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1.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 45(3): 251-4, 2020 Mar 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202719

RESUMEN

Acupuncture has become an effective approach in clinic for treating obesity, but its mechanism has not been clarified yet. A large number of researches have been conducted on the obesity mechanism in the aspects of neurophysiological regulation, feeding center regulation and peripheral digestion and absorption regulation at home and abroad. But, regarding the main storage site of excess energy, i.e. the remodeling and functional regulation of white adipose tissue (WAT), is still a new field in research. In the paper, focusing on the new filed of weight loss, in view of the promotion of WAT browning through the re-gulation of UCP1 and PPARγ signal pathway with acupuncture, the potential peripheral mechanism of acupuncture was explored on weight loss.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Acupuntura , Tejido Adiposo Pardo , Tejido Adiposo Blanco , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Obesidad
2.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 64(1): 71-81, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187264

RESUMEN

Objective Provide a comprehensive view of the events surrounding the sugar consumption, under conditions of energy equivalence; through the analysis of behavioral aspects of intake, and of biochemical, metabolic and physiological parameters, as well as the effect of this nutrient on the plasticity of adipose tissue. Materials and methods Newly weaned male Wistar rats were classified in two groups and subjected to the following normocaloric diets: standard chow diet or to high-sugar diet (HSD) ad libitum for 18 weeks. Results The animals submitted to the HSD were associated with a lower caloric intake during the 18 weeks of experimentation. However, the HSD induced a significant increase in body weight, white adipose tissue weight, adiposity index, Lee index, and the levels of triglycerides and very low-density lipoprotein in the serum. In addition, it induced glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and compensatory increase of insulin secretion by pancreatic ß-cells. Also increased heart rate and induced hyperplasia, and hypertrophy of retroperitoneal visceral adipose tissue. In the liver, the HSD was associated with increased hepatic lipid content (i.e., triglycerides and cholesterol) and hepatomegaly. Conclusion The post-weaning consumption of HSD induces an adaptive response in metabolism; however, such an event is not enough to reverse the homeostatic imbalance triggered by the chronic consumption of this macronutrient, leading to the development of metabolic syndrome, irrespective of caloric intake. These findings corroborate recent evidence indicating that sugar is a direct contributor to metabolic diseases independent of a positive energy balance. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(1):71-81.


Asunto(s)
Tejido Adiposo/metabolismo , Azúcares de la Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestión de Energía , Metabolismo Energético , Enfermedades Metabólicas/metabolismo , Obesidad/metabolismo , Animales , Azúcares de la Dieta/efectos adversos , Azúcares de la Dieta/sangre , Masculino , Enfermedades Metabólicas/sangre , Obesidad/sangre , Obesidad/etiología , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
3.
J Sports Sci ; 38(9): 1009-1017, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160828

RESUMEN

During 20 m shuttle tests, obese adolescents may have difficulty achieving maximum cardiorespiratory performance due to the presence of braking-relaunch phases (BRP). Nineteen obese adolescents aged 15.2 ± 1.5 years (body mass index [BMI] = 39.7 ± 5.9 kg.m-2) performed three graded walking exercises on a 50 m track at speeds between 3 and 6 km/h: a continuous-straight-line protocol (C), a continuous protocol that required turning back every 30 sec (C-BRP) and an intermittent protocol that consisted of successively walking then resting for 15 sec (15-15). Oxygen uptake (VO2), aerobic cost of walking (Cw), ventilation (VE) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at each stage during the protocols. During C-BRP, the responses were not significantly higher compared with C (p > 0.30). During 15-15, the VO2, Cw and VE were ~ 15 to 25% lower than during C beginning at 4 km/h (p < 0.05). In obese adolescents, the respiratory impact of sudden directional changes during the 20 m shuttle-type test appeared to be minor at walking speeds. During the 15-15 test, the intensity increases more progressively, and this design may encourage obese adolescents to walk further than during a continuous test.


