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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(23): e20611, 2020 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502036

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sinusitis is a common condition worldwide, significantly affecting the quality of life of patients. Due to the limitations of conventional medicines, such as serious side effects and low efficacies, Gelomyrtol may be a promising treatment for sinusitis. As no related systematic review has been published, the purpose of this study will be to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Gelomyrtol for acute or chronic sinusitis. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Web of Science, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, the Wan Fang Database, and the Chongqing VIP Chinese Science, and Technology Periodical Database will be searched from their commencement until July 2020. Randomized controlled trials of Gelomyrtol for acute or chronic sinusitis will be selected in any language. Primary outcomes will include the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT-22) score, quality of life score as measured by SF-36, and the change in computed tomography (CT) score. Study selection, data extraction, and deviation risk assessment will be carried out by 2 investigators independently. RevMan V.5.3 software will be used to analyze the study data. RESULTS: The study will provide high-quality evidence for estimating the efficacy and safety of Gelomyrtol in the treatment of acute or chronic sinusitis. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review will explore whether Gelomyrtol is an effective and safe intervention in the treatment of acute or chronic sinusitis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: As no patient data will be used in this study, ethical approval will not be required. The review will be published as an article or a conference presentation in a peer-reviewed journal. REGISTRATION: OSF registration number: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/MTEU2.


Asunto(s)
Mentol/análogos & derivados , Sinusitis/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedad Aguda/terapia , Enfermedad Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico , Combinación de Medicamentos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mentol/uso terapéutico , Metaanálisis como Asunto , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110775, 2020 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535365

RESUMEN

Due to the limitation of suitable water for crop production in the world, recycling water is among the most proper methods enhancing water efficiency and availability. One modern method, which is of economic, health, and environmental significance, and may improve water properties for plant use is water magnetization. Medicinal plants are of nutritional, economic and medical values and their growth decreases under salinity stresses. This research was hypothesized and conducted because there is not any data, to our knowledge, on the use of magnetized salty water affecting the growth and biochemical properties of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). The experiment was a split plot design with three replicates. The main plots consisted of magnetic fields at control (M1), 100 mT (M2), 200 mT (M3), and 300 mT (M4), the sub-plots consisted of salinity treatments (NaCl) at control (S1), 4 dS/m (S2), 8 dS/m (S3), and 12 dS/m (S4), and the growth media including cocopeat (X1), palm (X2), cocopeat + perlite (V/V = 50, X3) and palm + perlite (V/V = 50, X4) were located in the sub-sub-plots. Different plant growth and biochemical properties including plant fresh and dry weight, plant menthol, menthone, chlorophyll and proline contents were determined. Analysis of variance indicated the significant effects of experimental treatments and their interactions on the growth and biochemistry of peppermint. Different magnetic fields significantly increased plant growth, and interestingly with increasing the salinity level the alleviating effects of magnetic field on salinity stress became more clear (significant interaction between salinity and magnetic field treatments). Cocopeat was the most efficient growth medium. At the third level of salinity (8 dS/m) just the two levels of 100 and 200 mT increased plant menthol concentration. Treatments M3S2X4 and M1S1X1 resulted in the highest (38%) and the least menthol percentage (13%), respectively. Treatments S2 and M2 and M3 significantly increased plant menthone concentration, especially in the growth media of X1 and X3. However, at the third level of salinity, M3 and M4 were the most effective treatments. The highest (25.8%) and the least (1.2%) concentrations of menthone were related to treatments M3S2X4 and M2S4X1, respectively. The results indicated that it is possible to alleviate the stress of salinity on peppermint growth and improve its biochemical (medicinal) properties using magnetized salty water, although proline concentration was not much affected by the magnetic field.


Asunto(s)
Mentha piperita/fisiología , Estrés Salino , Producción de Cultivos , Mentol , Desarrollo de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Aguas Salinas , Salinidad , Cloruro de Sodio/farmacología , Agua/farmacología
3.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 104(3): e21669, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32190926

