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1.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864666

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To study energy metabolism in glial tumors using dynamic MR spectroscopy and 18F-FDG PET/CT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 19 patients (9 women and 10 men) with newly diagnosed supratentorial glial tumors WHO Grade I-IV (diffuse astrocytoma - 4 cases, oligodendroglioma - 4 cases, anaplastic astrocytoma - 5 cases, glioblastoma - 6 cases). All patients underwent examination and surgical treatment at the Burdenko Neurosurgery Center. Dynamic MR spectroscopy and 18F-FDG PET/CT were applied in each patient. RESULTS: We found multiple correlations between the ratio of bioorganic phosphate peaks and parameters of glucose uptake by tumor tissue. These relationships were more significant in patients with high-grade tumors: positive significant correlation between SUVtumor and PME/PCr ratio (RS=0.75, p=0.01), T/Nmix and ßATP/Pi ratio (Rs=0.76, p=0.02), SUVpeaktumor and aATP/Pi ratio (RS=0.77, p=0.008). Moreover, there were negative correlations between SUVtumor and PCr/bATP ratio (RS= -0.66, p=0.05), T/Nmix and PDE/bATP ratio (RS= -0.83, p=0.006), SUVpeaktumor and PDE/aATP ratio (RS= -0.76, p=0.009). CONCLUSION: High-grade gliomas were characterized by higher glucose consumption, ATP release (intensification of energy metabolism) and faster cell membrane synthesis. These processes indicate enhanced proliferation of tumor cells (intensification of plastic metabolism).


Asunto(s)
Fluorodesoxiglucosa F18 , Glioma , Metabolismo Energético , Femenino , Glioma/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Fósforo , Tomografía Computarizada por Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones , Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones , Radiofármacos
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808599

RESUMEN

The study of metabolic deregulation in myeloid malignancies has led to the investigation of metabolic-targeted therapies considering that cells undergoing leukemic transformation have excessive energy demands for growth and proliferation. However, the most difficult challenge in agents targeting metabolism is to determine a window of therapeutic opportunities between normal and neoplastic cells, considering that all or most of the metabolic pathways important for cancer ontogeny may also regulate physiological cell functions. Targeted therapies have used the properties of leukemic cells to produce altered metabolic products when mutated. This is the case of IDH1/2 mutations generating the abnormal conversion of α-ketoglutarate (KG) to 2-hydroxyglutarate, an oncometabolite inhibiting KG-dependent enzymes, such as the TET family of genes (pivotal in characterizing leukemia cells either by mutations, e.g., TET2, or by altered expression, e.g., TET1/2/3). Additional observations derive from the high sensitivity of leukemic cells to oxidative phosphorylation and its amelioration using BCL-2 inhibitors (Venetoclax) or by disrupting the mitochondrial respiration. More recently, nicotinamide metabolism has been described to mediate resistance to Venetoclax in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Herein, we will provide an overview of the latest research on the link between metabolic pathways interactome and leukemogenesis with a comprehensive analysis of the metabolic consequences of driver genetic lesions and exemplificative druggable pathways.


Asunto(s)
Biomarcadores de Tumor , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Metabolismo Energético , Mutación , Trastornos Mieloproliferativos/etiología , Trastornos Mieloproliferativos/metabolismo , Animales , Proteínas de Unión al ADN/genética , Proteínas de Unión al ADN/metabolismo , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Humanos , Isocitrato Deshidrogenasa/genética , Isocitrato Deshidrogenasa/metabolismo , Redes y Vías Metabólicas , Metabolómica , Trastornos Mieloproliferativos/patología , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas/metabolismo
3.
J Insect Sci ; 21(2)2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822125

