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1.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591667

RESUMEN

To ensure financial stability of state medical organization in actual conditions requires focused consideration of various aspects of implementation of paid medical services in national health care. The analysis of publications demonstrated that experience of variety of models for providing paid medical care in state medical organizations and new directions of improving efficiency, availability and quality of medical services are mainly considered. The specificity of medical activity is conditioned by consumer-oriented activities because of direct relationship to life and health of patients. The success of medical marketing depends on achievement of loyalty of consumers of medical services. It is particularly important to ensure compliance with principle of patient-oriented organization of paid medical services. The article considers practical implementation of patient-orientated principle in paid medical services in state medical organization. The article presents elaborated and implemented set of scientifically based measures for main directions of medical activity. These measures are targeted to increase satisfaction of patients, to meet their needs and expectations, that contributes into ensuring of patient-oriented principle in paid medical services application.


Asunto(s)
Prestación de Atención de Salud , Salarios y Beneficios , Humanos , Mercadotecnía , Organizaciones
2.
Science ; 371(6526): 223, 2021 01 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446537
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(4)2021 01 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468667

RESUMEN

We analyze how investor expectations about economic growth and stock returns changed during the February-March 2020 stock market crash induced by the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as during the subsequent partial stock market recovery. We surveyed retail investors who are clients of Vanguard at three points in time: 1) on February 11-12, around the all-time stock market high, 2) on March 11-12, after the stock market had collapsed by over 20%, and 3) on April 16-17, after the market had rallied 25% from its lowest point. Following the crash, the average investor turned more pessimistic about the short-run performance of both the stock market and the real economy. Investors also perceived higher probabilities of both further extreme stock market declines and large declines in short-run real economic activity. In contrast, investor expectations about long-run (10-y) economic and stock market outcomes remained largely unchanged, and, if anything, improved. Disagreement among investors about economic and stock market outcomes also increased substantially following the stock market crash, with the disagreement persisting through the partial market recovery. Those respondents who were the most optimistic in February saw the largest decline in expectations and sold the most equity. Those respondents who were the most pessimistic in February largely left their portfolios unchanged during and after the crash.


Asunto(s)
/economía , Inversiones en Salud/economía , Pandemias/economía , /epidemiología , Desarrollo Económico , Humanos , Inversiones en Salud/tendencias , Mercadotecnía/economía , Modelos Económicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(20): 5029-5033, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350279

RESUMEN

To investigate the safety of Injection of Xuesaitong(lyophilized) in clinical "real world" application, including the types, incidence, as well as the severity and treatment measures of adverse reactions/adverse events. This will serve as a basis for hospitals and enterprises to develop risk control measures. A prospective, multi-center, and large-sample hospital centralized monitoring method was used to conduct post-marketing safety monitoring of Injection of Xuesaitong(lyophilized) in medical institutions nationwide. Paper case report forms were adopted to collect general information, medication and adverse reaction information of patients using Injection of Xuesaitong(lyophilized). Data analysis was performed by using SAS 9.1 software. The study included 79 hospitals with 30 097 patients. 199 cases of adverse events were found in patients administered with Injection of Xuesaitong(lyophilized), a total of 206 times. Among 199 cases, 40 of them showed adverse reactions, accounting for an overall incidence of 0.13% and 95%CI[0.09%,0.17%], which was an occasional grade. There were 38 cases of mild adverse reactions, accounting for 95.0%, 2 cases of moderate adverse reactions, accounting for 5.0%. Adverse reaction symptoms were relieved in six patients, accounting for 15.0% of the total number of adverse reactions, adverse reaction symptoms disappeared in 34 cases, with an overall percentage of 85.0%. The results of the study showed the adverse reactions in patients using Injection of Xuesaitong(lyophilized) were rare and mild, with a good prognosis. Therefore, clinical administration of Injection of Xuesaitong(lyophilized) is relatively safe.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Saponinas , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/efectos adversos , Humanos , Mercadotecnía , Estudios Prospectivos
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2029571, 2020 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351084

