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1.
Food Chem ; 398: 133905, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35969991

RESUMEN

Maillard reaction products (MRPs) play pivotal roles in gut health by affecting the microbiome-host interactions. This study aimed at investigating the effects of MRPs derived from bighead carp meat hydrolysates with galactose and galacto-oligosaccharides on intestinal microbial composition and metabolic profile by in vitro pig fecal fermentation. The pH decreased sharply in the first 12 h and the highest production of butyric acid was observed in GM (glycated BCH with galacto-oligosaccharide) treatment with 64.7 µmoL/10 mL (p < 0.05) at 48 h. Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus were dominant in the GM treatment, while Escherichia-Shigella was predominant in LgM (glycated BCH with galactose) treatment at 12 h. The up-regulated metabolites indicated that GM and LgM might participate in the fatty acids synthesis and modulate lipid metabolism, respectively. Overall, GM will be more beneficial for gut health by promoting the production of butyric acid and fatty acids synthesis.


Asunto(s)
Carpas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animales , Ácido Butírico , Carpas/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles/metabolismo , Heces/química , Fermentación , Galactosa/análisis , Productos Finales de Glicación Avanzada/análisis , Carne , Metaboloma , Oligosacáridos/química , Porcinos
2.
Food Chem ; 399: 133948, 2023 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35994855

RESUMEN

M. oleifera known as "miracle tree" is increasingly used in nutraceuticals for the reported health effects and nutritional value of its leaves. This study presents the first metabolome profiling of M. oleifera leaves of African origin using different solvent polarities via HR-UPLC/MS based molecular networking followed by multivariate data analyses for samples classification. 119 Chemicals were characterized in both positive and negative modes belonging to 8 classes viz. phenolic acids, flavonoids, peptides, fatty acids/amides, sulfolipids, glucosinolates and carotenoids. New metabolites i.e., polyphenolics, fatty acids, in addition to a new class of sulfolipids were annotated for the first time in Moringa leaves. In vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-aging bioassays of the leaf extracts were assessed and in correlation to their metabolite profile via multivariate data analyses. Kaempferol, quercetin and apigenin-O/C-glycosides, fatty acyl amides and carotenoids appeared crucial for biological activities and leaves origin discrimination.


Asunto(s)
Moringa oleifera , Amidas , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Quimiometría , Ácidos Grasos , Metaboloma , Moringa oleifera/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Hojas de la Planta/química
3.
Biol Bull ; 243(1): 76-83, 2022 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108037

RESUMEN

AbstractCoral populations are declining worldwide as a result of increased environmental stressors, including disease. Coral health is greatly dependent on complex interactions between the host animal and its associated microbial symbionts. While relatively understudied, there is growing evidence that the coral microbiome contributes to the health and resilience of corals in a variety of ways, similar to more well-studied systems, such as the human microbiome. Many of these interactions are dependent upon the production and exchange of natural products, including antibacterial compounds, quorum-sensing molecules, internal signaling molecules, nutrients, and so on. While advances in sequencing, culturing, and metabolomic techniques have aided in moving forward the understanding of coral microbiome interactions, current sequence and metabolite databases are lacking, hindering detailed descriptions of the microbes and metabolites involved. This review focuses on the roles of coral microbiomes in health and disease processes of coral hosts, with special attention to the coral metabolome. We discuss what is currently known about the relationship between the coral microbiome and disease, of beneficial microbial products or services, and how the manipulation of the coral microbiome may chemically benefit the coral host against disease. Understanding coral microbiome-metabolome interactions is critical to assisting management, conservation, and restoration strategies.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Productos Biológicos , Microbiota , Animales , Antibacterianos , Bacterias , Humanos , Metaboloma
4.
Circ Res ; 131(7): 616-619, 2022 Sep 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108054
5.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 23(1): 379, 2022 Sep 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114458

