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1.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0226046, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045414

RESUMEN

There is an increasingly growth of China's social security expenditure(SSE) during the past decade. Regarding to the great responsibility and impact on citizens' welfare and economic development, the efficiency of social security expenditure has inevitably become the focus of growing attention. Based on Chinese provincial panel data over the period 2007-2016, a three-stage DEA model was conducted and found that the efficiency level of 29 provinces/municipalities did not reach the efficiency frontier. Environmental factors and statistical noises have a significant impact on the efficiency of SSE, if environmental factors and statistical noises are not considered, the efficiency of SSE in China is likely to be underestimated. The regional differences in the efficiency of SSE were significant and ranked by descending order as follows: central region, eastern region and western region.


Asunto(s)
Eficiencia Organizacional , Modelos Teóricos , Seguridad Social/economía , Presupuestos , China , Ciudades , Desarrollo Económico , Ambiente , Humanos , Mercadeo Social , Bienestar Social , Urbanización
2.
BMC Psychiatry ; 19(1): 417, 2019 12 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881957

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Since 2009 Time to Change has included among its strategies a social marketing campaign to tackle the stigma surrounding mental health problems. At the start of its third phase (2016-2021) the target group of the campaign was kept as people aged between mid-twenties and mid-forties but changed to middle-low income groups and the content was focused on men. METHODS: Participants (n = 3700) were recruited through an online market research panel, before and after each burst of the campaign. They completed an online questionnaire evaluating knowledge (Mental Health Knowledge Schedule, MAKS); attitudes (Community Attitudes toward Mental Illness, CAMI); and desire for social distance (Intended Behaviour subscale of the Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale, RIBS). Socio-demographic data and awareness of the campaign were also collected. RESULTS: For each of the 3 bursts, significant pre-post awareness differences were found (OR = 2.83, CI = 1.90-4.20, p < 0.001; OR = 1.72, CI = 1.22-2.42, p = 0.002; OR = 1.41, CI = 1.01-1.97, p = 0.043), and awareness at the end of the third burst was 33%. Demographic factors associated with awareness for one or more bursts included having children, familiarity with mental illness, male sex, being Black, Asian or other ethnic minorities and living in London or the East Midlands regions. An improvement across bursts in the "living with" subscale item of the RIBS, and in the "recover" and "advice to a friend" MAKS items were found. Familiarity with mental illness had the strongest association with all outcome measures, while the awareness of the campaign was also related with higher scores in MAKS and RIBS. CONCLUSIONS: These interim results suggest that the campaign is reaching and having an impact on its new target audience to a similar extent as did the TTC phase 1 campaign. While over the course of TTC we have found no evidence that demographic differences in stigma have widened, and indeed those by age group and region of England have narrowed, those for socioeconomic status, ethnicity and sex have so far remained unchanged. By targeting a lower socioeconomic group and creating relatively greater awareness among men and in Black and ethnic minority groups, the campaign is showing the potential to address these persistent differences in stigma.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Pobreza/psicología , Mercadeo Social , Estigma Social , Adulto , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Humanos , Londres , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Grupos Minoritarios/psicología , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Sexuales
3.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 817-830, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047572

RESUMEN

Este artigo mapeia as estratégias de atuação do Ministério da Saúde na rede social Instagram. Realizou-se um estudo de caso no período de agosto de 2017 a agosto de 2018 para verificar como o tema da amamentação foi abordado na rede oficial do governo brasileiro para saúde. O corpus tem 65 posts sobre a questão, que foram analisados considerando as métricas de monitoramento das redes sociais: alcance; volume; atividade; engajamento dos usuários e influência do conteúdo junto aos seguidores. Analisando as estratégias de atuação do marketing social e digital identificou-se a falta de interação e resposta aos usuários e a baixa diversidade de representação das mulheres. O levantamento aponta a necessidade de problematizar as práticas do Ministério nesta rede e propor melhorias para ampliar o diálogo com a sociedade.


