-65 years; ß = 0.003, 95% CI -0.020 to 0.025, p = 0.82). The negative association of vascular risk with cognition in female participants with earlier menopause was stronger than the equivalent association in age-matched male participants. HT history did not further modify the synergistic association of age at menopause and vascular risk with follow-up cognition (ß = -0.005, 95% CI -0.032 to 0.021, p = 0.69). DISCUSSION: Endocrine and vascular processes may synergistically contribute to increased risk of cognitive decline in female adults. These findings have implications for the development of sex-specific dementia prevention strategies.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Disfunción Cognitiva , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Envejecimiento , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/tratamiento farmacológico , Canadá/epidemiología , Cognición , Disfunción Cognitiva/tratamiento farmacológico , Estrógenos/uso terapéutico , Estudios Longitudinales , Menopausia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano
2.
Reprod Health ; 21(1): 47, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589898

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Significant scientific research has been conducted concerning menopausal syndrome(MPS), yet few bibliometric analyses have been performed. Our aim was to recognise the 100 most highly cited published articles on MPS and to analytically evaluate their key features. METHODS: To identify the 100 most frequently cited articles, a search was conducted on Web of Science using the term 'menopausal syndrome'. Articles that matched the predetermined criteria were scrutinised to obtain the following data: citation ranking, year of publication, publishing journal, journal impact factor, country of origin, academic institution, authors, study type, and keywords. RESULTS: The publication period is from January 1, 2000, to August 31, 2022. The maximum number of citations was 406 and in 2012. The median citations per year was 39.70. Most of the articles focused on treatment and complications. These articles were published in 36 different journals, with the Journal of MENOPAUSE having published the greatest number (14%). Forty-eight articles (48%) were from the United States, with the University of Pittsburgh being the leading institute (9%). Joann E. Manson was the most frequent first author (n = 6). Observational studies were the most frequently conducted research type (n = 53), followed by experimental studies (n = 33). Keyword analysis identified classic research topics, including genitourinary syndrome of menopause, bone mineral density (BMD), and anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) loci. CONCLUSION: Using bibliometrics, we conducted an analysis to identify the inadequacies, traditional focal points, and potential prospects in the study of MPS across current scientific areas. Treatment and complications are at the core of MPS research, whereas prediction and biomarkers have less literature of high quality. There is a necessity for innovative analytical metrics to measure the real effect of these papers with a high level of citation on clinical application.


Asunto(s)
Bibliometría , Factor de Impacto de la Revista , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Proyectos de Investigación , Menopausia
3.
Gynecol Endocrinol ; 40(1): 2334798, 2024 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590105

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between subclinical hypothyroidism with early menopause, premature menopause, and last menstrual bleeding before the natural age of menopause. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 643 postmenopausal women aged 40-69 years. Groups were formed according to last menstrual episode: ≥45 [Natural age at menopause], 40-44 and [Early menopause], <40 [Premature menopause], and <45 [last menstrual episode before the natural age of menopause]. The Zulewski scale was applied to identify manifestations related to hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism, diagnosed with a serum TSH > 4.5 µIU/mL plus T4-free between 0.7 and 1.9 ng/dL. RESULTS: It was found that 24.4% had the last menstrual episode before the natural age of menopause, 18.6% had early menopause, and 5.7% had premature menopause. Subclinical hypothyroidism was diagnosed in 4.5% of patients. Among women with subclinical hypothyroidism, there was a higher frequency of early menopause, premature menopause, and last menstrual episode before the natural age of menopause, than in women without subclinical hypothyroidism (p < 0.05). Paresthesia (50%) and dry skin (40.7%) were the most reported hypothyroidism-related manifestations. Early menopause, premature menopause, and last menstrual episode before the natural age of menopause were associated with subclinical hypothyroidism, OR: 3.37 [95% CI: 1.40-8.10], OR: 4.31 [95% CI: 1.24-14.97], and OR: 3.57 [95% CI: 1.57-8.10], respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The last menstrual episode before the natural age of menopause, early menopause, and premature menopause were significantly associated with a higher chance of subclinical hypothyroidism.