RESUMEN

Metabolomic time course analyses of biofluids are highly relevant for clinical diagnostics. However, many sampling methods suffer from unknown sample sizes, commonly known as size effects. This prevents absolute quantification of biomarkers. Recently, several mathematical post acquisition normalization methods have been developed to overcome these problems either by exploiting already known pharmacokinetic information or by statistical means. Here we present an improved normalization method, MIX, that combines the advantages of both approaches. It couples two normalization terms, one based on a pharmacokinetic model (PKM) and the other representing a popular statistical approach, probabilistic quotient normalization (PQN), in a single model. To test the performance of MIX, we generated synthetic data closely resembling real finger sweat metabolome measurements. We show that MIX normalization successfully tackles key weaknesses of the individual strategies: it (i) reduces the risk of overfitting with PKM, and (ii), contrary to PQN, it allows to compute sample volumes. Finally, we validate MIX by using real finger sweat as well as blood plasma metabolome data and demonstrate that MIX allows to better and more robustly correct for size effects. In conclusion, the MIX method improves the reliability and robustness of quantitative biomarker detection in finger sweat and other biofluids, paving the way for biomarker discovery and hypothesis generation from metabolomic time course data.


Asunto(s)
Metaboloma , Metabolómica , Biomarcadores/análisis , Metabolómica/métodos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores de Tiempo
6.
Food Res Int ; 160: 111642, 2022 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076377

RESUMEN

A comprehensive study of bioactive compounds was carried out in the leaves of the main Berberis species growing in Chile (Berberis microphylla, Berberis darwinii, Berberis empetrifolia, Berberis trigona, and the introduced Berberis vulgaris). We identified 117 compounds, by a detailed analysis of each molecule, including phenolic acids, alkaloids, flavonols, and other compounds, using high-performance liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Quantitative analysis of main compound was also included for all species. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were the main compounds in all the studied leaves, with the highest concentration in Berberis microphylla. Quercetin derivatives were the most relevant flavonols in all species, except in Berberis vulgaris, in which isorhamnetin-3-rutinoside was the most concentrated. The fatty acid profile, determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry revealed the presence of linoleic and linolenic acids in all species studied. Berberis vulgaris showed higher levels of these fatty acids. The antioxidant capacity, explored by three in vitro methods, showed high values for all studied Berberis species. The obtained levels are higher than those of other prominent foods. The findings will inform novel approaches for the valorization of these leaves as natural food or ingredient.


Asunto(s)
Berberis , Antioxidantes/análisis , Berberis/química , Flavonoles/análisis , Metaboloma , Extractos Vegetales/química
7.
Food Microbiol ; 108: 104113, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088120

RESUMEN

Plants influence epiphytic bacterial associations but Salmonella enterica colonizes crop plants commensally, raising the possibility of human foodborne illness, but the factors that mediate human pathogen-plant associations remain understudied. We evaluated whether any changes in leaf tissue and surface metabolomes with kale (Brassica oleracea Acephala group) development and in response to drought modulated Salmonella leaf association. Untargeted phytochemical profiling (including primary and secondary metabolites) of kale leaf tissue extracts and leaf surface washes revealed distinct metabolite profiles that shifted with plant development. Metabolomes of juvenile plants also diverged in response to drought stress, an effect not noted in mature kale. Restricted watering in juvenile plants led to up-accumulation of 45 compounds in leaf tissue and 21 in leaf wash and the appearance of several unique peaks, with concomitant increases in phytochemical measurements. The antioxidant capacity and total flavonoid content were higher in mature than juvenile, regularly watered plant leaf extracts. Drought also elicited flavonoids and glucosinolates in juvenile plants. In mature plants, drought did not induce further prominent changes. Regularly watered juvenile kale provided a favorable substrate for inoculated Salmonella but the ability to support Salmonella declined with age and with drought stress. Salmonella growth was impaired in mature or water-stressed plant washes compared to controls and positive correlations were detected between Salmonella counts on leaves and in leaf washes. Moreover, Salmonella counts were inversely correlated with total flavonoids and phenolics in kale tissues from juvenile plants and regularly watered plants. Future studies should assess how changes in primary and secondary metabolites on the kale plant surface can modulate the Salmonella association. Regulated water restriction could be a strategy in controlled agriculture, with the dual purpose of enhancing health beneficial quality and food safety, especially when harvested at the baby kale stage.