RESUMEN

Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive, destructive crop pest that originated in South East Asia. D. suzukii recently invaded Western countries and is threatening both European and American fruit industries. It is extremely attracted to otherwise undamaged, ripening fruits, unlike most other Drosophila species that attack only decaying or rotten fruits. Recent studies on different insect species showed that several naturally occurring compounds of easy market availability showing deterrent action may be used to supplement mass catches with food traps. Based on these considerations, the aim of the present work was to test the effects of some natural compounds (alone or in the mixture) on the olfactory system of the D. suzukii and the behavioral responses evoked. We measured by electroantennogram (EAG) recordings, the olfactory sensitivity of antennae to increasing concentrations of eugenol, vanillin, menthol, cis-jasmone; eugenol + vanillin, +menthol, +cis-jasmone; vanillin + menthol, +cis-jasmone. In addition, the behavioral responses to the same compounds and mixtures were evaluated. Our electrophysiological results show a dose-response relationship between the EAG amplitudes and the increasing concentrations of the olfactory compound. The behavioral results show that the number of laid eggs is significantly different between the standard diet and the standard diet + natural compound. These results underline a specificity in the olfactory sensitivity and in the ovipositing behavior of D. suzukii females; also, they could be valuable for the identification of key chemicals aimed at the future development of strategies in the management and control of this harmful insect for crops.


Asunto(s)
Drosophila/efectos de los fármacos , Oviposición/efectos de los fármacos , Olfato , Animales , Antenas de Artrópodos/efectos de los fármacos , Conducta Animal/efectos de los fármacos , Benzaldehídos , Ciclopentanos , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Drosophila/fisiología , Fenómenos Electrofisiológicos , Eugenol , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Repelentes de Insectos , Mentol , Odorantes , Oxilipinas
5.
Chemosphere ; 249: 126153, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058129

RESUMEN

In this study, we determined DNA damage and chromosome breakage (indicators of genotoxicity) and cell viability (an indicator of cytotoxicity) in human lymphoblastoid TK6 and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells treated with 33 e-liquids using in vitro single cell gel (comet), micronucleus (MN), and trypan blue assays, respectively. We also measured the contents of nicotine, five phthalate esters, and DL-menthol in the e-liquids to examine their effects on DNA damage, chromosome breakage, and cell viability. Our chemical analyses showed that: (1) six e-liquids had nicotine ≥2-fold higher than the manufacture's label claim (2-3.5 mg); (2) both dimethyl- and dibutyl-phthalate levels were >0.1 µg/g, i.e., their threshold limits as additives in cosmetics; and (3) the DL-menthol contents ranged from 0.0003 to 85757.2 µg/g, with those of two e-liquids being >1 mg/g, the threshold limit for trigging sensory irritation. Though all the e-liquids induced DNA damage in TK6 cells, 20 resulted in cell viabilities ≤75%, indicating cytotoxicity, yet the inverse relationship between cell viability and DNA damage (r = -0.628, p = 0.003) might reflect their role as pro-apoptotic and DNA damage inducers. Fifteen e-liquids induced MN% in TK6 cells ≥3-fold that of untreated cells. Some of the increase in %MN might be false due to high cytotoxicity, yet six brands showed acceptable cell viabilities (59-71%), indicating chromosome damage. DNA damage and %MN increased when the TK6 cells were exposed to metabolic activation. The CHO cells were less sensitive to the genotoxic effects of the e-liquids than the TK6 cells. DL-menthol was found to be associated with decreased cell viability and increased DNA damage, even at low levels. We cannot dismiss the presence of other ingredients in e-liquids with cytotoxic/genotoxic properties since out of the 63 different flavors, 47 induced DNA damage (≥3-folds), and 26 reduced cell viability (≤75%) in TK6 cells.


Asunto(s)
Cigarrillo Electrónico a Vapor/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/química , Animales , Células CHO , Supervivencia Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Daño del ADN , Dibutil Ftalato/farmacología , Cigarrillo Electrónico a Vapor/análisis , Cigarrillo Electrónico a Vapor/toxicidad , Ésteres/química , Humanos , Mentol/química , Mentol/toxicidad , Pruebas de Micronúcleos/métodos , Nicotina/química , Nicotina/toxicidad
6.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(3): 161-167, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902130