Asunto(s)
Hipotiroidismo , Menopausia Prematura , Humanos , Femenino , Estudios Transversales , Colombia/epidemiología , Tirotropina , Hipotiroidismo/complicaciones , Hipotiroidismo/epidemiología , Menopausia
4.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 222, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581038

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The evidence regarding the association of reproductive factors with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is limited. AIMS: To investigate the relationship of reproductive factors with the risk of CVDs, as well as all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. METHODS: This study included 16,404 adults with reproductive factors from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and followed up until 31 December 2019. Logistic models and restricted cubic spline models were used to assess the association of reproductive factors with CVDs. COX proportional hazards models and restricted cubic spline models, with adjustment for potential confounding, were employed to analyze the relation between reproductive factors and cardiovascular and all-cause death. RESULTS: There is a nonlinear relationship between age at menarche and CVDs. Age at menopause ≤ 11(OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.10-1.69) was associated with an increased risk of CVDs compared to ages 12-13 years. Age at Menopause ≤ 44 (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.40-2.03) was associated with increased CVDs compared to age 35-49 years. Number of pregnancies ≥ 5(OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.02-1.55) was associated with an increased risk of CVDs compared to one pregnancy. In continuous variable COX regression models, a later age at menopause (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99) and a longer reproductive lifespan (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99) were associated with a decreased risk of all-cause death. A later age at menopause (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99) and a longer reproductive lifespan (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99) were associated with a decreased risk of cardiac death. CONCLUSIONS: Female reproductive factors are significant risk factors for CVDs American women.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Embarazo , Adulto , Femenino , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Humanos , Niño , Adolescente , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas Nutricionales , Menopausia , Reproducción , Factores de Riesgo
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Mar 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612676

RESUMEN

For much of human evolution, the average lifespan was <40 years, due in part to disease, infant mortality, predators, food insecurity, and, for females, complications of childbirth. Thus, for much of evolution, many females did not reach the age of menopause (45-50 years of age) and it is mainly in the past several hundred years that the lifespan has been extended to >75 years, primarily due to public health advances, medical interventions, antibiotics, and nutrition. Therefore, the underlying biological mechanisms responsible for disease risk following menopause must have evolved during the complex processes leading to Homo sapiens to serve functions in the pre-menopausal state. Furthermore, as a primary function for the survival of the species is effective reproduction, it is likely that most of the advantages of having such post-menopausal risks relate to reproduction and the ability to address environmental stresses. This opinion/perspective will be discussed in the context of how such post-menopausal risks could enhance reproduction, with improved survival of offspring, and perhaps why such risks are preserved. Not all post-menopausal females exhibit risk for this set of diseases, and those who do develop such diseases do not have all of the conditions. The diseases of the post-menopausal state do not operate as a unified complex, but as independent variables, with the potential for some overlap. The how and why there would be such heterogeneity if the risk factors serve essential functions during the reproductive years is also discussed and the concept of sets of reversible epigenetic changes associated with puberty, pregnancy, and lactation is offered to explain the observations regarding the distribution of post-menopausal conditions and their potential roles in reproduction. While the involvement of an epigenetic system with a dynamic "modification-demodification-remodification" paradigm contributing to disease risk is a hypothesis at this point, validation of it could lead to a better understanding of post-menopausal disease risk in the context of reproduction with commonalities may also lead to future improved interventions to control such risk after menopause.


Asunto(s)
Menopausia , Posmenopausia , Lactante , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Menopausia/genética , Ciclo Menstrual , Lactancia/genética , Pubertad , Epigénesis Genética
6.
Cleve Clin J Med ; 91(4): 237-244, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561208

RESUMEN

Vasomotor symptoms (VMS) are associated with adverse health consequences and can cause significant morbidity for postmenopausal women. Although hormone therapy remains the gold standard of VMS treatment in menopausal women, some women have contraindications to or may choose not to take hormone therapy. This article provides an up-to-date overview of the current evidence-based nonhormone therapies available for managing VMS. Evidence supporting various treatment options is reviewed, including lifestyle interventions, mind-body therapies, procedures, pharmacologic agents, and emerging therapies, such as neurokinin-receptor antagonists. The efficacy, safety, and clinical use of these treatments are detailed, offering insights for clinicians to make informed decisions in menopausal VMS management.