RESUMEN

Importance: Despite broad public support for gun safety policies, minimal policy implementation has occurred. Objective: To investigate factors that encourage greater private support for and public action on gun safety policy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Three studies were conducted: a public opinion survey (Study 1) was conducted from January 8 to 22, 2019, and 2 experiments (Studies 2 and 3) were conducted from August 27 to October 17, 2019, and April 15 to 21, 2020, respectively. Adults living in the US were eligible to participate in Studies 1 and 3. Students 18 years and older participating in a research experience program were eligible to participate in Study 2. Study 1 was administered online by Ipsos, a market research company. A nationally representative sample of 1000 US adults was obtained from Ipsos' online KnowledgePanel, of whom 508 completed the public opinion survey. For Study 2, which was conducted in a university laboratory, 354 participants were recruited from a university research pool, all of whom completed the study. Study 3 was administered online by the market research company YouGov, which identified 727 US gun owners from its opt-in panel, from which it constructed a census-matched sample of 400 participants. Exposures: Participants read a statement about the 2018 Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School shooting. Content was manipulated as a 2 (corrective information vs no corrective information) × 2 (system changeable vs system not changeable) between-subjects factorial design with random assignment. The corrective information included polling data highlighting widespread support among gun owners for several gun safety policies. System changeable described gun safety policies passed by Florida's legislature. Main Outcomes and Measures: Main outcomes were support for gun safety policies and public disclosure of support. Results: The 3 studies included a total of 1262 participants (Study 1: 508 participants; weighted mean [SD] age, 47.7 [17.5] years; 261.9 women [51.6%]; 82.5 Hispanic [16.2%] and 60.3 Black [11.9%]; Study 2: 354 participants; mean [SD] age, 20.0 [2.3] years; 232 women [65.9%]; 100 Asian [28.3%] and 37 Black [10.5%]; Study 3: 400 participants; weighted mean [SD] age, 52.1 [16.4] years; 187.3 women [46.8%]; 295.5 White [73.9%], 44.5 Hispanic [11.1%], and 32.4 Black [8.1%]). Study 1 found that 63% to 91% of gun owners and 83% to 93% of non-gun owners supported key gun safety policies, yet both groups significantly underestimated gun owners' support for these policies by between 12% and 31%. Studies 2 and 3 found that exposure to corrective information was associated with a small increase in support for 2 gun safety policies of between 4% and 15%, both in terms of participants' privately held beliefs and the beliefs they would be willing to share publicly. Conclusions and Relevance: This survey study found that many US adults failed to recognize that most gun owners support key gun safety policies. Correcting this misperception was associated with greater private and public support for gun safety policy.


Asunto(s)
Armas de Fuego/legislación & jurisprudencia , Política Pública , Seguridad/legislación & jurisprudencia , Percepción Social/etnología , Censos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mercadotecnía/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Propiedad , Opinión Pública , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0241578, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362255

RESUMEN

This study investigated consumers' responses to fashion visual merchandising (VM) from a neuroscientific perspective. The brain activations of 20 subjects differently involved in fashion were recorded using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in response to three different fashion VM types. According to the types of fashion VM, significant differences were observed, which were significantly higher for the creative VM. Moreover, highly fashion-involved subjects showed activation of the orbital frontal cortex region in response to the creative VM. Based on these results, it is suggested that marketing strategies should be devised explicitly for the brand's targeted audience and goals.


Asunto(s)
Comportamiento del Consumidor , Mercadotecnía/métodos , Estimulación Luminosa/métodos , Percepción Visual/fisiología , Adulto , Mapeo Encefálico , Creatividad , Toma de Decisiones , Emociones/fisiología , Femenino , Lóbulo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagen , Lóbulo Frontal/fisiología , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Conducta Impulsiva/fisiología , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321893

RESUMEN

Marketing influences knowledge, attitudes, and decisions related to infant and young child nutrition, safety, development, parental confidence, and other aspects of health and wellbeing of the child. These attitudes and behaviours of parents, health workers, policy makers, and other influencers have short- and long-term effects on the child. There is an International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes. Is it time to have a code of marketing of breastfeeding substitutes?