This article maps out the strategies of performance of the Brazilian Ministry of Health in Instagram's social network. A case study was carried out in the period from August 2017 to August 2018 to verify how the topic of breast-feeding was approached in the official network of the Brazilian government for health. The corpus has 65 posts about that issue which were analised considering the measures to monitor social networks: scope, volume, activity, user engagement and influence of the content on the followers. Analyzing the strategies of social and digital marketing used by the Brazilian government for health, it was identified the lack of interaction with users and of response to them and the low diversity of women represented on its Instagram profile. The research points out that we need to problematize Ministry practices in this network and to propose improvements to broaden the dialogue with the society.


El artículo mapea las estrategias de actuación del Ministerio de Salud de Brasil en la red social Instagram. Se realizó un estudio de caso en el período de agosto de 2017 hasta agosto de 2018 para escudriñar como se abordó el tema de la lactancia en la red oficial del gobierno brasileño para salud. El corpus tiene 65 posts a respecto del asunto y fueron estudiados considerando las medidas para monitorizar redes sociales: alcance; volumen; actividad; interacción de los usuarios e la influencia del contenido en los seguidores. Analizando las estrategias de actuación del marketing social y digital se identificó falta de interactividad, usuarios sin respuesta y la baja diversidad de representación de las mujeres en lo perfil del gobierno brasileño en Instagram. La investigación apunta la necesidad de problematizar las prácticas del Ministerio en esta red y de proponer mejorías para ampliar el diálogo con la sociedad.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Lactancia Materna , Mercadeo Social , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Redes Sociales en Línea , Agencias Gubernamentales , Promoción de la Salud , Sistema Único de Salud , Brasil , Redes Comunitarias , Política de Salud , Relaciones Interpersonales
4.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(6): 551-557, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667933

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To create supportive environments to reduce sugary drink consumption and increase water consumption by partnering with remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in Cape York. METHODS: This paper applied qualitative and quantitative methods to evaluate a co-designed multi-strategy health promotion initiative, implemented over 12 months from 2017 to 2018. Outcome measures included changes in community readiness, awareness of the social marketing campaign and changes in drink availability. Changes in store drink sales were measured in one community and compared to sales in a control store. RESULTS: Community readiness to address sugary drink consumption increased in two of the three communities. Awareness of social marketing campaign messaging was high (56-94%). Availability of drinking water increased in all communities. Water sales as a proportion of total drink volume sales increased by 3.1% (p<0.001) while sugary drink volume sales decreased by 3.4% (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A multi-component strategy with strong engagement from local government, community leaders and the wider community was associated with positive changes in community readiness, drink availability and sales. Implications for public health: Partnering with community leaders in the co-design of strategies to create environments that support healthy drink consumption can stimulate local action and may positively affect drink consumption.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Medio Social , Mercadeo Social , Bebidas Azucaradas/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta de Elección , Humanos , Grupo de Ascendencia Oceánica , Población Rural , Bebidas Azucaradas/provisión & distribución
5.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(12): 4449-4458, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778495

RESUMEN

The article proposes a reinterpretation about the health crisis within a broader crisis of utopias and the need to reinvent social emancipation that can show us realistic paths of hope from the present. For this purpose, we propose the association of four types of justice: social, health, environmental and cognitive. The two first ones are well known in critical thinking and collective health, and the last two extend the understanding of the crisis in its civilizing, ethical, and planetary aspects, marked by the contradictions and destructive potential of Eurocentric, Western and capitalist modernity. The social is considered inseparable from the ecological, ontological, and epistemological dimensions in the interface between ethics, politics, science and social transformation related to the various crises and the necessary civilizational transition. The article is based on contributions from three fields of knowledge: collective health, political ecology and postcolonial approaches, especially the Epistemologies of the South, as presented by Boaventura de Sousa Santos around the reinvention of social emancipation. Finally, we propose some brief reflections for collective health to produce alternatives on topics such as economic, scientific and technological development, health promotion, surveillance, and care.