RESUMEN

Since its invasion into China in 1979, the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea Drury, has spread from Dandong city (about 40°N) in Liaoning Province to Nanjing city (about 32°N) in Jiangsu Province, and to other areas. Owing to geographic and latitudinal gradients in temperature, H. cunea will encounter temperature changes during the spreading process. In this study, we verified the hypothesis that autumn warming accelerates the energy consumption of H. cunea diapause pupae. We found that, after autumn warming, the body size and mass of diapause pupae decreased significantly and raised constant temperature accelerated carbohydrate and protein consumption in female pupae, while fluctuating temperature changes had a more pronounced effect on carbohydrate and protein consumption in male pupae. Contrary to expectations, the lipid content of diapause pupae did not decrease after autumn warming, and even increased significantly. We conclude that warming in autumn accelerates energy consumption by diapause pupae, and the autumn energy consumption of diapause pupae is dominated by carbohydrates, supplemented by protein when carbohydrates are overconsumed, while lipid use is dominated by anabolic metabolism during autumn.


Asunto(s)
Metabolismo Energético , Calentamiento Global , Mariposas Nocturnas/metabolismo , Pupa/metabolismo , Animales , Metabolismo de los Hidratos de Carbono , China , Cambio Climático , Diapausa de Insecto , Metabolismo de los Lípidos , Estaciones del Año , Temperatura
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(7)2021 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810616

RESUMEN

There is conflicting evidence regarding the health implications of high occupational physical activity (PA). Shoe-based accelerometers could provide a feasible solution for PA measurement in workplace settings. This study aimed to develop calibration models for estimation of energy expenditure (EE) from shoe-based accelerometers, validate the performance in a workplace setting and compare it to the most commonly used accelerometer positions. Models for EE estimation were calibrated in a laboratory setting for the shoe, hip, thigh and wrist worn accelerometers. These models were validated in a free-living workplace setting. Furthermore, additional models were developed from free-living data. All sensor positions performed well in the laboratory setting. When the calibration models derived from laboratory data were validated in free living, the shoe, hip and thigh sensors displayed higher correlation, but lower agreement, with measured EE compared to the wrist sensor. Using free-living data for calibration improved the agreement of the shoe, hip and thigh sensors. This study suggests that the performance of a shoe-based accelerometer is similar to the most commonly used sensor positions with regard to PA measurement. Furthermore, it highlights limitations in using the relationship between accelerometer output and EE from a laboratory setting to estimate EE in a free-living setting.


Asunto(s)
Acelerometría , Zapatos , Calibración , Metabolismo Energético , Ejercicio Físico
5.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(5): 1345-1349, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900266

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Hunter, GR, Singh, H, Martins, C, Baranauskas, MN, and Carter, SJ. Stretch-shortening cycle potentiation and resistance training-induced changes in walking economy/ease and activity-related energy expenditure in older women. J Strength Cond Res 35(5): 1345-1349, 2021-Use of elastic energy to improve economy and ease of walking may be important for older adults. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether baseline (i.e., untrained) stretch-shortening cycle potentiation (SSCP) was associated with potential changes in free-living activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) after supervised exercise training. Sedentary, postmenopausal women (n = 64) between 60 and 74 years of age were evaluated before and after 16 weeks of combined aerobic and resistance training. Assessments included: (a) body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), (b) resting energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry), (c) submaximal and maximal walking (treadmill/indirect calorimetry), (d) total energy expenditure (doubly labeled water), and (e) one repetition maximum performed on an incline leg press and SSCP (calculated as the difference between concentric and countermovement leg press throw). Results indicated that baseline SSCP was related (r = -0.29; p < 0.02) to changes in AEE. However, subjects who possessed a high baseline SSCP did not increase SSCP or AEE, whereas subjects with low to moderate baseline SSCP demonstrated a significant increase in both SSCP (low +0.54 and moderate +0.47 m·s-1) and AEE (low +158 and moderate +333 kcal·d-1) post-training (all p less than 0.05). Our findings suggest that among subjects with low to moderate baseline SSCP, 16 weeks of combined aerobic and resistance training can increase SSCP and free-living AEE. However, subjects with high baseline SSCP may require tailored exercise to increase SSCP and possibly AEE.