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Mercadotecnía , Sustitutos de la Leche , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Lactante , Cooperación Internacional , Mercadotecnía/legislación & jurisprudencia , Mercadotecnía/tendencias , Sustitutos de la Leche/legislación & jurisprudencia , Sustitutos de la Leche/estadística & datos numéricos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243547, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351796

RESUMEN

We investigated the social representation of fair price of French and English-speaking photographers using the free association method. In two independent studies, we performed a factorial analysis of correspondence of the words provided by the participants as well as a similitude analysis. The results indicated that "fair price" was mainly associated with time, effort and experience level of photographers. Both French- and English-speaking samples made similar associations around the concept of fair price but the order of importance varied. We observed some gender-related differences in both samples, although the relative number of male and female participants must be taken into consideration.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/ética , Fotograbar/economía , Profesionalismo/economía , Adulto , Comercio/tendencias , Femenino , Francia , Humanos , Lenguaje , Lingüística/métodos , Masculino , Mercadotecnía/ética , Mercadotecnía/métodos , Mercadotecnía/tendencias , Persona de Mediana Edad , Profesionalismo/ética , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203076

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic led to unprecedented restrictions on people's movements and interactions, as well as the cancellation of major sports events and social activities, directly altering the gambling landscape. There is urgent need to provide regulators, policy makers and treatment providers with evidence on the patterns and context of gambling during COVID-19 and its aftermath. This protocol describes a study addressing the following three questions: (1) How has COVID-19 changed gambling practices and the risk factors for, and experience of, gambling harms? (2) What is the effect of COVID-19 on gambling marketing? (3) How has COVID-19 changed high risk groups' gambling experiences and practices? This mixed-method study focuses on two groups, namely young adults and sports bettors. In workpackage-1, we will extend an existing longitudinal survey of gambling in young adults (aged 16-24 years) (first wave conducted June-August 2019), adding COVID-19-related questions to the second wave (July-August 2020) and extending to a third wave in 2021; and undertake a survey of sports bettors in the UK (baseline n = 4000, ~July-August 2020), with follow-ups in ~October-November 2020 and ~February-March 2021. In workpackage-2, we will examine changes in expenditure on paid-for gambling advertising from January 2019 to July 2021 and undertake a mixed-method content analysis of a random sample of paid-for gambling advertising (n ~ 200) and social media marketing (n ~ 100) during the initial COVID-19 "lockdown". Workpackage-3 will involve qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of (a) young adults (aged 18-24 years) and (b) sports bettors.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Juego de Azar , Mercadotecnía , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Juegos de Video , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Juego de Azar/epidemiología , Humanos , Proyectos de Investigación , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
14.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e040989, 2020 10 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109677

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The spread of misinformation has accompanied the coronavirus pandemic, including topics such as immune boosting to prevent COVID-19. This study explores how immune boosting is portrayed on the internet during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Content analysis. METHODS: We compiled a dataset of 227 webpages from Google searches in Canada and the USA using the phrase 'boost immunity' AND 'coronavirus' on 1 April 2020. We coded webpages for typology and portrayal of immune boosting and supplements. We recorded mentions of microbiome, whether the webpage was selling or advertising an immune boosting product or service, and suggested strategies for boosting immunity. RESULTS: No significant differences were found between webpages that appeared in the searches in Canada and the USA. The most common types of webpages were from news (40.5%) and commercial (24.7%) websites. The concept of immune boosting was portrayed as beneficial for avoiding COVID-19 in 85.5% of webpages and supplements were portrayed as beneficial in 40% of the webpages, but commercial sites were more likely to have these portrayals. The top immune boosting strategies were vitamin C (34.8%), diet (34.4%), sleep (34.4%), exercise (30.8%) and zinc (26.9%). Less than 10% of the webpages provide any critique of the concept of immune boosting. CONCLUSIONS: Pairing evidence-based advice for maintaining one's health (eg, healthy diet, exercise, sleep) with the phrase immune boosting and strategies lacking in evidence may inadvertently help to legitimise the concept, making it a powerful marketing tool. Results demonstrate how the spread of misinformation is complex and often more subtle than blatant fraudulent claims.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Información de Salud al Consumidor , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Factores Inmunológicos , Inmunoterapia , Internet , Mercadotecnía , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Betacoronavirus , Canadá/epidemiología , Información de Salud al Consumidor/métodos , Información de Salud al Consumidor/normas , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Exactitud de los Datos , Suplementos Dietéticos/normas , Humanos , Factores Inmunológicos/normas , Factores Inmunológicos/uso terapéutico , Inmunoterapia/métodos , Inmunoterapia/normas , Difusión de la Información/ética , Difusión de la Información/métodos , Internet/estadística & datos numéricos , Internet/tendencias , Mercadotecnía/ética , Mercadotecnía/métodos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/inmunología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Salud Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
15.
Radiographics ; 40(5): 1309-1317, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870768