RESUMEN

Aerobic performance is negatively impacted by tropical climate due to impairment of thermoregulatory mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that a torso application of a 4% menthol solution would have the same effect on a best performance 10-km run as an external use of cold water. Thirteen trained male athletes completed four outdoor 10-km runs (T=29.0±1.3°C, relative humidity 59.0±13.6%) wearing a tee-shirt soaked every 2-km either in a cold (~6°C) or warm/ambient (~28°C) solution, consisting in water or in a 4% menthol solution, (CTL, MENT-Amb, CLD and MENT-CLD). Run performances were improved from 4.8 to 6.1% in CLD (51.4±5.5 min), MENT-Amb (52.2±5.9 min) and MENT-CLD (51.4±5.1 min) conditions (vs. CTL, 55.4±8.4 min, P<0.05), without differences between these three conditions, whereas heart rate (177±13bpm), body temperature (38.7±0.6°C) and drink ingestion (356±170 g) were not modified. Thermal sensation after running was lower in MENT-CLD (vs. CTL, P<0.01) and thermal acceptability was higher in CLD and MENT-Amb (vs. CTL, P<0.05), but thermal comfort, feeling scale and rate of perceived exertion remained unchanged. The use of menthol on skin enhances aerobic performance in a tropical climate, and no differences in performance were observed between menthol and traditional percooling strategies. However, combining both menthol and traditional percooling brought no further improvements.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Atlético/fisiología , Regulación de la Temperatura Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Humedad , Mentol/administración & dosificación , Carrera/fisiología , Clima Tropical , Administración Cutánea , Adulto , Ingestión de Líquidos , Marcha/fisiología , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Percepción/fisiología , Esfuerzo Físico/fisiología , Pérdida de Peso/fisiología , Adulto Joven
7.
J Nat Med ; 74(2): 421-433, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894475

RESUMEN

It has been reported that Sanoshashinto (SanHuangXieXinTang, ), which is composed of Rhei Rhizoma, Scutellariae Radix, and Coptidis Rhizoma, exhibits vasorelaxant effects in vitro and lowers blood pressure of patients. Based on this discovery, in this study, a mixture containing those three materials and combinations of them were extracted with methanol, and the extracts were fractionated into different parts. Effects of all extracts and fractions on high concentration of potassium chloride (High K+)- or noradrenaline (NA)-induced contractions of isolated rat aortic rings or helical strips were examined. Qualitative and quantitative HPLC analyses of the extracts and the fractions revealed that the contents of baicalin and berberine in Sanoshashinto methanol extract (SHXXTM) were higher than those of the other constituents. All pharmacological and HPLC data were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) software and the results indicated that baicalin, berberine, palmatine, baicalein, and wogonoside contributed significantly to the pharmacological activity. Furthermore, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) that were orally given SHXXTM or a baicalin-berberine combination showed significantly reduced increase in the rate of systolic blood pressure (SBP) compared to the control group. These findings suggested that Sanoshashinto has significant vasorelaxant effects in vitro and antihypertensive effects in vivo, and baicalin and berberine, which were the principal constituents of Scutellariae Radix and Coptidis Rhizoma, were the main antihypertensive constituents in Sanoshashinto. It was speculated that baicalin and berberine produced vasorelaxant effects by activating the NO/cGMP pathway and that the BKCa channel and the DAG/PKC/CPI-17 pathway were also involved.


Asunto(s)
Berberina/uso terapéutico , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Flavonoides/uso terapéutico , Mentol/uso terapéutico , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Análisis de Componente Principal/métodos , Animales , Antihipertensivos/farmacología , Berberina/farmacología , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Flavonoides/farmacología , Masculino , Mentol/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Ratas
8.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(8): 1074-1079, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663357

RESUMEN

Incorporation of the Beckmann rearrangement into the presented research resulted in the formation of nitrogen-containing terpenoid derivatives originating from naturally occurring compounds. Both starting monoterpenes and obtained derivatives were subjected to estimation of their antibacterial potential. In the presented study, Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive to examined compounds. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) experiments performed on S. aureus demonstrated that the (-)-menthone oxime (-)-8 and (+)-pulegone oxime (+)-13 had the best antibacterial activity among the tested derivatives and starting compounds. Their MIC90 value was 100 µg/mL. The obtained derivatives were also evaluated for their inhibitory activity against bacterial urease. Among the tested compounds, three active inhibitors were found - oxime 14 and lactams (-)-15 and 16 limited the activity of Sporosarcina pasteurii urease with Ki values of 174.3 µM, 43.0 µM and 4.6 µM, respectively. To our knowledge, derivative 16 is the most active antiureolytic lactam described to date.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/síntesis química , Monoterpenos/síntesis química , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Monoterpenos Ciclohexánicos/farmacología , Lactamas/farmacología , Mentol/farmacología , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Monoterpenos/farmacología , Nitrógeno/química , Oximas/farmacología , Ureasa/antagonistas & inhibidores
9.
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol ; 28(1): 19-25, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070425