Asunto(s)
Entrenamiento de Resistencia , Caminata , Anciano , Composición Corporal , Calorimetría Indirecta , Metabolismo Energético , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807107

RESUMEN

During the postnatal period, mammalian cardiomyocytes undergo numerous maturational changes associated with increased cardiac function and output, including hypertrophic growth, cell cycle exit, sarcomeric protein isoform switching, and mitochondrial maturation. These changes come at the expense of loss of regenerative capacity of the heart, contributing to heart failure after cardiac injury in adults. While most studies focus on the transcriptional regulation of embryonic or adult cardiomyocytes, the transcriptional changes that occur during the postnatal period are relatively unknown. In this review, we focus on the transcriptional regulators responsible for these aspects of cardiomyocyte maturation during the postnatal period in mammals. By specifically highlighting this transitional period, we draw attention to critical processes in cardiomyocyte maturation with potential therapeutic implications in cardiovascular disease.


Asunto(s)
Diferenciación Celular/genética , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Miocitos Cardíacos/citología , Miocitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Regeneración/genética , Transcripción Genética , Animales , Ciclo Celular/genética , Puntos de Control del Ciclo Celular/genética , Proliferación Celular , Ensamble y Desensamble de Cromatina , Metabolismo Energético , Epigénesis Genética , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Oxidación-Reducción
7.
Science ; 372(6539): 284-287, 2021 04 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33859033

RESUMEN

Although much can be deduced from fossils alone, estimating abundance and preservation rates of extinct species requires data from living species. Here, we use the relationship between population density and body mass among living species combined with our substantial knowledge of Tyrannosaurus rex to calculate population variables and preservation rates for postjuvenile T. rex We estimate that its abundance at any one time was ~20,000 individuals, that it persisted for ~127,000 generations, and that the total number of T. rex that ever lived was ~2.5 billion individuals, with a fossil recovery rate of 1 per ~80 million individuals or 1 per 16,000 individuals where its fossils are most abundant. The uncertainties in these values span more than two orders of magnitude, largely because of the variance in the density-body mass relationship rather than variance in the paleobiological input variables.


Asunto(s)
Dinosaurios , Fósiles , Animales , Tamaño Corporal , Peso Corporal , Dinosaurios/anatomía & histología , Dinosaurios/fisiología , Metabolismo Energético , Extinción Biológica , Densidad de Población
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804765

RESUMEN

The recent pandemic Sars-CoV2 infection and studies on previous influenza epidemic have drawn attention to the association between the obesity and infectious diseases susceptibility and worse outcome. Metabolic complications, nutritional aspects, physical inactivity, and a chronic unbalance in the hormonal and adipocytokine microenvironment are major determinants in the severity of viral infections in obesity. By these pleiotropic mechanisms obesity impairs immune surveillance and the higher leptin concentrations produced by adipose tissue and that characterize obesity substantially contribute to such immune response dysregulation. Indeed, leptin not only controls energy balance and body weight, but also plays a regulatory role in the interplay between energy metabolism and immune system. Since leptin receptor is expressed throughout the immune system, leptin may exert effects on cells of both innate and adaptive immune system. Chronic inflammatory states due to metabolic (i.e., obesity) as well as infectious diseases increase leptin concentrations and consequently lead to leptin resistance further fueling inflammation. Multiple factors, including inflammation and ER stress, contribute to leptin resistance. Thus, if leptin is recognized as one of the adipokines responsible for the low grade inflammation found in obesity, on the other hand, impairments of leptin signaling due to leptin resistance appear to blunt the immunologic effects of leptin and possibly contribute to impaired vaccine-induced immune responses. However, many aspects concerning leptin interactions with inflammation and immune system as well as the therapeutical approaches to overcome leptin resistance and reduced vaccine effectiveness in obesity remain a challenge for future research.