Asunto(s)
Brassica , Salmonella enterica , Brassica/química , Sequías , Flavonoides/análisis , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Inocuidad de los Alimentos , Humanos , Metaboloma , Fitoquímicos , Salmonella enterica/metabolismo , Agua/metabolismo
8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 950983, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36093201

RESUMEN

Current studies have shown that gut microbiota may be closely related to the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by regulating the host immune response. Qing-Fei-Pai-Du decoction (QFPDD) is the recommended drug for clinical treatment of patients with COVID-19 in China, but whether it exerts a therapeutic effect by modulating the immune response through gut microbiota remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of QFPDD in pneumonia model mice and performed 16S rRNA sequencing and serum and lung tissue metabolomic analysis to explore the underlying mechanisms during the treatment. Then, Spearman correlation analysis was performed on gut microbiome, serum metabolome, and immune-inflammation-related indicators. Our results suggest that QFPDD can restore the richness and diversity of gut microbiota, and multiple gut microbiota (including Alistipes, Odoribacter, Staphylococcus, Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group Enterorhabdus, and unclassified_f_Lachnospiraceae) are significantly associated with immune-inflammation-related indicators. In addition, various types of lipid metabolism changes were observed in serum and lung tissue metabolome, especially glycerophospholipids and fatty acids. A total of 27 differential metabolites (DMs) were significantly correlated with immune-inflammation-related indicators, including 9 glycerophospholipids, 7 fatty acids, 3 linoleic acid, 2 eicosanoids, 2 amino acids, 2 bile acids, and 2 others. Interestingly, these DMs showed a good correlation with the gut microbiota affected by QFPDD. The above results suggest that QFPDD can improve the immune function and reduce inflammation in pneumonia model mice by remodeling gut microbiota and host metabolism.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Animales , COVID-19/tratamiento farmacológico , Ácidos Grasos , Glicerofosfolípidos , Inflamación , Metaboloma , Ratones , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
9.
JCI Insight ; 7(18)2022 Sep 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36134656

RESUMEN

Endothelial mitochondria play a pivotal role in maintaining endothelial cell (EC) homeostasis through constantly altering their size, shape, and intracellular localization. Studies show that the disruption of the basal mitochondrial network in EC, forming excess fragmented mitochondria, implicates cardiovascular disease. However, cellular consequences underlying the morphological changes in the endothelial mitochondria under distinctively different, but physiologically occurring, flow patterns (i.e., unidirectional flow [UF] versus disturbed flow [DF]) are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different flow patterns on mitochondrial morphology and its implications in EC phenotypes. We show that mitochondrial fragmentation is increased at DF-exposed vessel regions, where elongated mitochondria are predominant in the endothelium of UF-exposed regions. DF increased dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS), hypoxia-inducible factor 1, glycolysis, and EC activation. Inhibition of Drp1 significantly attenuated these phenotypes. Carotid artery ligation and microfluidics experiments further validate that the significant induction of mitochondrial fragmentation was associated with EC activation in a Drp1-dependent manner. Contrarily, UF in vitro or voluntary exercise in vivo significantly decreased mitochondrial fragmentation and enhanced fatty acid uptake and OXPHOS. Our data suggest that flow patterns profoundly change mitochondrial fusion/fission events, and this change contributes to the determination of proinflammatory and metabolic states of ECs.