Asunto(s)
Sofocos , Menopausia , Femenino , Humanos , Sofocos/tratamiento farmacológico , Terapia de Reemplazo de Estrógeno/métodos , Estilo de Vida , Hormonas/farmacología , Hormonas/uso terapéutico
7.
Gynecol Endocrinol ; 40(1): 2333418, 2024 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563054

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess menopausal symptoms and determine awareness of menopausal related information in mid-aged women. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in which 140 women aged 40 to 60 years from Guayaquil, Ecuador were surveyed with the short 10-item Cervantes Scale (CS-10) and a questionnaire containing personal data and questions assessing awareness of menopause related information. RESULTS: The mean age of the sample was 48.0 ± 5.6 years. More than half of surveyed women had low education and non-urban residency, none were on menopausal hormone therapy, 33.6% had hypertension, 35% were postmenopausal, 78.6% had an increased body mass index (overweight/obese) and 92.9% had abdominal obesity (waist > 88 cm). The average CS-10 score was 15.3 ± 9.0 with a median of 14.0. The three most frequent menopausal symptoms were muscle-joint pain (75.0%), changes in skin texture (74.3%) and vaginal dryness (71.4%). Regarding awareness of information related to the menopause, it was found that 98.6% of women had no idea about what the menopause is and the average age of its onset. Interestingly, although 61.4% knew that during the menopause there is weight gain, 57.9% were sedentary. Married, postmenopausal, older and less educated women presented higher mean total CS-10 scores. Contrarily, those with less awareness of menopause related information present lower scores. CONCLUSION: In this low-income mid-aged female sample there was a high rate of non-awareness regarding information related to the menopause, including an unhealthy cardiometabolic profile. There is a need for educational programs aimed to increase awareness in this high-risk population in relation to the surveyed aspects in order to improve their health status and prevent chronic conditions.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión , Menopausia , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto , Ecuador/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Terapia de Reemplazo de Hormonas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Obesidad
8.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 28(3): 99-113, 2024 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583073

RESUMEN

Menopause represents the physiological transition when a woman's reproductive period ends associated with a variety of symptoms, including vasomotor symptoms, such as night sweats and hot flashes. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of oral Fezolinetant for treating vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause. Five electronic databases were searched from their inception until May 2023. Via the Cochrane risk of bias tool, two reviewers assessed the studies' quality. The primary outcomes were a decrease in VMSs frequency and severity and safety outcomes at 4 and 12 weeks. Data were extracted and then analyzed using RevMan software. This meta-analysis included six trials with a total of 3291 women that compared Fezolinetant to a placebo in the treatment of menopausal VMSs. After 4 and 12 weeks of therapy, fezolinetant at 30 mg QD or 45 mg QD substantially decreased the frequency and severity of VMSs per 24 hours compared to placebo. Fezolinetant at 90 mg BID, 30 mg QD, or 45 mg QD did not show a significant difference in the rate of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), headache, and TEAEs leading to permanent discontinuation compared to placebo. Fezolinetant proves to be a successful and well-tolerated remedy for menopausal women suffering from VMSs. Notably, the 45 mg daily dosage over 12 weeks exhibited significant efficacy. Nonetheless, extensive future trials are necessary to ascertain its long-term safety, effectiveness, and relative potency compared to alternative VMS treatments like hormone therapy.