Asunto(s)
Leptina/inmunología , Leptina/metabolismo , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/virología , Virosis/complicaciones , Animales , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , /tratamiento farmacológico , /metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/inmunología , Humanos , Sistema Inmunológico/metabolismo , Sistema Inmunológico/virología , Obesidad/inmunología , Obesidad/metabolismo , Vacunas Virales/uso terapéutico , Virosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Virosis/inmunología , Virosis/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809200

RESUMEN

During its evolution, cancer induces changes in patients' energy metabolism that strongly affect the overall clinical state and are responsible for cancer-related cachexia syndrome. To better understand the mechanisms underlying cachexia and its metabolic derangements, research efforts should focus on the events that are driven by the immune system activation during the evolution of neoplastic disease and on the phenomena of "resistance" and "tolerance" typically involved in the human body response against stress, pathogens, or cancer. Indeed, in the case where resistance is not able to eliminate the cancer, tolerance mechanisms can utilize the symptoms of cachexia (anemia, anorexia, and fatigue) to counteract unregulated cancer growth. These notions are also sustained by the evidence that cancer cachexia may be reversible if the resistance and tolerance phases are supported by appropriate antineoplastic treatments. Accordingly, there is no doubt that anticachectic therapies have an irreplaceable role in cases of reversible cancer cachexia where, if harmoniously associated with effective antineoplastic therapies, they can contribute to preserve the quality of life and improve prognosis. Such anticachectic treatments should be based on targeting the complex immunological, inflammatory, and metabolic pathways involved in the complex pathogenesis of cachexia. Meanwhile, the role of the anticachectic therapies is very different in the stage of irreversible cachexia when the available antineoplastic treatments are not able to control the disease and the resistance mechanisms fail with the prevalence of the tolerance phenomena. At this stage, they can be useful only to improve the quality of life, allowing the patient and their family to get a better awareness of the final phases of life, thereby opening to the best spiritual remodulation of the final event, death.


Asunto(s)
Caquexia/genética , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Tolerancia Inmunológica/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Anorexia/genética , Anorexia/metabolismo , Anorexia/patología , Caquexia/complicaciones , Caquexia/metabolismo , Caquexia/patología , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/patología , Neoplasias/complicaciones , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patología , Pronóstico , Calidad de Vida
10.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803566

RESUMEN

(1) Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the symptoms of low energy availability (LEA) and risk of relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) symptoms in para-athletes using a multi-parameter approach. (2) Methods: National level para-athletes (n = 9 males, n = 9 females) completed 7-day food and activity logs to quantify energy availability (EA), the LEA in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q), dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans to assess bone mineral density (BMD), and hormonal blood spot testing. (3) Results: Based on EA calculations, no athlete was at risk for LEA (females < 30 kcal·kg-1 FFM·day-1; and males < 25 kcal·kg-1 FFM·day-1; thresholds for able-bodied (AB) subjects). Overall, 78% of females were "at risk" for LEA using the LEAF-Q, and 67% reported birth control use, with three of these participants reporting menstrual dysfunction. BMD was clinically low in the hip (<-2 z-score) for 56% of female and 25% of male athletes (4) Conclusions: Based on calculated EA, the risk for RED-S appears to be low, but hormonal outcomes suggest that RED-S risk is high in this para-athlete population. This considerable discrepancy in various EA and RED-S assessment tools suggests the need for further investigation to determine the true prevalence of RED-S in para-athlete populations.