Asunto(s)
Capacidad Cardiovascular/fisiología , Obesidad Pediátrica/fisiopatología , Percepción/fisiología , Esfuerzo Físico/fisiología , Respiración , Caminata/fisiología , Adolescente , Metabolismo Energético/fisiología , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxígeno/fisiología , Obesidad Pediátrica/psicología
4.
J Sports Sci ; 38(9): 1046-1052, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175817

RESUMEN

Moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) improves fat oxidation. High-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) is thought to have a greater potential for fat oxidation but it might be too demanding in the long term for patients. We hypothesized that an initial bout of HIIE could maximize fat oxidation during MICE and the following passive recovery. Eighteen healthy participants performed two acute isocaloric exercise sessions at random. MICE consisted of 45-min cycling at 50% of maximal aerobic power (Pmax). COMB began with five 1-min bouts of HIIE at Pmax (interspaced with 1-min recovery periods) followed by 35-min MICE. Gas exchange allowed substrate oxidation rate assessment.Expressed as a % of energy expenditure, fat oxidation (%) increased during in the passive recovery following COMB (Recovery: 36.0 ± 19.4 vs 23.0 ± 20.3%; ES: 0.66; p < 0.0001). An initial bout of HIIE preceding a prolonged moderate-intensity exercise may potentiate fat oxidation during the following recovery. This might be relevant for health management of overweight/obese persons.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Entrenamiento de Intervalos de Alta Intensidad/métodos , Metabolismo de los Lípidos , Adulto , Metabolismo Energético , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Femenino , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidad/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Oxidación-Reducción , Intercambio Gaseoso Pulmonar , Adulto Joven
5.
Life Sci ; 249: 117501, 2020 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142766

RESUMEN

AIMS: Aldehyde reductase (AKR1A) is involved in the synthesis of ascorbic acid (AsA) as well as the detoxification of aldehydes. AKR1A-/- (KO) mice produce about 10% of the normal amounts of AsA compared to AKR1A+/+ (WT) mice. We investigated physiologic roles of AKR1A in running using the KO mice. MAIN METHODS: The KO mice were subjected to a treadmill test under either restricted AsA production or a sufficiency by supplementation and compared the results with those of WT mice. Contents of glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, AsA and free fatty acids in blood were measured. Glycogen contents were measured in the liver and skeletal muscle, and hepatic proteins were examined by immunoblot analyses. KEY FINDINGS: Running performance was higher in the KO mice than the WT mice irrespective of the AsA status. After the exercise period, blood glucose levels were decreased in the WT mice but were preserved in the KO mice. Liver glycogen levels were also consistently preserved in the KO mice after exercise. Free fatty acid levels tended to be originally high in blood plasma compared to those of the WT mice and were increased to similar extent in them. A key regulator of energy metabolism, PGC-1α, and the products of downstream target genes that encode for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphatase, were constitutively at high levels in the KO mice. SIGNIFICANCE: The genetic ablation of AKR1A activates the PGC-1α pathway and spare glucose, which would consequently confer exercise endurance.


Asunto(s)
Aldehído Reductasa/genética , Coactivador 1-alfa del Receptor Activado por Proliferadores de Peroxisomas gamma/metabolismo , Condicionamiento Físico Animal , Resistencia Física , Aldehído Reductasa/metabolismo , Animales , Glucemia/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Grasos no Esterificados/sangre , Metabolismo de los Lípidos , Glucógeno Hepático/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Noqueados , Coactivador 1-alfa del Receptor Activado por Proliferadores de Peroxisomas gamma/genética
6.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(3): 310-320, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144411