Asunto(s)
Salud Ambiental , Libertad , Salud Pública , Derecho a la Salud , Justicia Social , Capitalismo , Vestuario , Colonialismo , Desarrollo Económico , Violencia Étnica , Humanos , Industrias , Metáfora , Racismo , Mercadeo Social , Desarrollo Sostenible/economía , Violencia , Guerra
6.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(2): 365-380, abr.-jun. 2019. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1005619

RESUMEN

O presente estudo visa compreender os fatores de influência para a redução do consumo das bebidas açucaradas. Nesse intuito, adotou-se uma abordagem qualitativa, a fim de desenvolver ferramentas de marketing social para a promoção da redução do consumo entre adolescentes. Foram realizadas entrevistas gravadas em áudio, com roteiro semiestruturado, sendo entrevistados onze adolescentes de 16 a 18 anos, variando entre estudantes do ensino médio de instituições públicas e privadas do estado da Paraíba. Os resultados indicaram que os principais incentivos para o consumo são o sabor, preço, praticidade e o assédio dos amigos e familiares que incentivavam o consumo de bebidas açucaradas. Fazendo o uso de ferramentas de marketing social, verificou-se que a conscientização sobre os aspectos negativos da ingestão dessas bebidas, a inserção de ações reguladoras e a exposição dos malefícios contribuem para uma nova consciência sobre o consumo dessas bebidas e a redução do consumo.


In order to understand the influence factors for the reduction of consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, a qualitative approach was adopted in order to develop social marketing tools to promote consumption reduction among adolescents. Interviews were recorded, with a semi-structured script. Eleven adolescents aged 16 to 18 years were interviewed, varying among high school students from public and private institutions in the state of Paraíba. The results indicated that the main incentives for consumption are the taste, price, practicality and harassment of friends and family that encouraged the consumption of sugary drinks. Using social marketing tools, it was found that awareness of the negative aspects of the intake of these beverages, the insertion of regulatory actions and the exposure of the maladies contribute to a new awareness about the consumption of these beverages and the reduction of consumption.


Con el objetivo de comprender los factores de influencia para la reducción del consumo de las bebidas azucaradas, se adoptó un abordaje cualitativo, con el fin de desarrollar herramientas de marketing social para la promoción de la reducción del consumo entre adolescentes. Se realizaron entrevistas grabadas por audio, con guión semiestructurado, siendo entrevistados once adolescentes de 16 a 18 años. Los resultados indicaron que los principales incentivos para el consumo son el sabor, precio, practicidad y el acoso de los amigos y familiares que incentivaban el consumo de bebidas azucaradas. Al hacer el uso de herramientas de marketing social, se verificó que la concientización sobre los aspectos negativos de la ingestión de esas bebidas, con la inserción de acciones reguladoras y la exposición de los maleficios contribuyen a una nueva conciencia sobre el consumo de esas bebidas y la reducción del consumo.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adolescente , Concienciación , Bebidas , Salud Pública , Adolescente , Mercadeo Social , Estudiantes , Brasil , Consumo de Alimentos , Investigación Cualitativa , Azúcares , Conducta Alimentaria
7.
Am J Public Health ; 109(S3): S228-S235, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242016

RESUMEN

Objectives. To understand the processes involved in effective social marketing of mental health treatment. Methods. California adults experiencing symptoms of probable mental illness were surveyed in 2014 and 2016 during a major stigma reduction campaign (n = 1954). Cross-sectional associations of campaign exposure with stigma, treatment overall, and 2 stages of treatment seeking (perceiving a need for treatment and use conditional on perceiving a need) were examined in covariate-adjusted multivariable regression models. Results. Campaign exposure predicted treatment use overall (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.17, 2.83). Exposure was associated with perceived need for services (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.09, 2.47) but was not significantly associated with treatment use in models conditioned on perceiving a need (OR = 1.52; 95% CI = 0.78, 2.96). Exposure was associated with less stigma, but adjustment for stigma did not affect associations between exposure and either perceived need or treatment use. Conclusions. The California campaign appears to have increased service use by leading more individuals to interpret symptoms of distress as indicating a need for treatment. Social marketing has potential for addressing underuse of mental health services and may benefit from an increased focus on perceived need.