Asunto(s)
Dieta/efectos adversos , Ingestión de Energía/fisiología , Metabolismo Energético/fisiología , Deficiencia Relativa de Energía en el Deporte/etiología , Deportes para Personas con Discapacidad/fisiología , Absorciometría de Fotón , Adulto , Antropometría , Densidad Ósea , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Registros de Dieta , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Hormonas/sangre , Humanos , Masculino , Paratletas , Factores de Riesgo , Fenómenos Fisiológicos en la Nutrición Deportiva , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 174: 104809, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838710

RESUMEN

Energy metabolism is important for the proliferation of microsporidia in infected host cells, but there is limited information on the host response. The energy metabolism response of silkworm (Bombyx mori) to microsporidia may help manage Nosema bombycis infections. We analyzed differentially expressed genes in the B.mori midgut transcriptome at two significant time points of microsporidia infection. A total of 1448 genes were up-regulated, while 315 genes were down-regulated. A high proportion of genes were involved in the phosphatidylinositol signaling system, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, and glycerolipid metabolism at 48 h post infection (h p.i.), and a large number of genes were involved in the TCA cycle and protein processing at 120 h p.i. These results showed that the early stages of microsporidia infection affected the basic metabolism and biosynthesis processes of the silkworm. Knockout of Bm_nscaf2860_46 (Bombyx mori isocitrate dehydrogenase, BmIDH) and Bm_nscaf3027_062 (Bombyx mori hexokinase, BmHXK) reduced the production of ATP and inhibited microsporidia proliferation. Host fatty acid degradation, glycerol metabolism, glycolysis pathway, and TCA cycle response to microsporidia infection were also analyzed, and their importance to microsporidia proliferation was verified. These results increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in N. bombycis infection and provide new insights for research on microsporidia control. IMPORTANCE: Nosema bombycis can be vertically transmitted in silkworm eggs. The traditional prevention and control strategies for microsporidia are difficult and time-consuming, and this is a problem in silkworm culture. Research has mainly focused on host gene functions related to microsporidia infection and host immune responses after microsporidia infection. Little is known about the metabolic changes occurring in the host after infection. Understanding the metabolic changes in the silkworm host could aid in the recognition of host genes important for microsporidia infection and growth. We analyzed host metabolic changes and the main participating pathways at two time points after microsporidia infection and screened the microsporidia-dependent host energy metabolism genes BmIDH and BmHXK. The results revealed genes that are important for the proliferation of Nosema bombycis. These results illustrate how microsporidia hijack the host genome for their growth and reproduction.


Asunto(s)
Bombyx , Nosema , Animales , Bombyx/genética , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Nosema/genética
12.
Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil ; 27(1): 92-99, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814887

RESUMEN

Following a spinal cord injury (SCI), neurogenic obesity results from changes in body composition, physical impairment, and endometabolic physiology and when dietary intake exceeds energy expenditure. Given the postinjury reductions in lean body mass, sympathetic nervous system dysfunction, and anabolic deficiencies, energy balance is no longer in balance, and thereby an obesogenic environment is created that instigates cardiometabolic dysfunction. Accurate determination of metabolic rate can prevent excess caloric intake while promoting positive body habitus and mitigating obesity-related comorbidities. Metabolic rate as determined by indirect calorimetry (IC) has not been adopted in routine clinical care for persons with SCI despite several studies indicating its importance. This article reviews current literature on measured and predicted metabolic rate and energy expenditure after SCI and stresses the importance of IC as standard of care for persons with SCI.


Asunto(s)
Calorimetría Indirecta , Metabolismo Energético , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal/complicaciones , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal/metabolismo , Humanos , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/metabolismo , Nivel de Atención
13.
Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil ; 27(1): 121-134, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814890