La ménopause représente la transition physiologique lorsque la période de reproduction d'une femme se termine, associée à divers symptômes, notamment des symptômes vasomoteurs, tels que des sueurs nocturnes et des bouffées de chaleur. Cette revue systématique et méta-analyse visaient à évaluer l'efficacité et l'innocuité du Fezolinetant oral pour traiter les symptômes vasomoteurs associés à la ménopause. Cinq bases de données électroniques ont été consultées depuis leur création jusqu'en mai 2023. Via l'outil Cochrane sur le risque de biais, deux examinateurs ont évalué la qualité des études. Les principaux critères de jugement étaient une diminution de la fréquence et de la gravité des SVM ainsi que des critères de sécurité à 4 et 12 semaines. Les données ont été extraites puis analysées à l'aide du logiciel RevMan. Cette méta-analyse comprenait six essais portant sur un total de 3 291 femmes comparant Fezolinetant à un placebo dans le traitement des SVM ménopausiques. Après 4 et 12 semaines de traitement, le fézolinetant à la dose de 30 mg une fois par jour ou de 45 mg une fois par jour a considérablement réduit la fréquence et la gravité des SMV toutes les 24 heures par rapport au placebo. Le fézolinetant à la dose de 90 mg deux fois par jour, de 30 mg une fois par jour ou de 45 mg une fois par jour n'a pas montré de différence significative dans le taux d'événements indésirables survenus pendant le traitement (TEAE), de maux de tête et de TEAE conduisant à un arrêt définitif par rapport au placebo. Le fézolinetant s'avère être un remède efficace et bien toléré pour les femmes ménopausées souffrant de VMS. Notamment, la dose quotidienne de 45 mg sur 12 semaines a montré une efficacité significative. Néanmoins, de futurs essais approfondis sont nécessaires pour vérifier son innocuité, son efficacité et sa puissance relative à long terme par rapport aux traitements alternatifs du VMS comme l'hormonothérapie.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos Heterocíclicos con 2 Anillos , Tiadiazoles , Humanos , Femenino , Menopausia , Sofocos/tratamiento farmacológico , Compuestos Heterocíclicos con 2 Anillos/uso terapéutico , Tiadiazoles/uso terapéutico
9.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 28(3): 122-129, 2024 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583076

RESUMEN

Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is known to increase the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and less frequently cerebral vein thrombosis, but the absolute risk for a given patient is very low. After starting MHT, the risk of VTE seems to be at its highest, declining to the non-HRT user baseline level of risk after stopping. Whether estrogen-only or estrogen-progestin HRT combination is linked to a similar risk of VTE is unclear from the available evidence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the risks of developing VTE in relation to different types as well as different modes of administration of MHT through a database search including PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, and others in order to provide the women carers with the up-to-date and evidence-based guidelines and recommendations while counseling the post-menopausal women enquiring on use of hormonal therapies either to alleviate the menopausal symptoms or to prevent the long-term sequelae of estrogen deficiency.


On sait que l'hormonothérapie ménopausique (MHT) augmente le risque de thromboembolie veineuse (TEV), qui comprend la thrombose veineuse profonde, l'embolie pulmonaire et, moins fréquemment, la thrombose veineuse cérébrale, mais le risque absolu pour un patient donné est très faible. Après le début du MHT, le risque de TEV semble être à son plus haut niveau, diminuant jusqu'au niveau de risque de base des non-utilisatrices de THS après l'arrêt. Les preuves disponibles ne permettent pas de savoir si un THS à base d'œstrogène seul ou d'association œstroprogestative est lié à un risque similaire de TEV. Le but de cette étude est d'évaluer les risques de développer une TEV par rapport à différents types ainsi qu'à différents modes d'administration du MHT grâce à une recherche dans des bases de données comprenant PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library et autres afin de fournir aux femmes les soignants avec les lignes directrices et recommandations à jour et fondées sur des preuves tout en conseillant les femmes ménopausées qui se renseignent sur l'utilisation de thérapies hormonales, soit pour soulager les symptômes de la ménopause, soit pour prévenir les séquelles à long terme d'une carence en œstrogènes.


Asunto(s)
Tromboembolia Venosa , Femenino , Humanos , Tromboembolia Venosa/inducido químicamente , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiología , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevención & control , Terapia de Reemplazo de Estrógeno/efectos adversos , Estrógenos/efectos adversos , Progestinas/efectos adversos , Menopausia
10.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300448, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38625988