Asunto(s)
Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Servicios de Salud Mental/organización & administración , Servicios de Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Mercadeo Social , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Estigma Social , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Promoción de la Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
Soc Sci Med ; 234: 112381, 2019 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252241

RESUMEN

The provision of oocytes plays an important role in human fertility treatments. Spain alone performs half of oocyte provision cycles in the European Union whilst all other European countries face an oocyte shortage. How do Spanish fertility clinics manage to match the increasing domestic and foreign demand for female oocytes? Adopting a weak performativity approach and drawing insights from interviews carried out with 20 fertility clinic representatives, this study suggests that Spanish clinics are successful thanks to an egg provision system designed as a (quasi) social market. In the absence of traditional market mechanisms based on price fluctuations, the combination of fixed monetary compensation for providers and altruistic framing of oocyte provision as an act of donation, are used to mobilize relatively high numbers of women. Fertility clinics optimize this supply through a set of supplementary strategies to ensure oocyte supply always meets oocyte demand. Though successful, this market design reinforces gender stereotypes and relies on manipulative notions of altruism. A clear but unacknowledged appropriation of women's bodies and reproductive labour are also operated, which reinforces and reproduces racial and social stratifications. Therefore, we ask whether alternative mechanisms to promote female solidarity across different generations, to raise awareness of the risks of advanced maternal age, and to explore alternative market designs should be considered.


Asunto(s)
Donación de Oocito , Mercadeo Social , Altruismo , Femenino , Clínicas de Fertilidad , Humanos , Donación de Oocito/psicología , España
9.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 12(4): 354-367, 2019 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200798

RESUMEN

This paper looks at how emergency planners can use social marketing to help build community resilience, thus reducing the need for external assistance in the event of an emergency. In turn, this benefits an external response by minimising pressures on already stretched finances, staffing and resources. Increased community self-reliance also means that in the event of a situation occurring, any community response can be launched immediately, without waiting for the external response to arrive, thus helping to minimise community losses in the longer term. This paper examines the benefits of community resilience, and discusses how social marketing can be implemented within emergency planning and preparedness initiatives as an effective framework to encourage community self-reliance.


Asunto(s)
Planificación en Desastres , Mercadeo Social
10.
Health Educ Res ; 34(5): 471-482, 2019 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106344

RESUMEN

The authors designed and evaluated an innovative, branded campaign called 'Adelante' to promote positive youth development (PYD) and reduce risk behaviors among Latino youth near Washington, DC. Repeated cross-sectional surveys were conducted in the intervention and a comparison community to evaluate campaign exposure and changes in PYD outcomes. The sample consisted of 1549 Latino and immigrant adolescents surveyed at three time points in intervention and comparison communities. A social marketing campaign was implemented using outdoor advertising, Web, video and social media channels to promote PYD and health outcomes over a 1-year period from 2015 to 2016. Measures included media use; self-reported exposure to campaign promotions; Adelante message receptivity; validated PYD scales; substance use, sexual risk taking, violence-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, intentions and risk behavior. Outcomes were regressed first on campaign exposure to examine dose-response effects of the Adelante campaign over time. Second, we compared outcomes between the Adelante and comparison communities. We observed a positive effect of self-reported exposure on multiple outcomes, including improvements in pro-violence and sexual risk outcomes and lower pro-violence attitudes and lower risky attitudes toward sex. Adelante was effective in improving youth risk outcomes and offers a promising model for future health promotion with Latino and immigrant populations.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/educación , Promoción de la Salud/organización & administración , Hispanoamericanos , Mercadeo Social , Adolescente , Publicidad/métodos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Asunción de Riesgos , Conducta Sexual/etnología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/etnología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/prevención & control , Violencia/etnología , Violencia/prevención & control
11.
Sociol Health Illn ; 41(7): 1373-1395, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099093

RESUMEN

This research examines how midstream social marketing programmes that adopt a relational and community-based approach create opportunities for individuals to make incremental changes to health behaviour. Specifically, it applies Bourdieusian theory to explore how interactions between community healthcare workers (CHWs) and members of the public generate impetus for change and foster individual agency for improved health. Qualitative interviews were carried out with members of the public and CHWs engaged in a Smokefree home and cars initiative. The findings suggest that although CHWs are challenged by resource constraints, their practices in working with individuals and families build trust and enable dialogue that bridges smoking-related health insight with home logics. These interactions can promote individual agency with a transformative effect through small changes to smoking-related dispositions, norms and practices. However, tensions with the habitus of other household members and other capital deficits can inhibit progress towards embedding new practices. The study concludes that interventions built upon community relationships show potential for addressing limitations of information-focused campaigns but there is a need to also respond to key social structures relating to the field of action for new health dispositions to become embedded in practice.