RESUMEN

Menthol is a commonly used tobacco constituent that also modulates nicotine reinforcement and metabolism. Little is known about the stimulus effects of menthol that mediate the behavior associated with reinforcement-learning. Our present research explored the interoceptive stimulus effects of intraperitoneally administered menthol in a drug discrimination task. For Experiment 1, Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 20) received IP menthol (0.0183 or 5 mg/kg) or vehicle. For positive sessions, rats were given menthol before receiving 8 15-s light presentations, each followed by 4-s access to liquid sucrose. For intermixed negative sessions, rats were given vehicle before receiving 8 light presentations without sucrose delivery. After 32 sessions, rats previously receiving 0.0183 mg/kg menthol were switched to 15 mg/kg menthol. After 16 sessions, the injection-to-placement-interval was switched from 5 min to 15 min for 16 additional sessions. Lastly, a subset of rats (n = 10) received nicotine discrimination training for 40 sessions, with 0.4 mg/kg nicotine pretreatment on positive days and saline on negative days. In Experiment 2, naïve rats (N = 7) received nicotine discrimination training. Later sessions assessed nicotine discrimination performance in combination with 5 mg/kg menthol or vehicle. Menthol-vehicle discrimination was not evident regardless of dose or injection-to-placement interval in Experiment 1. However, rats that underwent nicotine training developed robust drug discrimination. In Experiment 2, co-exposure with menthol or vehicle did not modulate nicotine discrimination performance. These data suggest that menthol does not acquire control of responding in a drug discrimination task. Additional research is needed to further explore the interoceptive stimulus effects of menthol and nicotine combined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Condicionamiento Clásico/efectos de los fármacos , Aprendizaje Discriminativo/efectos de los fármacos , Luz , Mentol/farmacología , Nicotina/farmacología , Agonistas Nicotínicos/farmacología , Sacarosa , Animales , Femenino , Interocepción , Masculino , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Refuerzo en Psicología
10.
Talanta ; 208: 120485, 2020 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816735

RESUMEN

A simple, green, rapid, and efficient ligandless dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure based on solidification of a ternary deep eutectic solvent has been proposed for the extraction of trace amounts of Cd(II), Cu(II), and Pb(II) ions in milk samples prior to their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Initially, a suitable mole ratio of sorbitol, menthol, and mandelic acid are mixed in a test tube, and after heating, a deep eutectic solvent with low density compared to water is formed. The synthesized solvent is used as a chelating agent and an extraction solvent in the extraction of some heavy metal ions from milk samples. The influence of several effective parameters on the responses and extraction recoveries of the analytes was investigated. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the linear ranges were in the ranges of 1.0-40 µg L-1 for Cd(II) and Pb(II), and 1.0-25 µg L-1 for Cu(II). The obtained relative standard deviations (n = 6, C = 2.5 µg L-1 of each cation) and detection limits were in the ranges of 3.4-4.1% and 0.38-0.42 µg L-1, respectively. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for the determination of Cd(II), Cu(II), and Pb(II) ions in different milk samples.


Asunto(s)
Quelantes/química , Ácidos Mandélicos/química , Mentol/química , Metales Pesados/análisis , Leche/química , Solventes/química , Sorbitol/química , Animales , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Microextracción en Fase Líquida , Metales Pesados/química
11.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 133: 109467, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874689

RESUMEN

The specific activity and enantioselectivity of immobilized cutinases from Aspergillus oryzae (AoC) and Humicola insolens (HiC) were compared with those of lipases from Thermomyces lanuginosus (TLL), Rhizomucor miehei (RML) and Lipase B from Candida antarctica (CALB) for menthol and its analogs that include isopulegol, trans-2-tert-butylcyclohexanol (2TBC), and dihydrocarveol (DHC). Common features of these alcohols are two bulky substituents: a cyclohexyl ring and an alkyl substituent. Dissimilarities are that the alkyl group reside at different positions or have dissimilar structures. The aim was to develop an understanding at a molecular level of similarities and differences in the catalytic behavior of the selected cutinases and lipases as a function of substrate structural elements. The experimental results reflect the (-)-enantioselectivity for AoC, HiC, TLL, and RML, while CALB is only active on DHC with (+)-enantioselectivity. In most cases, AoC has the highest activity while HiC is significantly more active than other enzymes on 2TBC. The E values of AoC, HiC, TLL, and RML for menthol are 27.8, 16.5, 155, and 125, respectively. HiC has a higher activity (>10-fold) on (-)-2TBC than AoC while they exhibit similar activities on menthol. Docking results reveal that the bulky group adjacent to the hydroxyl group determines the enantioselectivity of AoC, HiC, TLL, and RML. Amino acid residues that dominate the enantioselectivity of these enzymes are AoC's Phe195 aromatic ring; HiC's hydrophobic Leu 174 and Ile 169 groups; TLL's ring structures of Trp89, His258 and Tyr21; and Trp88 for RML. Results of this study highlight that cutinases can provide important advantages relative to lipases for enantioselective transformation, most notably with bulky and sterically hindered substrates.