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Natural menopause is defined as the permanent cessation of menstruation that occurs after 12 consecutive months of amenorrhea without any obvious pathological or physiological cause. The age of this phenomenon has been reported to be associated with several health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to estimate the Age at Natural Menopause (ANM) and to identify reproductive and demographic factors affecting ANM. METHODS: This cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted on 2517 post-menopausal women aged 40-70 years participating in the first phase of the PERSIAN cohort study of Kharameh, Iran, during 2014-2017. To more accurately detect the determinants of ANM, we applied multiple linear regression beside some machine learning algorithms including conditional tree, conditional forest, and random forest. Then, the fitness of these methods was compared using Mean Squared Error (MSE) and Pearson correlation coefficient. RESULTS: The mean±SD of ANM was 48.95±6.13. Both applied forests provided more accurate results and identified more predictors. However, according to the final comparison, the conditional forest was the most accurate method which recognized that more pregnancies, longer breastfeeding, Fars ethnicity, and urbanization have the greatest impact on later ANM. CONCLUSIONS: This study found a wide range of reproductive and demographic factors affecting ANM. Considering our findings in decision-making can reduce the complications related to this phenomenon and, consequently, improve the quality of life of post-menopausal women.


Asunto(s)
Menopausia , Calidad de Vida , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios de Cohortes , Factores de Edad , Estudios Transversales , Menopausia/fisiología
11.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0302275, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626177

RESUMEN

Although deep-learning methods can achieve human-level performance in boundary detection, their improvements mostly rely on larger models and specific datasets, leading to significant computational power consumption. As a fundamental low-level vision task, a single model with fewer parameters to achieve cross-dataset boundary detection merits further investigation. In this study, a lightweight universal boundary detection method was developed based on convolution and a transformer. The network is called a "transformer with difference convolutional network" (TDCN), which implies the introduction of a difference convolutional network rather than a pure transformer. The TDCN structure consists of three parts: convolution, transformer, and head function. First, a convolution network fused with edge operators is used to extract multiscale difference features. These pixel difference features are then fed to the hierarchical transformer as tokens. Considering the intrinsic characteristics of the boundary detection task, a new boundary-aware self-attention structure was designed in the transformer to provide inductive bias. By incorporating the proposed attention loss function, it introduces the direction of the boundary as strongly supervised information to improve the detection ability of the model. Finally, several head functions with multiscale feature inputs were trained using a bidirectional additive strategy. In the experiments, the proposed method achieved competitive performance on multiple public datasets with fewer model parameters. A single model was obtained to realize universal prediction even for different datasets without retraining, demonstrating the effectiveness of the method. The code is available at https://github.com/neulmc/TDCN.


Asunto(s)
Concienciación , Baja Visión , Humanos , Suministros de Energía Eléctrica , Gestión de la Información , Menopausia
12.
Sex Health ; 212024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626203

RESUMEN

Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of vaginal discharge in reproductive age women; however, little is known about it after menopause. We aimed to learn more about BV in Australian postmenopausal women. Methods We conducted an online survey (July-September 2021). Participants were recruited via social media and professional networks and asked about demographic characteristics, sexual history and BV experiences. Outcomes of interest were the proportion who had heard of BV, had BV ever, or had BV after menopause. Factors associated with these outcomes were assessed using logistic regression. Results Of 906 participants, 83% were included in the analysis. Overall, 37.9% had heard of BV, 11.0% reported having a BV diagnosis ever, 6.3% reported having a BV diagnosis after menopause and 4.4% reported having a BV diagnosis only after menopause. Multivariable analysis found that among all women the odds of having a BV diagnosis after menopause were increased for those who had BV before menopause, had douched in the past 12months, or had a previous STI diagnosis. Among those in a sexual relationship, a BV diagnosis after menopause was associated with a BV diagnosis before menopause, or being in a sexual relationship of 5years or less in duration. About half who reported BV after menopause described recurrences, distress, and a detrimental effect on sexual relationships. Conclusions BV in postmenopausal women is associated with sexual activity, and impacts negatively on their lives. Research into BV should not be limited to reproductive age women.