RESUMEN

The recent shutting down of in-person events owing to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has elevated the popularity of web-based conferencing. This development provides an opportunity for educators to test their teaching skills on what, for many, is a new platform. Many of the basic elements of what constitutes an effective presentation are the same regardless of whether they are delivered in person or online. However, there are advantages and disadvantages of each mode of presentation, and understanding how to best leverage the features of an online platform will lead to a better educational experience for the presenter and audience. The effectiveness of any presentation is dependent on the ability of the speaker to communicate with the audience. This is accomplished by including as much audience participation as possible. Many of the techniques used to encourage audience participation in person can be adapted for use in online presentations (eg, the use of features such as chat, hand raising, polling, and question-and-answer sessions). In any type of presentation, both the quality of the content and the oral delivery are important. The author reviews the common elements of an effective presentation and how they can be optimized for online platforms. ©RSNA, 2020.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Internet , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Radiología/métodos , Comunicación por Videocoferencia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Presentación de Datos , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Mercadotecnía , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Radiología/tendencias , Habla , Comunicación por Videocoferencia/organización & administración , Comunicación por Videocoferencia/tendencias
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(15): 3497-3504, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893536

RESUMEN

To evaluate the economy and applicability of Jinye Baidu Granules in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infection, a randomized, double-blind, positive drug parallel control clinical trial was conducted in this study. Stratified block random, double-blind and double simulation test was used. The experimental group took Jinye Baidu Granules, 10 g/time, three times a day, and Compound Shuanghua Granules placebo, 6 g/time, four times a day. The control group took Compound Shuanghua Granules, 6 g/time, 4 times a day, and Jinye Baidu Granules placebo, 10 g/time, 3 times a day. The course of treatment was 5 days. The total cost of this study included direct medical cost and indirect medical cost. The incremental cost-effect analysis method was used for evaluation. Treeage Pro software was used to build a pharmaco-economics model and make statistical analysis. Patients from 10 hospitals were divided into experimental group(304 cases) and control group(302 cases). The baseline values of age, sex ratio, clinical symptoms and signs scores, and important physical examination indexes of the two groups were compared. After 5 days of treatment, the cost per capita of the experimental group was(388.06±94.17) Yuan, and that of the control group was(378.47±95.46) Yuan. The cost of direct medical treatment per capita was(271.24±54.11) Yuan for the experimental group and(264.88±112.71) Yuan for the control group. The average cost of indirect medical treatment was(116.82±82.75) Yuan in the experimental group and(113.59±87.77) Yuan in the control group, with no significant difference in the cost of medical treatment per capita, the cost of direct medical treatment per capita and the cost of indirect medical treatment per capita between both groups. The results of incremental cost-effect analysis based on the total score difference in symptoms and signs after 5 days of treatment showed that ICER=23.39 Yuan/score, which was less than the willingness to pay 100 Yuan/score determined through expert interviews. The experimental group had economic advantages over the experimental group, with the economic probability of 53%. Sensitivity analysis supported the robustness of the results. The results of incremental cost-effect analysis based on the total recovery rate of symptoms and signs showed that compared with the experimental group, the control group had lower cost, better effect and absolute economic advantage, with a corresponding probability of 55%. Based on the above results, it is concluded that there is no significant difference in economic outcome between Jinye Baidu Gra-nules and Compound Shuanghua Granules in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infection.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Método Doble Ciego , Humanos , Mercadotecnía
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238743, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976509