RESUMEN

Background: Physical deconditioning and inactivity following spinal cord injury (SCI) are associated with multiple cardiometabolic risks. To mitigate cardiometabolic risk, exercise is recommended, but it is poorly established whether arm cycling exercise (ACE) or functional electrical stimulation (FES) leg cycling yields superior benefits. Objectives: To determine the adaptations of 16 weeks of FES cycling and ACE on exercise energy expenditure (EEE), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and obesity after SCI. Methods: Thirteen physically untrained individuals were randomly assigned to FES (n = 6) or ACE (n = 7) exercise 5 days/week for 16 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention EEE, peak oxygen consumption (absolute and relative VO2Peak), and work were assessed using indirect calorimetry, while body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results: Main effects were found for peak power (p < .001), absolute (p = .046) and relative (p = .042) VO2Peak, and peak work (p = .013). Compared to baseline, the ACE group increased in EEE (+85%, p = .002), peak power (+307%, p < .001), VO2Peak (absolute +21%, relative +22%, p ≤ .024), peak work (19% increase, p = .003), and total body fat decreased (-6%, p = .05). The FES group showed a decrease in percentage body fat mass (-5%, p = .008). The ACE group had higher EEE (p = .008), peak power (p < .001), and relative VO2Peak (p = .025) compared to postintervention values in the FES group. Conclusion: In the current study, ACE induced greater increases in EEE and CRF, whereas ACE and FES showed similar results on body fat. Exercise promotional efforts targeting persons with SCI should use both FES and ACE to reduce sedentary behavior and to optimize different health parameters after SCI.


Asunto(s)
Composición Corporal/fisiología , Capacidad Cardiovascular/fisiología , Terapia por Estimulación Eléctrica/métodos , Metabolismo Energético/fisiología , Terapia por Ejercicio/métodos , Obesidad/terapia , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal/terapia , Adulto , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Terapia Combinada , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Obesidad/etiología , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Consumo de Oxígeno/fisiología , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal/complicaciones , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal/fisiopatología , Adulto Joven
14.
Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil ; 27(1): 109-120, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814889

RESUMEN

Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in an array of cardiometabolic complications, with obesity being the most common component risk of cardiometabolic disease (CMD) in this population. Recent Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine Clinical Practice Guidelines for CMD in SCI recommend physical exercise as a primary treatment strategy for the management of CMD in SCI. However, the high prevalence of obesity in SCI and the pleiotropic nature of this body habitus warrant strategies for tailoring exercise to specifically target obesity. In general, exercise for obesity management should aim primarily to induce a negative energy balance and secondarily to increase the use of fat as a fuel source. In persons with SCI, reductions in the muscle mass that can be recruited during activity limit the capacity for exercise to induce a calorie deficit. Furthermore, the available musculature exhibits a decreased oxidative capacity, limiting the utilization of fat during exercise. These constraints must be considered when designing exercise interventions for obesity management in SCI. Certain forms of exercise have a greater therapeutic potential in this population partly due to impacts on metabolism during recovery from exercise and at rest. In this article, we propose that exercise for obesity in SCI should target large muscle groups and aim to induce hypertrophy to increase total energy expenditure response to training. Furthermore, although carbohydrate reliance will be high during activity, certain forms of exercise might induce meaningful postexercise shifts in the use of fat as a fuel. General activity in this population is important for many components of health, but low energy cost of daily activities and limitations in upper body volitional exercise mean that exercise interventions targeting utilization and hypertrophy of large muscle groups will likely be required for obesity management.


Asunto(s)
Metabolismo Energético , Terapia por Ejercicio/métodos , Obesidad/complicaciones , Obesidad/terapia , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal/complicaciones , Traumatismos de la Médula Espinal/terapia , Humanos , Conducta Sedentaria
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799501

RESUMEN

The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis is involved in metabolic control. Malnutrition reduces IGF-I and modifies the thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue (BAT). Leptin has effects on the GH/IGF-I axis and the function of BAT, but its interaction with IGF-I and the mechanisms involved in the regulation of thermogenesis remains unknown. We studied the GH/IGF-I axis and activation of IGF-I-related signaling and metabolism related to BAT thermogenesis in chronic central leptin infused (L), pair-fed (PF), and control rats. Hypothalamic somatostatin mRNA levels were increased in PF and decreased in L, while pituitary GH mRNA was reduced in PF. Serum GH and IGF-I concentrations were decreased only in PF. In BAT, the association between suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 and the IGF-I receptor was reduced, and phosphorylation of the IGF-I receptor increased in the L group. Phosphorylation of Akt and cyclic AMP response element binding protein and glucose transporter 4 mRNA levels were increased in L and mRNA levels of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) and enzymes involved in lipid anabolism reduced in PF. These results suggest that modifications in UCP-1 in BAT and changes in the GH/IGF-I axis induced by negative energy balance are dependent upon leptin levels.