Asunto(s)
Células Endoteliales , Dinámicas Mitocondriales , Dinaminas , Células Endoteliales/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo , Factor 1 Inducible por Hipoxia/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo
10.
Metabolomics ; 18(10): 75, 2022 Sep 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36125563

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The effects of lipopolysaccharides (i.e., endotoxin; LPS) on metabolism are poorly defined in lactating dairy cattle experiencing hyperlipidemia. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to explore the effects of acute intravenous LPS administration on metabolism in late-lactation Holstein cows experiencing hyperlipidemia induced by intravenous triglyceride infusion and feed restriction. METHODS: Ten non-pregnant lactating Holstein cows (273 ± 35 d in milk) were administered a single bolus of saline (3 mL of saline; n [Formula: see text] 5) or LPS (0.375 [Formula: see text]g of LPS/kg of body weight; n [Formula: see text] 5). Simultaneously, cows were intravenously infused a triglyceride emulsion and feed restricted for 16 h to induce hyperlipidemia in an attempt to model the periparturient period. Blood was sampled at routine intervals. Changes in circulating total fatty acid concentrations and inflammatory parameters were measured. Plasma samples were analyzed using untargeted lipidomics and metabolomics. RESULTS: Endotoxin increased circulating serum amyloid A, LPS-binding protein, and cortisol concentrations. Endotoxin administration decreased plasma lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) concentrations and increased select plasma ceramide concentrations. These outcomes suggest modulation of the immune response and insulin action. Lipopolysaccharide decreased the ratio of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylethanomanine, which potentially indicate a decrease in the hepatic activation of phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and triglyceride export. Endotoxin administration also increased plasma concentrations of pyruvic and lactic acids, and decreased plasma citric acid concentrations, which implicate the upregulation of glycolysis and downregulation of the citric acid cycle (i.e., the Warburg effect), potentially in leukocytes. CONCLUSION: Acute intravenous LPS administration decreased circulating LPC concentrations, modified ceramide and glycerophospholipid concentrations, and influenced intermediary metabolism in dairy cows experiencing hyperlipidemia.


Asunto(s)
Hiperlipidemias , Insulinas , Animales , Bovinos , Ceramidas , Ácido Cítrico , Emulsiones/farmacología , Endotoxinas/farmacología , Ácidos Grasos , Femenino , Glicerofosfolípidos , Hidrocortisona/farmacología , Hiperlipidemias/inducido químicamente , Insulinas/farmacología , Lactancia , Lipidómica , Lipopolisacáridos/farmacología , Lisofosfatidilcolinas/farmacología , Metaboloma , Metabolómica , Fosfatidilcolinas , Fosfatidiletanolamina N-Metiltransferasa/farmacología , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica , Triglicéridos
11.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 38(11): 210, 2022 Sep 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050590

RESUMEN

Pelidnota luridipes Blanchard (1850) is a tropical beetle of the family Scarabaeidae, whose larvae live on wood without parental care. Microbiota of mid- and hindgut of larvae was evaluated by culture-dependent and independent methods, and the results show a diverse microbiota, with most species of bacteria and fungi shared between midgut and hindgut. We isolated 272 bacterial and 29 yeast isolates, identified in 57 and 7 species, respectively, while using metabarcoding, we accessed 1,481 and 267 OTUs of bacteria and fungi, respectively. The composition and abundance of bacteria and fungi differed between mid- and hindgut, with a tendency for higher richness and diversity of yeasts in the midgut, and bacteria on the hindgut. Some taxa are abundant in the intestine of P. luridipes larvae, such as Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria; as well as Saccharomycetales and Trichosporonales yeasts. Mid- and hindgut metabolic profiles differ (e.g. biosynthesis of amino acids, cofactors, and lipopolysaccharides) with higher functional diversity in the hindgut. Isolates have different functional traits such as secretion of hydrolytic enzymes and antibiosis against pathogens. Apiotrichum siamense L29A and Bacillus sp. BL17B protected larvae of the moth Galleria mellonella, against infection by the pathogens Listeria monocytogenes ATCC19111 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027. This is the first work with the larval microbiome of a Rutelini beetle, demonstrating its diversity and potential in prospecting microbial products as probiotics. The functional role of microbiota for the nutrition and adaptability of P. luridipes larvae needs to be evaluated in the future.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Animales , Bacterias , Hongos/genética , Larva/microbiología , Metaboloma , ARN Ribosómico 16S
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15018, 2022 Sep 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056162