RESUMEN

Although metastasis remains the cause of most cancer-related mortality, mechanisms governing seeding in distal tissues are poorly understood. Here, we establish a robust method for the identification of global transcriptomic changes in rare metastatic cells during seeding using single-cell RNA sequencing and patient-derived-xenograft models of breast cancer. We find that both primary tumours and micrometastases display transcriptional heterogeneity but micrometastases harbour a distinct transcriptome program conserved across patient-derived-xenograft models that is highly predictive of poor survival of patients. Pathway analysis revealed mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation as the top pathway upregulated in micrometastases, in contrast to higher levels of glycolytic enzymes in primary tumour cells, which we corroborated by flow cytometric and metabolomic analyses. Pharmacological inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation dramatically attenuated metastatic seeding in the lungs, which demonstrates the functional importance of oxidative phosphorylation in metastasis and highlights its potential as a therapeutic target to prevent metastatic spread in patients with breast cancer.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/genética , Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , Transcriptoma , Animales , Neoplasias de la Mama/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Femenino , Humanos , Ratones Endogámicos NOD , Ratones SCID , Mitocondrias/metabolismo , Metástasis de la Neoplasia , Fosforilación Oxidativa , Análisis de Secuencia de ARN , Análisis de la Célula Individual , Transcripción Genética
7.
Nature ; 579(7798): 250-255, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161389

RESUMEN

The lithified lower oceanic crust is one of Earth's last biological frontiers as it is difficult to access. It is challenging for microbiota that live in marine subsurface sediments or igneous basement to obtain sufficient carbon resources and energy to support growth1-3 or to meet basal power requirements4 during periods of resource scarcity. Here we show how limited and unpredictable sources of carbon and energy dictate survival strategies used by low-biomass microbial communities that live 10-750 m below the seafloor at Atlantis Bank, Indian Ocean, where Earth's lower crust is exposed at the seafloor. Assays of enzyme activities, lipid biomarkers, marker genes and microscopy indicate heterogeneously distributed and viable biomass with ultralow cell densities (fewer than 2,000 cells per cm3). Expression of genes involved in unexpected heterotrophic processes includes those with a role in the degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, use of polyhydroxyalkanoates as carbon-storage molecules and recycling of amino acids to produce compounds that can participate in redox reactions and energy production. Our study provides insights into how microorganisms in the plutonic crust are able to survive within fractures or porous substrates by coupling sources of energy to organic and inorganic carbon resources that are probably delivered through the circulation of subseafloor fluids or seawater.


Asunto(s)
Organismos Acuáticos/genética , Organismos Acuáticos/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiología , Microbiota/genética , Océanos y Mares , Ciclo del Carbono/genética , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica
8.
Life Sci ; 248: 117474, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112869

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) is a novel regulator of energy homeostasis in adipocytes. NNMT expression in adipose tissue is increased in obesity and diabetes. Knockdown of NNMT prevents mice from developing diet-induced obesity, which is closely linked to insulin resistance. An early sign of systemic insulin resistance is reduced expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) selectively in adipose tissue. Adipose tissue-specific knockout and overexpression of GLUT4 cause reciprocal changes in NNMT expression. The aim of the current study was to elucidate the mechanism that regulates NNMT expression in adipocytes. METHODS: 3T3-L1 adipocytes were cultured in media with varying glucose concentrations or activators and inhibitors of intracellular pathways. NNMT mRNA and protein levels were measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. RESULTS: Glucose deprivation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes induced a 2-fold increase in NNMT mRNA and protein expression. This effect was mimicked by inhibition of glucose transport with phloretin, and by inhibition of glycolysis with the phosphoglucose isomerase inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose. Conversely, inhibition of the pentose phosphate pathway did not affect NNMT expression. Pharmacological activation of the cellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway caused an increase in NNMT levels that was similar to the effect of glucose deprivation. Activation of mTOR with MHY1485 prevented the effect of glucose deprivation on NNMT expression. Furthermore, upregulation of NNMT levels depended on functional autophagy and protein translation. CONCLUSION: Glucose availability regulates NNMT expression via an mTOR-dependent mechanism.


