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1.
J Emerg Manag ; 18(2): 91-104, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181865

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study investigates emergency manager's perceptions of Command and Control to answer the question "how do emergency managers metaphorically interpret Command and Control?" DESIGN: An interpretivist paradigm, verbatim transcription, and content and linguistic metaphor analysis were used within this study. SETTING: Fifteen interviews per country, three per selected organization were conducted in the United Kingdom and the United States of America. SUBJECTS: Purposive sampling identified suitable participants from key organizations engaged in emergency management at local, subnational, and national levels. INTERVENTIONS: The study consisted of 30 semi-structured face-to-face interviews conducted within the work-place. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The inductive and qualitative nature of the study resulted in a 300,000-word corpus of data from which the two posited theories emerged. RESULTS: The UK Gold, Silver, Bronze model and the USA Incident Command System were considered tried and tested although they are conceptually misunderstood. Moreover, they are believed to be essential, scalable, and flexible. Able to manage the perceived chaos of increasing scales of disaster which contradicts the existing literature. CONCLUSIONS: Two conceptual metaphors are theorized to create flexible learning tools that challenge the entrenched nature of these findings. Command and Control as a Candle demonstrates the effects of increasing disaster scale on systemic efficacy. Command and Control as a Golden Thread illustrates problems caused by time, distance, resource depletion, and infrastructure degradation. These tools engender deeper more critical perspectives by linking theory to practice through metaphor to engender perceptual change.


Asunto(s)
Planificación en Desastres/organización & administración , Desastres , Urgencias Médicas , Comunicación , Humanos , Metáfora , Estados Unidos
5.
Psychiatr Prax ; 47(1): 29-34, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910458

RESUMEN

Formal thought disorders are common in people diagnosed with schizophrenia. Among them, concretism stands for deficiencies in the understanding of idiomatic expressions, metaphors and proverbs. However, little is known as to whether concretism is a correlate of the acuteness or severity of schizophrenia within patients. In this pilot study data of 28 patients was collected in the process of implementing a proverb test for screening purposes as part of an enhancement to the standard assessment of the general cognitive functioning of the patients. Our findings support the argument for such a coherence as a significant correlation between the degree of acuteness and concretism was found. However, the proverb test also correlated significantly with our standard cognitive assessment so the question as to which degree the proverb test will add further information regarding the general cognitive functioning needs to be addressed. Finally, the question as to whether there is an indication to specifically approach concretism in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia is discussed.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos del Conocimiento , Esquizofrenia , Trastornos del Conocimiento/diagnóstico , Trastornos del Conocimiento/terapia , Alemania , Humanos , Metáfora , Proyectos Piloto , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/terapia
6.
Poiésis (En línea) ; 38(Ene.-Jun.): 16-30, 2020.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1095663

RESUMEN

Se realizó un rastreo bibliográfico sobre la reacomodación de las dinámicas internas en familias que tienen un infante en cuidados paliativos, haciendo hincapié en la importancia de la terapia familiar para entender la enfermedad y resignificarla mediante la técnica narrativa de la metáfora. Teniendo en cuenta lo anterior, cuando llega una crisis significativa al núcleo familiar, como una enfermedad, esta cambia la dinámica familiar, puesto que obliga a movilizarse de manera inesperada para buscar posibles soluciones a la situación que aqueja. En muchos casos, la familia recurre a la terapia familiar como estrategia para fortalecer sus recursos, y la metáfora como herramienta narrativa, es uno de los recursos que se usa para ayudar a resignificar la enfermedad. Ahora bien, en cuanto al rastreo bibliográfico, fue la base del texto reflexivo construido, ya que en el rastreo se evidenció que en la terapia familiar no se encuentra un abordaje específico en los procesos de salud que requieren acompañamiento paliativo, por lo que se hace necesario visibilizar la utilidad de la terapia familiar en estos procesos. Como conclusión, se presenta el uso de la metáfora como posible vía de trabajo con las familias que están pasando por una situación de enfermedad, puesto que facilita la externalización del problema y logran así nuevas narrativas orientadas a la resignificación.


A literature review was carried out on the rearrangement of inner dynamics in families with an infant in palliative care, emphasizing the importance of family therapy to understand the disease and resignify it through the narrative technique of metaphor. Considering the above, when a significant crisis, such as a disease, reaches the family core, family dynamics change since it forces unexpected mobilization to find possible solutions to the situation. In many cases, the family uses family therapy as a strategy to strengthen their resources, and the metaphor, as a narrative tool, is one of the resources used to help resignify the disease. Bibliographic review was the basis of the reflexive text constructed, since the review showed that in family therapy there is no specific approach in health processes that require palliative accompaniment, reason why it is necessary to draw attention to the usefulness of family therapy in this type of processes. In conclusion, the use of metaphor is presented as a possible way of addressing families who are going through a situation of disease, since it facilitates the externalization of the problem and the achievement of new narratives aimed at redefinition of the disease.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Terapia Familiar , Cuidados Paliativos , Terapéutica , Metáfora
7.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e224, 2019 11 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775915

RESUMEN

We agree with Brette's assessment that the coding metaphor has become more problematic than helpful for theories of brain and cognitive functioning. In an effort to aid in constructing an alternative, we argue that joining the insights from the dynamical systems approach with the semiotic framework of C. S. Peirce can provide a fruitful perspective.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo , Metáfora , Cognición
8.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e220, 2019 11 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775917

RESUMEN

Brette highlights a conceptual problem in contemporary neuroscience: Loose talk of "coding" sometimes leads to a conflation of the distinction between representing and merely detecting a property. The solution is to replace casual talk of "coding" with an explicit, demanding set of conditions for neural representation. Various theories of this general type can be found in the philosophical literature.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo , Metáfora
9.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e240, 2019 11 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775918

RESUMEN

Brette contends that the neural coding metaphor is an invalid basis for theories of what the brain does. Here, we argue that it is an insufficient guide for building an artificial intelligence that learns to accomplish short- and long-term goals in a complex, changing environment.