RESUMEN

The essential role of gut microbiota in health and disease is well recognized, but the biochemical details that underlie the beneficial impact remain largely undefined. To maintain its stability, microbiota participates in an interactive host-microbiota metabolic signaling, impacting metabolic phenotypes of the host. Dysbiosis of microbiota results in alteration of certain microbial and host metabolites. Identifying these markers could enhance early detection of certain diseases. We report LC-MS based non-targeted metabolic profiling that demonstrates a large effect of gut microbiota on mammalian tissue metabolites. It was hypothesized that gut microbiota influences the overall biochemistry of host metabolome and this effect is tissue-specific. Thirteen different tissues from germ-free (GF) and conventionally-raised (MPF) C57BL/6NTac mice were selected and their metabolic differences were analyzed. Our study demonstrated a large effect of microbiota on mammalian biochemistry at different tissues and resulted in statistically-significant modulation of metabolites from multiple metabolic pathways (p ≤ 0.05). Hundreds of molecular features were detected exclusively in one mouse group, with the majority of these being unique to specific tissue. A vast metabolic response of host to metabolites generated by the microbiota was observed, suggesting gut microbiota has a direct impact on host metabolism.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Animales , Mamíferos , Metaboloma , Metabolómica/métodos , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL
13.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1226: 340255, 2022 Sep 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068057

RESUMEN

Chemical isotope labeling (CIL) LC-MS is a powerful tool for metabolome analysis with markedly improved metabolomic coverage and quantification accuracy over the conventional LC-MS technique. In addition, with differential isotope labeling, each labeled metabolite is detected as a peak pair in the mass spectra, offering the possibility of differentiating true metabolite peaks from the singlet noise or background peaks. In this study, we examined the effects of instrument type on the detectability of true metabolites with a focus on the comparison of quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) and Orbitrap mass spectrometers. Using the same ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography setup and optimized running conditions for QTOF and Orbitrap, we compared the total number of peak pairs detected and identified from the two instruments using human urine and serum as the test samples. Many common peak pairs were detected from the two instruments; however, there were a significant number of unique peak pairs detected in each type of instrument. By combining the datasets obtained using QTOF and Orbitrap, the total number of peak pairs detected could be significantly increased. We also examined the effect of mass resolving power on peak pair detection in Orbitrap (60,000 vs. 120,000 resolution). The observed differences in peak pair detectability were much less than those of QTOF vs. Orbitrap. However, the type of peak pairs detected using different resolutions could be somewhat different, offering the possibility of increasing the overall number of peak pairs by combining the two datasets obtained at two different resolutions. The results from this study clearly indicate that instrument type can have a profound effect on metabolite detection in CIL LC-MS. Therefore, comparison of metabolome data generated using different instruments needs to be carefully done. Moreover, future research (e.g., hardware modifications) is warranted to minimize the differences in order to generate more reproducible metabolome data from different types of instruments.


Asunto(s)
Fenofibrato , Cromatografía Liquida/métodos , Compuestos de Dansilo/química , Humanos , Marcaje Isotópico/métodos , Metaboloma , Metabolómica/métodos , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
14.
Res Vet Sci ; 151: 189-195, 2022 Dec 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36058168