Asunto(s)
Adipocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Transportador de Glucosa de Tipo 4/genética , Glucosa/farmacología , Nicotinamida N-Metiltransferasa/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinasas TOR/genética , Células 3T3-L1 , Proteínas Quinasas Activadas por AMP/genética , Proteínas Quinasas Activadas por AMP/metabolismo , Adipocitos/citología , Adipocitos/metabolismo , Animales , Autofagia/efectos de los fármacos , Autofagia/genética , Transporte Biológico/efectos de los fármacos , Diferenciación Celular , Desoxiglucosa/farmacología , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Glucosa/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucosa de Tipo 4/antagonistas & inhibidores , Transportador de Glucosa de Tipo 4/metabolismo , Glucosa-6-Fosfato Isomerasa/antagonistas & inhibidores , Glucosa-6-Fosfato Isomerasa/genética , Glucosa-6-Fosfato Isomerasa/metabolismo , Homeostasis/genética , Ratones , Morfolinas/farmacología , Nicotinamida N-Metiltransferasa/antagonistas & inhibidores , Nicotinamida N-Metiltransferasa/metabolismo , Vía de Pentosa Fosfato/efectos de los fármacos , Vía de Pentosa Fosfato/genética , Floretina/farmacología , Biosíntesis de Proteínas , ARN Mensajero/antagonistas & inhibidores , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinasas TOR/metabolismo , Triazinas/farmacología
9.
Ecol Lett ; 23(5): 841-850, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189469

RESUMEN

Animals switch between inactive and active states, simultaneously impacting their energy intake, energy expenditure and predation risk, and collectively defining how they engage with environmental variation and trophic interactions. We assess daily activity responses to long-term variation in temperature, resources and mating opportunities to examine whether individuals choose to be active or inactive according to an optimisation of the relative energetic and reproductive gains each state offers. We show that this simplified behavioural decision approach predicts most activity variation (R2  = 0.83) expressed by free-ranging red squirrels over 4 years, as quantified through accelerometer recordings (489 deployments; 5066 squirrel-days). Recognising activity as a determinant of energetic status, the predictability of activity variation aggregated at a daily scale, and the clear signal that behaviour is environmentally forced through optimisation of gain, provides an integrated approach to examine behavioural variation as an intermediary between environmental variation and energetic, life-history and ecological outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Reproducción , Sciuridae , Animales , Metabolismo Energético , Conducta Predatoria , Estaciones del Año
10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(11): 6457-6467, 2020 Mar 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152610

RESUMEN

Chloracidobacterium (C.) thermophilum is a microaerophilic, chlorophototrophic species in the phylum Acidobacteria that uses homodimeric type-1 reaction centers (RC) to convert light energy into chemical energy using (bacterio)chlorophyll ((B)Chl) cofactors. Pigment analyses show that these RCs contain BChl aP, Chl aPD, and Zn2+-BChl aP' in the approximate ratio 7.1 : 5.4 : 1. However, the functional roles of these three different Chl species are not yet fully understood. It was recently demonstrated that Chl aPD is the primary electron acceptor. Because Zn2+-(B)Chl aP' is present at low abundance, it was suggested that the primary electron donor might be a dimer of Zn2+-BChl aP' molecules. In this study, we utilize isotopic enrichment and high-resolution two-dimensional (2D) 14N and 67Zn hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE) spectroscopy to demonstrate that the primary donor cation, P840+, in the C. thermophilum RC is indeed a Zn2+-BChl aP' dimer. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and the measured electron-nuclear hyperfine parameters of P840+ indicate that the electron spin density on P840+ is distributed nearly symmetrically over two Zn2+-(B)Chl aP' molecules as expected in a homodimeric RC. To our knowledge this is the only example of a photochemical RC in which the Chl molecules of the primary donor are metallated differently than those of the antenna.