Asunto(s)
Agentes Comunitarios de Salud/psicología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Mercadeo Social , Teoría Social , Inglaterra , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Investigación Cualitativa , Cese del Hábito de Fumar
12.
J Health Commun ; 24(3): 284-292, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945612

RESUMEN

The Fogg Behavior Model (FBM) is a new framework which posits that behavior happens when three factors - motivation, ability, and a prompt - occur in the same moment. The FBM categorizes people into four groups based on motivation and ability and posits that those with high motivation and high ability will adopt a behavior when prompted. Two rounds of panel survey data from 617 married men in urban Pakistan were used to test this hypothesis. Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression was used for the analysis. The results show the relationships between ability, motivation, the prompt and condom use to be as hypothesized by the FBM. After adjustment for a range of variables including fertility desires, education, and household wealth, the odds of condom use among men with high motivation and high ability were 34 times higher than the odds of condom use among men with low motivation and low ability. Moreover, the association between the prompt and condom use operated through increased motivation and ability. The FBM has potential for use in the design and evaluation of behavior change interventions in developing countries.


Asunto(s)
Condones/estadística & datos numéricos , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Modelos Psicológicos , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud/métodos , Mercadeo Social , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Motivación , Pakistán , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 382, 2019 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953491

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: While acknowledged as one of social marketing's necessities, limited reporting of segmentation exists. The current study seeks to extend segmentation drawing on all four segmentation bases within the context of Queensland young adult sexual health behaviour. METHODS: An online survey was used to collect data from 15 to 29 year old people in Queensland, Australia. Data collection was undertaken online to capture the broader population of young adults and in person on campuses to gather data from students who were currently enrolled at University. Quotas were set to ensure a broad representation was attained reflecting the States demography. RESULTS: Two-step cluster analysis revealed three different segments. The most important variables in segment formation were age, household type, experience of risky sexual encounters and previously being tested or treated for sexually transmissible infections (STIs). The results suggest that demographic and behavioural variables were the most effective in segment definition. CONCLUSIONS: This study investigated young people aged 15-29 in Queensland, Australia to examine group differences drawing from four bases. This study revealed three distinct segments in a sexual health context and highlighted the importance of behavioural variables in segment formation, insight and understanding.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Asunción de Riesgos , Conducta Sexual , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Mercadeo Social , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente , Adulto , Australia , Análisis por Conglomerados , Demografía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Queensland , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades , Adulto Joven
14.
AIDS Behav ; 23(9): 2273-2303, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006047

RESUMEN

HIV testing is central to biomedical HIV prevention, but testing among men who have sex with men remains suboptimal. We evaluated effectiveness of mass media and communication interventions to increase HIV testing and explored patterns between study type, internal validity and intervention effectiveness for the first time. Five databases were searched for articles published between 2009 and 2016 using standard MeSH terms. Eligible studies were quality appraised using standard checklists for risk of bias. Data were extracted and synthesised narratively. Nineteen studies met inclusion criteria; 11 were cross-sectional/non-comparative studies, four were pre/post or interrupted time series, three were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and one was a case study. Risk of bias was high. Five cross-sectional (two graded as high internal validity, one medium and two low) and one RCT (medium validity) reported increased HIV testing. Further work is required to develop and evaluate interventions to increase frequency and maintenance of HIV testing.


Asunto(s)
Bisexualidad , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Homosexualidad Masculina , Tamizaje Masivo/estadística & datos numéricos , Mercadeo Social , Comunicación , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Pruebas Serológicas , Conducta Sexual
15.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(2): 588-597, mar.-abr. 2019.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1053584

RESUMEN

El uso del condón es un método eficaz para prevenir enfermedades venéreas y un embarazo no deseado. Años atrás se puede apreciar cómo se debate dónde y cómo los llamados dispositivos intrauterinos fueron utilizados por primera vez. La siguiente investigación se realizó con el objetivo de explicar el surgimiento y la evolución del condón y otros métodos anticonceptivos, para ello se utilizaron un total de 15 referencias bibliográficas. Es indudable que la anticoncepción tiene que figurar como elemento básico de la atención en medicina, el conocimiento de sus orígenes, historia y evolución es fundamental. (AU)