RESUMEN

Hypothyroidism is the most commonly diagnosed endocrine disorder in dogs. It produces a deficiency of thyroid hormones which impacts negatively the dog's quality of life. The objective of this study is to evaluate the possible changes in the salivary metabolic profile in dogs with hypothyroidism. For this purpose, targeted metabolomics analysis performed by LC/MS analysis was made in saliva samples from a group of dogs with hypothyroidism and a group of healthy dogs. Twenty-three metabolites showed a significant decrease between hypothyroid and healthy dogs, most of these associated with thyroid hormone synthesis, catecholamine synthesis, and tyrosine and phenylalanine metabolism. Based on the results, it can be stated that hypothyroidism produces changes in the metabolome of saliva and some of them can reflect the metabolic changes presented in the disease and could serve as a potential biomarker of this condition.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Perros , Hipotiroidismo , Animales , Enfermedades de los Perros/diagnóstico , Perros , Hipotiroidismo/veterinaria , Metaboloma , Proyectos Piloto , Calidad de Vida , Hormonas Tiroideas , Tiroxina
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076993

RESUMEN

Salinity is one of the most serious threats to agriculture worldwide. Sugar beet is an important sugar-yielding crop and has a certain tolerance to salt; however, the genome-wide dynamic response to salt stress remains largely unknown in sugar beet. In the present study, physiological and transcriptome analyses of sugar beet leaves and roots were compared under salt stress at five time points. The results showed that different salt stresses influenced phenotypic characteristics, leaf relative water content and root activity in sugar beet. The contents of chlorophyll, malondialdehyde (MDA), the activities of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were also affected by different salt stresses. Compared with control plants, there were 7391 and 8729 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in leaves and roots under salt stress, respectively. A total of 41 hub genes related to salt stress were identified by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) from DEGs, and a transcriptional regulatory network based on these genes was constructed. The expression pattern of hub genes under salt stress was confirmed by qRT-PCR. In addition, the metabolite of sugar beet was compared under salt stress for 24 h. A total of 157 and 157 differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) were identified in leaves and roots, respectively. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis further indicated that DEGs and DAMs act on the starch and sucrose metabolism, alpha-linolenic acid metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and plant hormone signal transduction pathway. In this study, RNA-seq, WGCNA analysis and untargeted metabolomics were combined to investigate the transcriptional and metabolic changes of sugar beet during salt stress. The results provided new insights into the molecular mechanism of sugar beet response to salt stress, and also provided candidate genes for sugar beet improvement.


Asunto(s)
Beta vulgaris , Beta vulgaris/fisiología , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Metaboloma , Raíces de Plantas/genética , Raíces de Plantas/metabolismo , Estrés Salino/genética , Estrés Fisiológico/genética , Azúcares/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077057

RESUMEN

The gut microbiota plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and its dysbiosis is associated with obesity. Maternal high-fat diet (HFD) and ß-adrenergic stimuli alter the gut microbiota independently; however, their collective regulation is not clear. To investigate the combined effect of these factors on offspring microbiota, 20-week-old offspring from control diet (17% fat)- or HFD (45% fat)-fed dams received an injection of either vehicle or ß3-adrenergic agonist CL316,243 (CL) for 7 days and then cecal contents were collected for bacterial community profiling. In a follow-up study, a separate group of mice were exposed to either 8 °C or 30 °C temperature for 7 days and blood serum and cecal contents were used for metabolome profiling. Both maternal diet and CL modulated the gut bacterial community structure and predicted functional profiles. Particularly, maternal HFD and CL increased the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. In mice exposed to different temperatures, the metabolome profiles clustered by treatment in both the cecum and serum. Identified metabolites were enriched in sphingolipid and amino acid metabolism in the cecum and in lipid and energy metabolism in the serum. In summary, maternal HFD altered offspring's response to CL and altered microbial composition and function. An independent experiment supported the effect of thermogenic challenge on the bacterial function through metabolome change.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Alta en Grasa , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animales , Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , Estudios de Seguimiento , Metaboloma , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077135