Asunto(s)
Acidobacteria/química , Bacterioclorofila A/química , Procesos Fotoquímicos , Zinc/química , Metabolismo Energético , Luz , Análisis Espectral
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 855, 2020 02 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32071312

RESUMEN

Cognitive decline is one of the complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Intermittent fasting (IF) is a promising dietary intervention for alleviating T2D symptoms, but its protective effect on diabetes-driven cognitive dysfunction remains elusive. Here, we find that a 28-day IF regimen for diabetic mice improves behavioral impairment via a microbiota-metabolites-brain axis: IF enhances mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism gene expression in hippocampus, re-structures the gut microbiota, and improves microbial metabolites that are related to cognitive function. Moreover, strong connections are observed between IF affected genes, microbiota and metabolites, as assessed by integrative modelling. Removing gut microbiota with antibiotics partly abolishes the neuroprotective effects of IF. Administration of 3-indolepropionic acid, serotonin, short chain fatty acids or tauroursodeoxycholic acid shows a similar effect to IF in terms of improving cognitive function. Together, our study purports the microbiota-metabolites-brain axis as a mechanism that can enable therapeutic strategies against metabolism-implicated cognitive pathophysiologies.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Ayuno , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiología , Animales , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cognición , Biología Computacional , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicaciones , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Indoles/metabolismo , Resistencia a la Insulina , Masculino , Metaboloma , Ratones , Propionatos/metabolismo , ARN Ribosómico 16S , Serotonina/metabolismo , Sinapsis/ultraestructura , Ácido Tauroquenodesoxicólico/metabolismo
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 975, 2020 02 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080202

RESUMEN

The reliable detection of environmental molecules in the presence of noise is an important cellular function, yet the underlying computational mechanisms are not well understood. We introduce a model of two interacting sensors which allows for the principled exploration of signal statistics, cooperation strategies and the role of energy consumption in optimal sensing, quantified through the mutual information between the signal and the sensors. Here we report that in general the optimal sensing strategy depends both on the noise level and the statistics of the signals. For joint, correlated signals, energy consuming (nonequilibrium), asymmetric couplings result in maximum information gain in the low-noise, high-signal-correlation limit. Surprisingly we also find that energy consumption is not always required for optimal sensing. We generalise our model to incorporate time integration of the sensor state by a population of readout molecules, and demonstrate that sensor interaction and energy consumption remain important for optimal sensing.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Biosensibles/métodos , Fenómenos Biofísicos , Técnicas Biosensibles/estadística & datos numéricos , Bioestadística , Células/metabolismo , Células Quimiorreceptoras/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Modelos Biológicos , Transducción de Señal , Relación Señal-Ruido
14.
PLoS Biol ; 18(2): e3000630, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040503

RESUMEN

Opsin3 (Opn3) is a transmembrane heptahelical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) with the potential to produce a nonvisual photoreceptive effect. Interestingly, anatomical profiling of GPCRs reveals that Opn3 mRNA is highly expressed in adipose tissue. The photosensitive functions of Opn3 in mammals are poorly understood, and whether Opn3 has a role in fat is entirely unknown. In this study, we found that Opn3-knockout (Opn3-KO) mice were prone to diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. At the cellular level, Opn3-KO brown adipocytes cultured in darkness had decreased glucose uptake and lower nutrient-induced mitochondrial respiration than wild-type (WT) cells. Light exposure promoted mitochondrial activity and glucose uptake in WT adipocytes but not in Opn3-KO cells. Brown adipocytes carrying a defective mutation in Opn3's putative G protein-binding domain also exhibited a reduction in glucose uptake and mitochondrial respiration in darkness. Using RNA-sequencing, we identified several novel light-sensitive and Opn3-dependent molecular signatures in brown adipocytes. Importantly, direct exposure of brown adipose tissue (BAT) to light in living mice significantly enhanced thermogenic capacity of BAT, and this effect was diminished in Opn3-KO animals. These results uncover a previously unrecognized cell-autonomous, light-sensing mechanism in brown adipocytes via Opn3-GPCR signaling that can regulate fuel metabolism and mitochondrial respiration. Our work also provides a molecular basis for developing light-based treatments for obesity and its related metabolic disorders.