Asunto(s)
Hidrolasas de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Enzimas Inmovilizadas/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Lipasa/metabolismo , Mentol/análogos & derivados , Catálisis , Hongos/enzimología , Interacciones Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Cinética , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular
13.
Molecules ; 25(1)2019 Dec 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878007

RESUMEN

This review article discusses the active constituents and potential of two menthol mint oils, Mentha piperita (MPEO) and Mentha arvensis (MAEO), as natural sources for botanical pesticides. The biological activities of these menthol mint oils, which can be useful in agriculture, have been broadly researched, especially toward phytotoxic microorganisms. To a lesser extent, the insecticidal and herbicidal activities of mint EOs have also been studied. It is apparent that the prospect of using menthol mint oils in agriculture is increasing in popularity. A number of investigations showed that the in vitro efficacy of MPEO and MAEO, as well as that of their main constituent, menthol, is pronounced. The results of in vitro research are useful for choosing EOs for further investigations. However, it is clear that in situ experiments are crucial and should be more extensively developed. At the same time, known techniques are to be applied to this area and new methods should be worked out, aiming at the improvement of EOs' pesticidal efficacy and cost-effectiveness, for future implementation in agricultural pest control.


Asunto(s)
Mentha piperita/química , Mentol/química , Aceites Volátiles/química , Aceites Vegetales/química , Mentha/química , Extractos Vegetales/química
14.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 39(11): 1344-1349, 2019 Nov 30.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852644

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation in menthol-induced expression of airway inflammation- related factors in human bronchial epithelial cells and explore its mechanism. METHODS: Cultured human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were divided into normal control group, menthol group, rapamycin group, and menthol+rapamycin group with corresponding treatments. The cell viability was measured with CCK-8 method. The mRNA levels of transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1ß were detected by RT-PCR, and the protein expressions of phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR), TRPM8, TNF-α and IL-1ß were determined using Western blotting. The intracellular Ca2+ fluorescence intensity was measured by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Compared with the normal control cells, menthol- treated cells showed significantly increased TNF-α, IL-1ß, and p-mTOR expression and elevated intracellular Ca2+ concentration (P < 0.05), and the rapamycin-treated cells exhibited significantly decreased p-mTOR expression (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found in TNF-α, IL-1ß or intracellular Ca2+ concentration between the normal control and rapamycin-treated cells (P>0.05). Compared with the menthol-treated cells, the cells treated with both menthol and rapamycin showed significantly decreased TNF- α, IL-1ß, and p-mTOR expression and obviously lowered intracellular Ca2+ concentration (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Menthol promotes the expressions of airway inflammationrelated factors IL-1ß and TNF-α possibly by activating mTOR to cause the increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration.


Asunto(s)
Células Epiteliales , Humanos , Inflamación , Interleucina-1beta , Mentol , Sirolimus , Serina-Treonina Quinasas TOR , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa
15.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 21(Suppl 1): S56-S62, 2019 12 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867646