RESUMEN

Firms need sufficient resources (tangible and intangible) and capabilities to build unique products due to customers' demands and choices, market competition and globalization. Despite sufficient resources, many firms cannot build new products according to the customers' preferences and market trends due to lack of marketing capabilities, lack of skilled marketing staff and lack of experienced managers. However, studies have not yet examined what types of intangible skills of marketing managers are prominent for building new products. This study examines the importance of the intangible skills; intellectual captial, financial literacy and business experience in new product development that results in sustainable competitive performance. We used a mixed-method approach; questionnaire (283) and interviews (16) for data collection and then applied structural equation modelling for testing the hypotheses. The results revealed that all the three intangible skills; intellectual captial, financial literacy and business experience significant influence new product development and sustainable competitive performance. However, considering the relative importance, financial literacy and intellectual capital are the most significant predictors of sustainable competitive performance and new product development respectively. Moreover, new product development fully mediates the path between intellectual capital and sustainable competitive performance while it partially mediates the link between financial literacy, business experience and sustainable competitive performance. Considering the importance of tangible resources, our study scrutinized that financial resources have a significant influence on new product development and sustainable competitive performance while technological resources do not play a significant role. This research recommends firms to emphasize on the improvement of intangible skills of the managers in order to build new products that result in sustainable competitive position. This study also recommends marketing managers to improve their financial skills and experience by participating in various seminars and workshops that can spur their new idea generation and new product development capabilities.


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Mercadotecnía , Competencia Profesional , Recursos en Salud
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238765, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946465

RESUMEN

In this paper, paratexts as a component of developmental and marketing processes of movie-productions on Social Network Sites (SNS) are investigated. Paratexts are phenomena that prepare and accompany the reading and interpretation of texts/movies. First, a brief introduction into a complex and ambivalent state of research on paratexts will be given. Then the paper presents the results of a qualitative study, which was realized with the help of Grounded Theory, where marketing-paratexts of movie feeds on Twitter are at the center of the investigation. The research shows that movie-studios are manifoldly active on Social Network Sites and fall back on different paratextual materials that are placed around the medium as an interpretative perimeter. The associated activities are also characteristics of complex interactive processes. In this, recipients are actively involved. Producers/Production-Studios attempt to establish a relationship, whereby Social Network Sites are used as distributional and interactive platforms and as a vital part for preparing and developing a story.


Asunto(s)
Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Mercadotecnía , Películas Cinematográficas/economía , Investigación Cualitativa
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239494, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946503

RESUMEN

We propose the epsilon-tau procedure to determine up- and down-trends in a time series, working as a tool for its segmentation. The method denomination reflects the use of a tolerance level ε for the series values and a patience level τ in the time axis to delimit the trends. We first illustrate the procedure in discrete random walks, deriving the exact probability distributions of trend lengths and trend amplitudes, and then apply it to segment and analyze the trends of U.S. dollar (USD)/Japanese yen (JPY) market time series from 2015 to 2018. Besides studying the statistics of trend lengths and amplitudes, we investigate the internal structure of the trends by grouping trends with similar shapes and selecting clusters of shapes that rarely occur in the randomized data. Particularly, we identify a set of down-trends presenting similar sharp appreciation of the yen that are associated with exceptional events such as the Brexit Referendum in 2016.


Asunto(s)
Comercio/estadística & datos numéricos , Administración Financiera/estadística & datos numéricos , Mercadotecnía/estadística & datos numéricos , Internacionalidad , Japón , Modelos Estadísticos , Probabilidad , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos
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