Asunto(s)
Adipocitos Marrones/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Opsinas de Bastones/metabolismo , Tejido Adiposo Pardo/inervación , Animales , Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Glucosa/metabolismo , Resistencia a la Insulina , Luz , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Noqueados , Mitocondrias/metabolismo , Mutación , Obesidad/genética , Obesidad/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Opsinas de Bastones/genética , Transducción de Señal , Termogénesis
15.
Nat Rev Cancer ; 20(4): 233-246, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066900

RESUMEN

A key goal of cancer systems biology is to use big data to elucidate the molecular networks by which cancer develops. However, to date there has been no systematic evaluation of how far these efforts have progressed. In this Analysis, we survey six major systems biology approaches for mapping and modelling cancer pathways with attention to how well their resulting network maps cover and enhance current knowledge. Our sample of 2,070 systems biology maps captures all literature-curated cancer pathways with significant enrichment, although the strong tendency is for these maps to recover isolated mechanisms rather than entire integrated processes. Systems biology maps also identify previously underappreciated functions, such as a potential role for human papillomavirus-induced chromosomal alterations in ovarian tumorigenesis, and they add new genes to known cancer pathways, such as those related to metabolism, Hippo signalling and immunity. Notably, we find that many cancer networks have been provided only in journal figures and not for programmatic access, underscoring the need to deposit network maps in community databases to ensure they can be readily accessed. Finally, few of these findings have yet been clinically translated, leaving ample opportunity for future translational studies. Periodic surveys of cancer pathway maps, such as the one reported here, are critical to assess progress in the field and identify underserved areas of methodology and cancer biology.


Asunto(s)
Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Neoplasias/etiología , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Animales , Biología Computacional , Metabolismo Energético , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica , Humanos , Ratones , Neoplasias/patología , Biología de Sistemas
16.
Aquat Toxicol ; 222: 105452, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092594

RESUMEN

Arginine kinase (AK), an important member of the phosphokinase family, is involved in temporal and spatial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) buffering systems. AK plays an important role in physiological function and metabolic regulations, in particular tissues with high and fluctuating energy demands. In present study, four AK genes were firstly identified from Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) genome, respectively named PyAK1-4. PyAKs have highly conserved structures with a six-exon/five-exon structure, except for PyAK3. PyAK3 contains an unusual two-domain structure and a "bridge intron" between the two domains, which may originate from gene duplication and subsequent fusion. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all PyAKs belonged to an AK supercluster together with other AK proteins from Mollusca, Platyhelminthes, Arthropoda, and Nematode. A transcriptome database demonstrated that PyAK3 and PyAK4 were the main functional executors with high expression level during larval development and in adult tissues, while PyAK1 and PyAK2 were expressed at a low level. Furthermore, both PyAK2 and PyAK3 showed notably high expression in the male gonad, and PyAK4 was broadly expressed in almost all tissues with the highest level in striated muscle, indicating a tissue-specific expression pattern of PyAKs. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR results demonstrated that the expression of PyAK2, PyAK3 and PyAK4 were significantly upregulated in response to pH stress, especially in an extremely acidifying condition (pH 6.5), revealing the possible involvement of PyAKs in energetic homeostasis during environmental changes. Collectively, a comprehensive analysis of PyAKs was conducted in P. yessoensis. The diversity of PyAKs and their specific expression patterns promote a better understanding of energy metabolism in the growth, development and environmental response of P. yessoensis.


Asunto(s)
Arginina Quinasa/metabolismo , Pectinidae/enzimología , Estrés Fisiológico/efectos de los fármacos , Transcriptoma/efectos de los fármacos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Aclimatación/efectos de los fármacos , Aclimatación/genética , Animales , Arginina Quinasa/química , Arginina Quinasa/genética , Bases de Datos Genéticas , Metabolismo Energético/efectos de los fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Genoma , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Pectinidae/genética , Filogenia , Estructura Secundaria de Proteína , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Agua de Mar/química , Alineación de Secuencia , Estrés Fisiológico/genética
17.
Adv Immunol ; 145: 129-157, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081196

RESUMEN

Immune responses are often accompanied by radical changes of cellular metabolism of immune cells. On the other hand, an ever increasing number of metabolic pathways and products have been found to possess immune regulatory functions. The field of immunometabolism that investigates the interplay between metabolism and immunity has developed rapidly during the past decade. In this chapter, we attempt to summarize the recent progresses by scientists in China on metabolic regulation of innate immunity from the following three perspectives: metabolic regulation of myeloid cell functions, metabolic adaptations of tissue resident myeloid cells, and metabolism and immunity at the mucosal surfaces.