RESUMEN

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) is an important crop for sugar and biofuels, and often suffers from water shortages during growth. Currently, there is limited knowledge concerning the molecular mechanism involved in sugarcane response to drought stress (DS) and whether chitooligosaccharide could alleviate DS. Here, we carried out a combined transcriptome and metabolome of sugarcane in three different treatment groups: control group (CG), DS group, and DS + chitooligosaccharide group (COS). A total of 12,275 (6404 up-regulated and 5871 down-regulated) differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified when comparing the CG and DS transcriptomes (T_CG/DS), and 2525 (1261 up-regulated and 1264 down-regulated) DEGs were identified in comparing the DS and COS transcriptomes (T_DS/COS). GO and KEGG analysis showed that DEGs associated with photosynthesis were significantly enriched and had down-regulated expression. For T_DS/COS, photosynthesis DEGs were also significantly enriched but had up-regulated expression. Together, these results indicate that DS of sugarcane has a significantly negative influence on photosynthesis, and that COS can alleviate these negative effects. In metabolome analysis, lipids, others, amino acids and derivatives and alkaloids were the main significantly different metabolites (SDMs) observed in sugarcane response to DS, and COS treatment reduced the content of these metabolites. KEGG analysis of the metabolome showed that 2-oxocarboxylic acid metabolism, ABC transporters, biosynthesis of amino acids, glucosinolate biosynthesis and valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis were the top-5 KEGG enriched pathways when comparing the CG and DS metabolome (M_CG/DS). Comparing DS with COS (M_DS/COS) showed that purine metabolism and phenylalanine metabolism were enriched. Combined transcriptome and metabolome analysis revealed that pyruvate and phenylalanine metabolism were KEGG-enriched pathways for CG/DS and DS/COS, respectively. For pyruvate metabolism, 87 DEGs (47 up-regulated and 40 down-regulated) and five SDMs (1 up-regulated and 4 down-regulated) were enriched. Pyruvate was closely related with 14 DEGs (|r| > 0.99) after Pearson's correlation analysis, and only 1 DEG (Sspon.02G0043670-1B) was positively correlated. For phenylalanine metabolism, 13 DEGs (7 up-regulated and 6 down-regulated) and 6 SDMs (1 up-regulated and 5 down-regulated) were identified. Five PAL genes were closely related with 6 SDMs through Pearson's correlation analysis, and the novel.31257 gene had significantly up-regulated expression. Collectively, our results showed that DS has significant adverse effects on the physiology, transcriptome, and metabolome of sugarcane, particularly genes involved in photosynthesis. We further show that COS treatment can alleviate these negative effects.


Asunto(s)
Saccharum , Transcriptoma , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Quitosano , Sequías , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Regulación de la Expresión Génica de las Plantas , Metaboloma , Oligosacáridos , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Piruvatos/metabolismo , Saccharum/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077145

RESUMEN

A way to maintain an adequate vitamin D status is through supplementation. Demonstration of blood-metabolome rhythmicity of vitamin D3 post-dosing effects is lacking in the pharmaco-metabonomics area. Thus, the overall aim of this study was to investigate the diurnal changes in the blood metabolome and how these are affected by vitamin D3 supplementation. The study was conducted as a crossover study, and the treatment included 200 µg (8000 IU) of vitamin D3 as compared with placebo with a washout period of at least 10 days. The participants were postmenopausal women aged 60-80 years (N = 29) with vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D < 50 nmol/L) but otherwise healthy. During the intervention day, blood samples were taken at 0 h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 10 h, 12 h, and 24 h, and plasma was analysed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy as a metabolomics approach. In general, diurnal effects were identified for the majority of the 20 quantified metabolites, and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed a change in the overall plasma metabolome around 12 AM (6 h after intervention), suggesting that the diurnal rhythm is reflected in two diurnal plasma metabolomes; a morning metabolome (8-12 AM) and an afternoon/evening metabolome (2-8 PM). Overall, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the blood metabolome was minor, with no effect on the diurnal rhythm. However, a significant effect of the vitamin D supplementation on plasma acetone levels was identified. Collectively, our findings reveal an influence of diurnal rhythm on the plasma metabolome, while vitamin D supplementation appears to have minor influence on fluctuations in the plasma metabolome.