Asunto(s)
Tejido Adiposo Pardo/efectos de los fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efectos de los fármacos , Hormona del Crecimiento/genética , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/genética , Leptina/farmacología , Termogénesis/efectos de los fármacos , Tejido Adiposo Pardo/metabolismo , Animales , Proteína de Unión a Elemento de Respuesta al AMP Cíclico/genética , Proteína de Unión a Elemento de Respuesta al AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Transportador de Glucosa de Tipo 4/genética , Transportador de Glucosa de Tipo 4/metabolismo , Hormona del Crecimiento/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/efectos de los fármacos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Inyecciones Intraventriculares , Factor I del Crecimiento Similar a la Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Fosforilación/efectos de los fármacos , Hipófisis/efectos de los fármacos , Hipófisis/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-akt/metabolismo , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/genética , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/metabolismo , Somatostatina/genética , Somatostatina/metabolismo , Proteína 3 Supresora de la Señalización de Citocinas/genética , Proteína 3 Supresora de la Señalización de Citocinas/metabolismo , Termogénesis/genética , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806369

RESUMEN

Isothiazolinone (IT) biocides are potent antibacterial substances commonly used as preservatives or disinfectants, and 2-n-Octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (OIT; octhilinone) is a common IT biocide that is present in leather products, glue, paints, and cleaning products. Although humans are exposed to OIT through personal and industrial use, the potentially deleterious effects of OIT on human health are still unknown. To investigate the effects of OIT on the vascular system, which is continuously exposed to xenobiotics through systemic circulation, we treated brain endothelial cells with OIT. OIT treatment significantly activated caspase-3-mediated apoptosis and reduced the bioenergetic function of mitochondria in a bEnd.3 cell-based in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) model. Interestingly, OIT significantly altered the thiol redox status, as evidenced by reduced glutathione levels and protein S-nitrosylation. The endothelial barrier function of bEnd.3 cells was significantly impaired by OIT treatment. OIT affected mitochondrial dynamics through mitophagy and altered mitochondrial morphology in bEnd.3 cells. N-acetyl cysteine significantly reversed the effects of OIT on the metabolic capacity and endothelial function of bEnd.3 cells. Taken together, we demonstrated that the alteration of the thiol redox status and mitochondrial damage contributed to OIT-induced BBB dysfunction, and we hope that our findings will improve our understanding of the potential hazardous health effects of IT biocides.


Asunto(s)
Barrera Hematoencefálica/efectos de los fármacos , Barrera Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Desinfectantes/toxicidad , Tiazoles/toxicidad , Acetilcisteína/farmacología , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Barrera Hematoencefálica/patología , Encéfalo/efectos de los fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patología , Muerte Celular/efectos de los fármacos , Línea Celular , Desinfectantes/antagonistas & inhibidores , Células Endoteliales/efectos de los fármacos , Células Endoteliales/metabolismo , Células Endoteliales/patología , Metabolismo Energético/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Potencial de la Membrana Mitocondrial/efectos de los fármacos , Ratones , Mitocondrias/efectos de los fármacos , Mitocondrias/metabolismo , Mitocondrias/patología , Proteolisis/efectos de los fármacos , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Compuestos de Sulfhidrilo/metabolismo , Tiazoles/antagonistas & inhibidores , Proteínas de Uniones Estrechas/metabolismo
18.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(5): 304-317, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864810