Asunto(s)
Metabolismo Energético/inmunología , Inmunidad Innata , Redes y Vías Metabólicas/inmunología , Células Mieloides/inmunología , Tejido Adiposo/citología , Tejido Adiposo/inmunología , Tejido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animales , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Hígado Graso/inmunología , Hígado Graso/metabolismo , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/citología , Mucosa Intestinal/inmunología , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Macrófagos del Hígado/inmunología , Macrófagos del Hígado/metabolismo , Macrófagos/inmunología , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Redes y Vías Metabólicas/genética , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/inmunología
18.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(3): 404-416, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004088

RESUMEN

Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed and expected feed intake for maintenance and growth requirements. In this study, the expression profiles of mRNAs and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) from skeletal muscle in Duroc pigs with divergent RFI phenotypes were investigated by Illumina sequencing. Finally, a total of 2195 annotated lncRNAs and 1976 novel lncRNAs were obtained. About 210 mRNAs and 43 lncRNAs were differentially expressed among high and low RFI pigs. The differentially expressed mRNAs were potentially involved in the biological processes of lipid metabolism, extracellular matrix organization, cell proliferation, and cell adhesion. The lipolysis in skeletal muscle was increased in high RFI pigs, suggesting that high RFI pigs might need more energy than low RFI pigs. However, skeletal muscle development was increased in low RFI pigs. These results suggested that low RFI pigs might be more efficient in energy utilization during skeletal muscle growth. The function of lncRNA was also analyzed by target prediction. Nine lncRNAs might be candidate lncRNAs for the determination of RFI phenotype, by the regulation of the biological processes of lipid metabolism, cell proliferation, and cell adhesion. This study should facilitate a further understanding of the molecular mechanism for the determination of RFI phenotype in pigs.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales/genética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Fenotipo , Porcinos/genética , Transcriptoma , Animales , Metabolismo Energético , ARN Largo no Codificante/genética , ARN Largo no Codificante/metabolismo , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Porcinos/fisiología
19.
BMC Ecol ; 20(1): 11, 2020 02 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070322

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Optimal foraging theory explains how animals make foraging decisions based on the availability, nutritional content, and handling times of different food types. Generalists solve this problem by consuming a variety of food types, and alter their diets with relative ease. Specialists eat few food types, and may starve if those food types are not available. We integrated stable isotope analyses with previously-published stomach contents and environmental data to investigate how the foraging ecologies of three sympatric freshwater turtle species vary across four wetlands that differ in turbidity and primary producer abundance. RESULTS: We found that the generalist Emydura macquarii consumes a varied diet (but mostly filamentous green algae) when primary producers are available and water is clear, but switches to a more carnivorous diet when the water is turbid and primary producers are scarce, following the predictions of optimal foraging theory. In contrast, two more-specialized carnivorous species, Chelodina expansa and Chelodina longicollis, do not differ in diet across wetlands, and interspecific competition may increase where E. macquarii is carnivorous. When forced to be more carnivorous, E. macquarii exhibits higher rates of empty stomachs, and female turtles have reduced body condition, but neither Chelodina species are affected. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide support for optimal foraging theory, but also show that the ability to change diet does not protect the generalist from experiencing lower foraging success when its preferred food is rare, with direct consequences for their energy budgets. Our results have conservation implications because wetlands in the Murray-Darling river system are increasingly turbid and have low macrophyte abundance, and all three species are declining.


Asunto(s)
Tortugas , Animales , Dieta , Metabolismo Energético , Femenino , Agua Dulce , Humedales
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