Asunto(s)
Vaginosis Bacteriana , Femenino , Humanos , Vaginosis Bacteriana/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Posmenopausia , Factores de Riesgo , Australia/epidemiología , Menopausia
14.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 20(2): 94-106, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38495667

RESUMEN

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a leading cause of mortality in women, necessitating innovative primary prevention strategies. Contemporary guidelines on primary prevention of CVD highlight the increasing prevalence of CVD risk factors and emphasize the significance of female-specific risk enhancers that substantially augment the future risk of CVD. These risk factors occur throughout a woman's life cycle, such as hormonal contraception, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and menopause, all of which confer an added layer of risk in women beyond the conventional risk factors. Despite this, current methods may not fully capture the nuanced vulnerabilities in women that increase their risk of CVD. In this review, we highlight gender-specific risk enhancers and subsequent prevention as well as strategies to improve primary prevention of CVD in women.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Hipertensión , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Menopausia , Factores de Riesgo , Prevención Primaria
15.
Glob Public Health ; 19(1): 2326013, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497205

RESUMEN

Women today are experiencing menopause for decades more than in previous generations. This 'change of life' is defined by an entire stage of physical, hormonal, and emotional changes that accompany menstrual irregularity and the cessation of fertility, although limited medical research has focused on it. Yet, the inevitability of menopause is universal for all human females around 50 years old. In this article, we conducted twenty-five 20-60 min semi-structured qualitative interviews. Most women marked menopause by fertility cessation and social transition to old age, pushing back against a medical framework of menopause that emphasises hormonal deficiency and becoming disordered. In contrast, women frame menopause as a natural process that contributes to a critical social role transition, which they perceive as deeply private in part because it is associated with a reduction in femininity, sexuality, and power. On the other hand, menopause was also described as a liberating process through which women no longer needed to purchase pads or manage blood loss. Recognising how women may perceive menopause not as a deficit or disorder but as a social role transition that has both costs and benefits is useful for medical practitioners when discussing clinical options.


Asunto(s)
Fertilidad , Menopausia , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sudáfrica , Menopausia/psicología , Investigación Cualitativa , Sexualidad/psicología
16.
Rev Med Suisse ; 20(866): 580-583, 2024 Mar 20.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38506458

RESUMEN

Fluctuations in sex hormones at different stages of reproductive life, such as the menopausal transition, have been suggested as players in weight regulation. Indeed, the transition from a predominantly estrogenic state to an androgenic state characteristic of the menopausal transition contributes to changes in body composition with accumulation of fat and simultaneous loss of lean mass. However, whether these changes contribute to the weight gain remains debatable. Other physiological and psychosocial factors come into play. It is therefore important to offer individualized support with the objective to minimize the risk of weight gain and associated complications.


La fluctuation des hormones sexuelles à différentes étapes de la vie reproductive, telles que la transition ménopausique, a été proposée comme une des composantes de la régulation de poids. Effectivement, le passage d'un état principalement œstrogénique à un état androgénique, caractéristique de la transition ménopausique, contribue à des modifications de la composition corporelle avec une accumulation de graisse et une perte simultanée de masse maigre. Cependant, la question de savoir si ces changements contribuent à une prise de poids reste discutable. L'obésité est une maladie multifactorielle et d'autres facteurs d'ordre physiologique et psychosociaux rentrent en jeu. Il est donc important d'offrir un accompagnement individualisé aux femmes concernées pour les aider à minimiser le risque de prise pondérale et des complications associées.


Asunto(s)
Menopausia , Aumento de Peso , Femenino , Humanos , Menopausia/fisiología , Composición Corporal , Hormonas Esteroides Gonadales/fisiología
17.
Gynecol Endocrinol ; 40(1): 2329714, 2024 Mar 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38499020

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between anxiety and frailty in community-dwelling postmenopausal women. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in which 390 postmenopausal women (aged 60-83 years) who were attending a comprehensive care program were surveyed between January 2018 and February 2020. Each participant was administered a validated Spanish version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to assess their anxiety status. Those scoring 8 or higher on the anxiety subscale of the HADS were indicative of anxiety. The assessment of frailty utilized the Fried's phenotype, with a diagnosis of frailty established if the participant met at least three out of the five criteria. Factors associated with frailty were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 70.08 years, with an average of 12.58 ± 3.19 years since menopause. Frailty was diagnosed in 43.85% of the total series, while anxiety was present in 41.08%, rising to 69.59% in participants with frailty. Neither body mass index, years since menopause, educational level, economic status, nor smoking habit demonstrated significant associations with frailty. Upon multivariate analysis, anxiety (OR 8.56), multimorbidity (OR 2.18), and age (OR 2.73) emerged as independently associated with frailty (p < .001, p = .005, and p < .001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Among postmenopausal women with frailty, anxiety was detected in over two thirds of cases and was independently associated with frailty. This underscores the relevance of implementing anxiety screening in comprehensive care programs for postmenopausal women, with the goal of improving frailty through anxiety diagnosis and treatment.