The use of the condom is an effective method to prevent venereal diseases and an unwanted pregnancy. Years ago you can see how it is discussed where and how the so-called intrauterine devices were used for the first time. The following investigation was carried out with the objective of explaining the emergence and evolution of the condom and other contraceptive methods, for which a total of 15 bibliographical references were used. Undoubtedly, contraception must figure as a basic element of medical care, knowledge of its origins, history and evolution is fundamental. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Historia del Siglo XVI , Educación Sexual/historia , Educación Sexual/tendencias , Condones/historia , Condones/tendencias , Dispositivos Anticonceptivos/historia , Dispositivos Anticonceptivos/tendencias , Mercadeo Social , Promoción de la Salud/historia , Promoción de la Salud/tendencias , Embarazo en Adolescencia/prevención & control , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/prevención & control
16.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 17(1): 31, 2019 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922335

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Victoria, Australia, emergency calls requesting an ambulance have been increasing at a rate higher than population growth. While most of these calls are for genuine emergencies, many do not require an immediate ambulance response. A collaborative research approach was undertaken to address this issue. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effectiveness of applying a behaviour change approach to this challenge by first addressing antecedents of behaviour (attitudes, awareness and knowledge). METHODS: The project included a formative research phase to inform the design of a mass media campaign and subsequent evaluation of the campaign. RESULTS: Results indicated that the campaign was successful in increasing community attitudes towards ambulances as being for emergencies only, particularly among those familiar with the campaign material and with other health service options (such as telephone advice lines). CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide support for adopting the Forum approach to increase the chances that a mass media campaign will achieve its stated objectives. Recommendations for future campaign activities are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Ambulancias , Actitud , Concienciación , Urgencias Médicas , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Mercadeo Social , Responsabilidad Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Victoria , Adulto Joven
17.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 7(1): 138-146, 2019 03 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926742

RESUMEN

Employing voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) within traditional settings may increase patient safety and help scale up male circumcision efforts in sub-Saharan Africa. In Zimbabwe, the VaRemba are among the few ethnic groups that practice traditional male circumcision, often in suboptimal hygienic environments. ZAZIC, a local consortium, and the Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Care (MoHCC) established a successful, culturally sensitive partnership with the VaRemba to provide safe, standardized male circumcision procedures and reduce adverse events (AEs) during traditional male circumcision initiation camps. The foundation for the VaRemba Camp Collaborative (VCC) was established over a 4-year period, between 2013 and 2017, with support from a wide group of stakeholders. Initially, ZAZIC supported VaRemba traditional male circumcisions by providing key commodities and transport to help ensure patient safety. Subsequently, 2 male VaRemba nurses were trained in VMMC according to national MoHCC guidelines to enable medical male circumcision within the camp. To increase awareness and uptake of VMMC at the upcoming August-September 2017 camp, ZAZIC then worked closely with a trained team of circumcised VaRemba men to create demand for VMMC. Non-VaRemba ZAZIC doctors were granted permission by VaRemba leaders to provide oversight of VMMC procedures and postoperative treatment for all moderate and severe AEs within the camp setting. Of 672 male camp residents ages 10 and older, 657 (98%) chose VMMC. Only 3 (0.5%) moderate infections occurred among VMMC clients; all were promptly treated and healed well. Although the successful collaboration required many years of investment to build trust with community leaders and members, it ultimately resulted in a successful model that paired traditional circumcision practices with modern VMMC, suggesting potential for replicability in other similar sub-Saharan African communities.


Asunto(s)
Circuncisión Masculina/etnología , Participación de la Comunidad , Cultura , Grupos Étnicos , Servicios de Salud del Indígena , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Programas Voluntarios , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Circuncisión Masculina/efectos adversos , Conducta Cooperativa , Humanos , Infecciones/etiología , Infecciones/terapia , Liderazgo , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermeros , Seguridad , Mercadeo Social , Participación de los Interesados , Confianza , Adulto Joven , Zimbabwe
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875779

RESUMEN

Open defecation is still a major health problem in developing countries. While enormous empirical research exists on latrine coverage, little is known about households' latrine construction and usage behaviours. Using field observation and survey data collected from 1523 households in 132 communities in northern Ghana after 16 months of implementation of Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), this paper assessed the factors associated with latrine completion and latrine use. The survey tool was structured to conform to the Risk, Attitude, Norms, Ability and Self-regulation (RANAS) model. In the analysis, we classified households into three based on their latrine completion level, and conducted descriptive statistics for statistical correlation in level of latrine construction and latrine use behaviour. The findings suggest that open defecation among households reduces as latrine construction approaches completion. Although the study did not find socio-demographic differences of household to be significantly associated with level of latrine completion, we found that social context is a significant determinant of households' latrine completion decisions. The study therefore emphasises the need for continuous sensitisation and social marketing to ensure latrine completion by households at lower levels of construction, and the sustained use of latrines by households.