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia Artificial , Metáfora , Encéfalo , Aprendizaje
10.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e216, 2019 11 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775919

RESUMEN

First, I argue that there is no agreement within non-classical cognitive science as to whether one should eliminate representations, hence, it is not clear that Brette's appeal to it is going to solve the problems with coding. Second, I argue that Brette's criticism of predictive coding as being intellectualistic is not justified, as predictive coding is compatible with embodied cognition.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Metáfora , Encéfalo , Ciencia Cognitiva
11.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e232, 2019 11 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775920

RESUMEN

Brette presents arguments that query the existence of the neural code. However, he has neglected certain evidence that could be viewed as proof that a neural code operates in the brain. Albeit these proofs show a link between neural activity and cognition, we discuss why they fail to demonstrate the existence of an invariant neural code.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo , Metáfora , Cognición , Masculino
12.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e233, 2019 11 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775921

RESUMEN

Many systems neuroscientists want to understand neurons in terms of mediation; we want to understand how neurons are involved in the causal chain from stimulus to behavior. Unfortunately, most tools are inappropriate for that while our language takes mediation for granted. Here we discuss the contrast between our conceptual drive toward mediation and the difficulty of obtaining meaningful evidence.


Asunto(s)
Metáfora , Neuronas , Encéfalo , Lenguaje
13.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e225, 2019 11 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775922

RESUMEN

The convincing argument that Brette makes for the neural coding metaphor as imposing one view of brain behavior can be further explained through discourse analysis. Instead of a unified view, we argue, the coding metaphor's plasticity, versatility, and robustness throughout time explain its success and conventionalization to the point that its rhetoric became overlooked.


Asunto(s)
Lenguaje , Metáfora , Encéfalo
14.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e221, 2019 11 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775923

RESUMEN

We argue that Brette's arguments, or some variation on them, work only against the immodest codes imputed by neuroscientists to the signals they study; they do not tell against "modest" codes, which may be learned by neurons themselves. Still, caution is warranted: modest neural codes likely lead to only modest explanatory gains.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo , Metáfora , Aprendizaje , Neuronas
15.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e223, 2019 11 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775924

RESUMEN

The challenges raised in this article are not with information theory per se, but the assumptions surrounding it. Neuroscience isn't sufficiently critical about the appropriate 'receiver' or 'channel', focuses on decoding 'parts', and often relies on a flawed 'veridicality' assumption. If these problematic assumptions were questioned, information theory could be better directed to help us understand how the brain works.


Asunto(s)
Teoría de la Información , Neurociencias , Encéfalo , Metáfora
16.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e219, 2019 11 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775925

RESUMEN

Brette argues that coding as a concept is inappropriate for explanations of neurocognitive phenomena. Here, we argue that Brette's conceptual analysis mischaracterizes the structure of causal claims in coding and other forms of analysis-by-decomposition. We argue that analyses of this form are permissible and conceptually coherent and offer essential tools for building and developing models of neurocognitive systems like the brain.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo , Metáfora
17.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e228, 2019 11 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775926

RESUMEN

Representation and computation are the best tools we have for explaining intelligent behavior. In our program, we explore the space of representations present in the mind by constraining them to explain data at multiple levels of analysis, from behavioral patterns to neural activity. We argue that this integrated program assuages Brette's worries about the study of the neural code.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo , Metáfora
18.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e226, 2019 11 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775927

RESUMEN

Shannon's theory lays the foundation for understanding the flow of information from world into brain: There must be a set of possible messages. Brain structure determines what they are. Many messages convey quantitative facts (distances, directions, durations, etc.). It is impossible to consider how neural tissue processes these numbers without first considering how it encodes them.


Asunto(s)
Metáfora , Descanso , Encéfalo
19.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e239, 2019 11 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775928

RESUMEN

Besides failing for the reasons Brette gives, codes fail to help us understand brain function because codes imply algorithms that compute outputs without reference to the signals' meanings. Algorithms cannot be found in the brain, only manipulations that operate on meaningful signals and that cannot be described as computations, that is, sequences of predefined operations.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo , Metáfora , Algoritmos , Comprensión
20.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e241, 2019 11 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775929

RESUMEN

Brains are information processing systems whose operational principles ultimately cannot be understood without resource to information theory. We suggest that understanding how external signals are represented in the brain is a necessary step towards employing further engineering tools (such as control theory) to understand the information processing performed by brain circuits during behaviour.


Asunto(s)
Modelos Neurológicos , Fenómenos Fisiológicos del Sistema Nervioso , Encéfalo , Metáfora
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