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Minimal research exists on adolescent smokers' perceptions of very low-nicotine-content (VLNC) cigarettes. As approximately half of adolescent smokers prefer menthol cigarettes, it is important to consider the influence of menthol preference on VLNC cigarette perceptions and to what extent menthol preference may affect VLNC smoking behavior. This study examined the effects of cigarette nicotine content and menthol preference or menthol smoking on health risk perceptions, subjective ratings, and carbon monoxide (CO) boost in adolescent smokers. METHODS: Across two counterbalanced sessions, adolescent smokers sampled VLNC and normal nicotine content (NNC) research cigarettes following overnight abstinence. Cigarettes were mentholated or non-mentholated consistent with participants' usual brand. In each session, participants smoked the research cigarette and then completed the Perceived Health Risk Scale and Cigarette Evaluation Scale. Breath CO readings were obtained pre- and post-smoking. Mixed-factor ANOVA tests compared outcomes with cigarette type (VLNC vs. NNC) as the within-subjects factor and menthol preference as the between-subjects factor. RESULTS: Participants (N = 50) were M = 17.7 years old, smoked M = 8.2 cigarettes/day, and 56% typically smoked menthol cigarettes. Participants reported lower risk of developing lung cancer, other cancers, emphysema, bronchitis, and heart disease (ps ≤ .05) when smoking VLNC cigarettes relative to NNC cigarettes. Perceived risk of addiction and stroke did not differ by nicotine content. Menthol preference or menthol smoking did not moderate risk perceptions, subjective ratings, or CO boost. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents may incorrectly perceive that VLNC cigarettes are less harmful products. Health communication campaigns could help to correct VLNC misperceptions and potentially minimize unintended consequences of a nicotine reduction policy.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Nicotina , Fumadores , Productos de Tabaco/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Monóxido de Carbono , Humanos , Mentol , Riesgo , Fumadores/psicología , Fumadores/estadística & datos numéricos
16.
J Therm Biol ; 85: 102401, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657743

RESUMEN

According to the literature, the arteriovenous anastomoses in the peripheral parts (ex. hands and feet) respond thermal stimulation susceptibly. Thus, the feet are sensitive to cold stimulation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of menstrual cycle on skin temperature (Tsk) of the foot during menthol application in young women. Tsk and partial cutaneous blood flow in the foot, tympanic temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, thermal sensation and pleasantness during the preovulatory (P), luteal (L), and menstrual (M) phases during menthol application in young women using thermography, laser Doppler flowmetry, a digital blood pressure monitor, and VAS scale were examined at 25 °C. After application of the 0.5% menthol solution to the right foot, the measurements were continued for 20 min. The Tsk of the second and third right toes in the P phase were lower than that in the L phase. The Tsk of the little right toe in the P phase was lower than that in the L and M phases. No significant differences were observed in the Tsk of the dorsum of right foot, cutaneous Laser-Doppler flow in the right great toe, tympanic temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, thermal sensation and pleasantness among the phases. The menstrual cycle phase did not affect Tsk in the dorsum of the foot, but it affected Tsk in some toes during menthol application.


Asunto(s)
Pie/irrigación sanguínea , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiología , Mentol/farmacología , Temperatura Cutánea/efectos de los fármacos , Piel/irrigación sanguínea , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Flujo Sanguíneo Regional , Sensación Térmica , Adulto Joven
17.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 352, 2019 Oct 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638982

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Plant bioactive lipid compounds (PBLC), commonly known as essential oils, are increasingly evaluated as feed additives in ruminants due to beneficial effects on animal performance and health; however, there is no study evaluating circadian eating behaviour in ruminants. Altered eating behaviour may be implicated in changes of feed intake in ruminants. Therefore, the present study investigated the influence of menthol-rich PBLC on circadian eating behaviour in 24 growing sheep that were equally divided into three treatments, control (without PBLC), a lower dose (80 mg/d) or a higher dose (160 mg/d) of PBLC. Daily doses of PBLC were supplied with 600 g/d of concentrates fed in three equal portions at 07:00, 11:00 and 15:00 h for 4 weeks, whereas, meadow hay was fed ad libitum. RESULTS: The eating behaviour recorded by an automatic transponder-operated feeding system revealed that daily eating time and feeder visits increased with increasing doses of PBLC. The circadian distribution of eating time and feeder visits (with 1-h resolution) was influenced by the treatment. Eating time during concentrate-offering hours and between concentrate-offering hours increased or tended to increase linearly with greater concentrations of PBLC. Feeder visits did not change significantly during concentrate-offering hours, but were greater in the PBLC groups compared with the control between concentrate-feeding hours. Average length of the longest meals (5th percentile) decreased due to PBLC feeding. Daily feed intake was greater in the PBLC groups than the control. CONCLUSIONS: Menthol-rich PBLC in the applied dose range stimulate circadian eating behaviour, which cannot only be attributed to their presence during concentrate feeding hours, but persist during post-concentrate feeding hours.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Ritmo Circadiano/efectos de los fármacos , Grasas de la Dieta/farmacología , Conducta Alimentaria/efectos de los fármacos , Mentol/farmacología , Plantas/química , Ovinos , Animales , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ingestión de Alimentos , Femenino , Lípidos/farmacología , Masculino
18.
Molecules ; 24(20)2019 Oct 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635151