RESUMEN

There has been substantial progress in the knowledge of exercise and type 1 diabetes, with the development of guidelines for optimal glucose management. In addition, an increasing number of people living with type 1 diabetes are pushing their physical limits to compete at the highest level of sport. However, the post-exercise recovery routine, particularly with a focus on sporting performance, has received little attention within the scientific literature, with most of the focus being placed on insulin or nutritional adaptations to manage glycaemia before and during the exercise bout. The post-exercise recovery period presents an opportunity for maximising training adaption and recovery, and the clinical management of glycaemia through the rest of the day and overnight. The absence of clear guidance for the post-exercise period means that people with type 1 diabetes should either develop their own recovery strategies on the basis of individual trial and error, or adhere to guidelines that have been developed for people without diabetes. This Review provides an up-to-date consensus on post-exercise recovery and glucose management for individuals living with type 1 diabetes. We aim to: (1) outline the principles and time course of post-exercise recovery, highlighting the implications and challenges for endurance athletes living with type 1 diabetes; (2) provide an overview of potential strategies for post-exercise recovery that could be used by athletes with type 1 diabetes to optimise recovery and adaptation, alongside improved glycaemic monitoring and management; and (3) highlight the potential for technology to ease the burden of managing glycaemia in the post-exercise recovery period.


Asunto(s)
Atletas , Consenso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/fisiología , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Recuperación de la Función/fisiología , Adaptación Fisiológica/fisiología , Glucemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Humanos , Resistencia Física/fisiología
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804250

RESUMEN

Interaction between the gut and the brain is essential for energy homeostasis. In obesity, this homeostasis is disrupted, leading to a positive energy balance and weight gain. Obesity is a global epidemic that affects individual health and strains the socioeconomic system. Microbial dysbiosis has long been reported in obesity and obesity-related disorders. More recent literature has focused on the interaction of the gut microbiota and its metabolites on human brain and behavior. Developing strategies that target the gut microbiota could be a future approach for the treatment of obesity. Here, we review the microbiota-gut-brain axis and possible therapeutic options.


Asunto(s)
Disbiosis/microbiología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Obesidad/microbiología , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/microbiología , Encéfalo/patología , Disbiosis/genética , Disbiosis/patología , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Homeostasis/genética , Humanos , Obesidad/genética , Obesidad/patología
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809456

RESUMEN

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurological condition where motor neurons (MNs) degenerate. Most of the ALS cases are sporadic (sALS), whereas 10% are hereditarily transmitted (fALS), among which mutations are found in the gene that codes for the enzyme superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). A central question in ALS field is whether causative mutations display selective alterations not found in sALS patients, or they converge on shared molecular pathways. To identify specific and common mechanisms for designing appropriate therapeutic interventions, we focused on the SOD1-mutated (SOD1-ALS) versus sALS patients. Since ALS pathology involves different cell types other than MNs, we generated lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from sALS and SOD1-ALS patients and healthy donors and investigated whether they show changes in oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, metabolic disturbances, the antioxidant NRF2 pathway, inflammatory profile, and autophagic flux. Both oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis appear to be upregulated in lymphoblasts from sALS and SOD1-ALS. Our results indicate significant differences in NRF2/ARE pathway between sALS and SOD1-ALS lymphoblasts. Furthermore, levels of inflammatory cytokines and autophagic flux discriminate between sALS and SOD1-ALS lymphoblasts. Overall, different molecular mechanisms are involved in sALS and SOD1-ALS patients and thus, personalized medicine should be developed for each case.


Asunto(s)
Esclerosis Amiotrófica Lateral/enzimología , Esclerosis Amiotrófica Lateral/inmunología , Linfocitos/inmunología , Mutación/genética , Medicina de Precisión , Superóxido Dismutasa-1/genética , Ácidos/metabolismo , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Esclerosis Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Autofagia/genética , Línea Celular Transformada , Metabolismo Energético , Femenino , Heterocigoto , Humanos , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Metabolómica , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factor 2 Relacionado con NF-E2/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo , Consumo de Oxígeno , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Superóxido Dismutasa-1/metabolismo , Sustancias Reactivas al Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
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