Asunto(s)
Posmenopausia , Deficiencia de Vitamina D , Colecalciferol , Estudios Cruzados , Suplementos Dietéticos , Método Doble Ciego , Femenino , Humanos , Metaboloma , Vitamina D , Vitaminas
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077169

RESUMEN

Enzymatic diagnostics have practical applications in diseases of the liver, heart, pancreas, muscles, blood, and neoplastic diseases. This study aimed to compare enzyme activity to describe dairy cows' metabolism during early lactation. Based on their general health symptoms, the cows were assigned to one of three groups: acidotic, healthy and ketotic. Samples of milk, blood and rumen fluid were collected at 12 ± 5 days postpartum. Ketotic cows were characterized by the highest malondialdehyde (MDA, 76.098 nM/mL), glutathione reductase (GluRed, 109.852 U/L), superoxide dismutase (SOD, 294.22 U/L) and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGTP, 71.175 U/L) activity. In comparing ketotic and acidotic cows, MDA, GluRed, SOD and GGTP activity were higher by a factor of almost: 1.85, 1.89, 0.79 and 2.50, respectively. Acidotic cows were characterized by the highest aspartate aminotransferase activity (AspAT, 125.914 U/L). In comparing acidotic and ketotic cows, AspAT activity was higher by a factor of almost 1.90. The use of enzymatic markers could limit the frequency of sampling for laboratory analyses and may result in a faster diagnosis of metabolic disorders. AspAT activity in blood serum seems to be a good indicator of acidosis; GGTP may participate in the pathogenesis of ketosis.


Asunto(s)
Acidosis , Enfermedades de los Bovinos , Cetosis , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/metabolismo , Acidosis/metabolismo , Animales , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/metabolismo , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/metabolismo , Femenino , Cetosis/diagnóstico , Cetosis/veterinaria , Lactancia/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Leche/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo , gamma-Glutamiltransferasa/metabolismo
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077322

RESUMEN

The habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense) is an increasingly important spice and vegetable crop worldwide because of its high capsaicin content and pungent flavor. Diets supplemented with the phytochemicals found in habanero peppers might cause shifts in an organism's metabolism and gene expression. Thus, understanding how these interactions occur can reveal the potential health effects associated with such changes. We performed transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses of Drosophila melanogaster adult flies reared on a habanero pepper diet. We found 539 genes/59 metabolites that were differentially expressed/accumulated in flies fed a pepper versus control diet. Transcriptome results indicated that olfactory sensitivity and behavioral responses to the pepper diet were mediated by olfactory and nutrient-related genes including gustatory receptors (Gr63a, Gr66a, and Gr89a), odorant receptors (Or23a, Or59a, Or82a, and Orco), and odorant-binding proteins (Obp28a, Obp83a, Obp83b, Obp93a, and Obp99a). Metabolome analysis revealed that campesterol, sitosterol, and sucrose were highly upregulated and azelaic acid, ethyl phosphoric acid, and citric acid were the major metabolites downregulated in response to the habanero pepper diet. Further investigation by integration analysis between transcriptome and metabolome data at gene pathway levels revealed six unique enriched pathways, including phenylalanine metabolism; insect hormone biosynthesis; pyrimidine metabolism; glyoxylate, and dicarboxylate metabolism; glycine, serine, threonine metabolism; and glycerolipid metabolism. In view of the transcriptome and metabolome findings, our comprehensive analysis of the response to a pepper diet in Drosophila have implications for exploring the molecular mechanism of pepper consumption.


Asunto(s)
Capsicum , Piper nigrum , Animales , Capsicum/química , Capsicum/genética , Dieta , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Metaboloma , Piper nigrum/genética , Transcriptoma
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