RESUMEN

Great effort is put into seeking a new and effective strategies to control insect pests. One of them is to combine natural products with chemical insecticides to increase their effectiveness. In the study presented, menthol which is an essential oil component was evaluated on its ability to increase the efficiency of bendiocarb, carbamate insecticide. A multi-approach study was conducted using biochemical method (to measure acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity), electrophysiological technique (microelectrode recordings in DUM neurons in situ), and confocal microscopy (for calcium imaging). In the electrophysiological experiments, menthol caused hyperpolarization, which was blocked by an octopamine receptor antagonist (phentolamine) and an inhibitor of protein kinase A (H-89). It also raised the intracellular calcium level. The effect of bendiocarb was potentiated by menthol and this phenomenon was abolished by phentolamine and H-89 but not by protein kinase C inhibitor (bisindolylmaleimide IX). The results indicate that menthol increases carbamate insecticide efficiency by acting on octopamine receptors and triggering protein kinase A phosphorylation pathway.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Quinasas Dependientes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insectos/metabolismo , Mentol/farmacología , Periplaneta/metabolismo , Fenilcarbamatos/farmacología , Receptores de Amina Biogénica/metabolismo , Animales , Señalización del Calcio/efectos de los fármacos
19.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3180, 2019.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596415

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the effectiveness of menthol chewing gum, in the relief of the intensity and discomfort of the surgical patient's thirst in the preoperative period. METHOD: a randomized controlled trial, with 102 patients in the preoperative period, randomized in a control group, with usual care, and an experimental group, which received menthol gum, which was the study treatment variable. The primary clinical outcome was the variation in thirst intensity, evaluated by the Numeral Verbal Scale, and the secondary, the variation of the discomfort of thirst, evaluated by the Perioperative Thirst Discomfort Scale. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare measures between groups. The significance level adopted was of 0.05. RESULTS: menthol chewing gum significantly reduced the intensity (p <0.001), with Cohen's medium-effect d, and thirst discomfort (p <0.001), with a large-effect Cohen's d. CONCLUSION: menthol chewing gum was effective in reducing the intensity and discomfort of preoperative thirst. The strategy proved to be an innovative, feasible and safe option in the use for the surgical patient, in the management of the preoperative thirst, in elective surgeries. NCT: 03200197.


Asunto(s)
Goma de Mascar , Mentol/farmacología , Sed/efectos de los fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cuidados Preoperatorios , Periodo Preoperatorio , Estadísticas no Paramétricas , Adulto Joven
20.
J Am Mosq Control Assoc ; 35(3): 186-191, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647713

RESUMEN

The use of skin-applied repellents is the primary method recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for personal protection against biting mosquitoes. Historically, the majority of long-efficacy mosquito repellents have been N,N diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet)-based. Recently, a variety of new botanical formulations have been marketed, but their protection times generally continue to fall well short of high-concentration deet products. We present a laboratory arm-in-cage study of a Neo-Innova® repellent that has a prolonged action "NEO-PART®" (Prolonged Action Release Technology) formulation with 40% Citriodiol®. This formulation provides the botanical molecule para-menthane 3,8-diol (PMD) at 25% w/v of the total formulation. Against Aedes aegypti, Neo-Innova's mean complete protection time (CPT; 14.2 h) was approximately 2 to 3 times longer than that of 5 leading high-performance repellents marketed in the USA, including 25% deet and a 20% PMD ethanolic formulation. When testing Neo-Innova, 5 of the 6 subjects had no landings after 15 h. The 6th had single landings at 10 and 11 h (individual CPT of 10 h), but received no additional landings in further exposures made at 13 and 15 h. Neo-Innova repellency against Culex quinquefasciatus was similarly prolonged. The tremendous increment in repellency duration observed for the Neo-Innova product, when compared with both current standard and botanical repellent options, represents a milestone in repellent development and supports "once-a-day" applications as a practical strategy for personal protection against mosquitoes.


Asunto(s)
Aedes , Culex , Monoterpenos Ciclohexánicos , Repelentes de Insectos , Mentol/análogos & derivados , Control de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vectores , Extractos Vegetales , Adulto , Animales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
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