Asunto(s)
Composición Familiar , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Cuartos de Baño/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Actitud , Defecación , Femenino , Ghana , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Saneamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Mercadeo Social
19.
BMJ Open ; 9(3): e025297, 2019 03 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872548

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To explore awareness of alcohol marketing and ownership of alcohol branded merchandise in adolescents and young adults in the UK, what factors are associated with awareness and ownership, and what association awareness and ownership have with alcohol consumption, higher-risk drinking and susceptibility. DESIGN: Online cross-sectional survey conducted during April-May 2017. SETTING: The UK. PARTICIPANTS: Adolescents and young adults aged 11-19 years in the UK (n=3399). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) (0-12) and indication of higher-risk consumption (>5 AUDIT-C) in current drinkers. Susceptibility to drink (yes/no) in never drinkers. RESULTS: Eighty-two per cent of respondents were aware of at least one form of alcohol marketing in the past month and 17% owned branded merchandise. χ2 tests found that awareness of marketing and ownership of branded merchandise varied within drinking variables. For example, higher awareness of alcohol marketing was associated with being a current drinker (χ2=114.04, p<0.001), higher-risk drinking (χ2=85.84, p<0.001), and perceived parental (χ2=63.06, p<0.001) and peer approval of consumption (χ2=73.08, p<0.001). Among current drinkers, multivariate regressions (controlling for demographics and covariates) found that marketing awareness and owning branded merchandise was positively associated with AUDIT-C score and higher-risk consumption. For example, current drinkers reporting medium marketing awareness were twice as likely to be higher-risk drinkers as those reporting low awareness (adjusted OR (AOR)=2.18, 95% CI 1.39 to 3.42, p<0.001). Among never drinkers, respondents who owned branded merchandise were twice as likely to be susceptible to drinking as those who did not (AOR=1.98, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.24, p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Young people, above and below the legal purchasing age, are aware of a range of alcohol marketing and almost one in five own alcohol branded merchandise. In current drinkers, alcohol marketing awareness was associated with increased consumption and greater likelihood of higher-risk consumption. In never drinkers, ownership of branded merchandise was associated with susceptibility.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Publicidad/métodos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Asunción de Riesgos , Mercadeo Social , Adolescente , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Propiedad , Medición de Riesgo , Reino Unido , Adulto Joven
20.
Syst Rev ; 8(1): 66, 2019 02 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819251

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: As with food-taxation strategies, such interventions as discounted healthy menus, point-of-purchase advertisements, and sugar-free beverages for employees at worksites could help prevent obesity. This study assessed the effectiveness of food environment interventions incorporating financial incentive or social marketing strategies at workplace cafeterias, vending machines, and kiosks toward preventing obesity and improving dietary habits. METHODS: We conducted searches on CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases. The study designs included were randomized control trials (RCTs) and cluster RCTs. We evaluated the effectiveness of financial incentive or social marketing strategies interventions (such as discounts) on health outcomes or food intake behavior. Two reviewers independently screened the studies for inclusion. We assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. This protocol was published in 2014. RESULTS: We included three trials, with a combined total of 3013 participants. There were limited available data from RCTs on changes in body weight. No eligible social marketing studies were retrieved. In some cases, a meta-analysis could not be conducted owing to differences in the analytic methods for the outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of evidence made it difficult to draw any conclusions. In future surveys, it will be necessary to conduct interventions focusing only on financial incentive intervention versus no intervention in order to determine whether the incentive strategy has a clear impact. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD4201401056.


Asunto(s)
Alimentos/economía , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Motivación , Obesidad/prevención & control , Mercadeo Social , Peso Corporal , Conducta Alimentaria , Servicios de Alimentación , Humanos , Salud Laboral , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Lugar de Trabajo
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