Asunto(s)
Fragilidad , Humanos , Femenino , Anciano , Fragilidad/epidemiología , Posmenopausia , Estudios Transversales , Menopausia , Ansiedad/epidemiología
18.
Nature ; 627(8004): 496-497, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480938
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2024: 6997142, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38510979

RESUMEN

Background: Menopause is typically accompanied by significant systemic and oral manifestations, including hormonal changes and increased susceptibility to periodontal disease, which may involve inflammatory biomarkers like aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and osteocalcin in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). The study is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of regular inoculation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) as an adjunctive treatment for menopausal women's periodontitis. Methods: Twenty elderly women with chronic periodontitis were split evenly into two groups by random assignment. Patients in group II (the research group) were given soft gelatin capsules containing PUFAs to be consumed directly once daily for 12 months, as opposed to group I (the control group), who received soft gelatin capsules containing some olive oil (placebo). Scaling and root planning (SRP) were used to address periodontal disease in all cases. Results: At baseline, six and twelve months after treatment, clinical indicators and AST and osteocalcin amounts in the GCF were noted. By the conclusion of the research period, all observed clinical measurements had changed significantly and improved. In addition, there had been a significant decrease in AST levels and a nonsignificant decrease in osteocalcin levels in group II compared to group I. Conclusions: Menopausal women with periodontitis who take omega-3 fatty acid supplements in addition to SRP have better oral health. Significant improvements in clinical indicators and a notable decrease in AST levels within the GCF were observed. However, further research with larger cohorts and extended duration is needed to validate these findings and explain potential mechanisms. This trial is registered with NCT06254118.


Asunto(s)
Periodontitis Crónica , Gelatina , Humanos , Femenino , Anciano , Osteocalcina , Periodontitis Crónica/terapia , Menopausia , Método Doble Ciego , Líquido del Surco Gingival
20.
BMC Prim Care ; 25(1): 95, 2024 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38519908

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Inquiring conservative Asian women about their menopausal symptoms is often challenging in crowded primary healthcare clinics. Furthermore, the subject matter is culturally sensitive to most Malaysian women. Hence, the translation of MQ6 into Malay is crucial to enable self-administration, eliminating the necessity for interviewers and mitigating potential respondent shyness. METHODS: The Menopause Quick 6 (MQ6) questionnaire was translated into the Malay language with an addition of an item, henceforth termed MQ6 (M). Forward and backward translation was performed. Face and content validity were conducted. MQ6 (M) was self-administered to 400 women aged between 40 and 60 attending six primary healthcare clinics in Malaysia. To ascertain the reliability for MQ6 (M), corrected Item-Total Correlation, Squared Multiple Correlation, Cronbach's Alpha if the Item is Deleted, and Kuder-Richardson Reliability Coefficients (KR20). Exploratory factor analysis was done to determine its' construct validity. RESULTS: The outcome of the validation was satisfactory. By the Lawshe method, the content validity ratios ranged from 0.6 to 1.0 and the content validity index was 0.914. The Internal consistency for MQ6(M) Cronbach's alpha was 0.711 while Kuder-Richardson Reliability Coefficients KR20 was 0.676. Factor loading of all four items is above 0.70, indicating a well-defined structure. Whereas factor loading for three items fell within the range of 0.50-0.69 indicating a practically significant threshold for a new questionnaire. CONCLUSION: MQ6 (M) has acceptable reliability and construct validity to be considered as a self-administered screening tool in primary care clinics in Malaysia.


Asunto(s)
Lenguaje , Menopausia , Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Malasia , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Psicometría/métodos
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