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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(4): 218, 2020 Mar 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144562

RESUMEN

The United Nations has called for increased public participation in scientific research, to benefit professionals, the public and the planet. Citizen science has been suggested as a cost-effective means by which this call can be met, and by which monitoring for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) may be carried out. Indeed, citizen science has gained significant attention in recent years as the scale of environmental issues surpasses the monitoring resources that currently exist. However, many challenges continue to act as a barrier to the acceptance of citizen science as a reliable scientific approach. Here, the current state of knowledge on the use of citizen science in water quality monitoring is reviewed, and the potential for utilizing this approach to enhance monitoring for SDG Indicator 6.3.2 on the "proportion of bodies of water of good ambient water quality" is evaluated. The objective of this review is to identify key knowledge gaps and hurdles hindering the adoption of citizen science contributions to water quality monitoring under the SDGs, so that these gaps may be addressed in a timely manner for future monitoring programmes.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Metas , Desarrollo Sostenible , Humanos , Calidad del Agua
2.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e10, 2020 03 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159469

RESUMEN

We review evidence that the resource-rationality principle generalizes to human movement control. Optimization of the use of limited neurocomputational resources is described by the inclusion of the "neurocomputational cost" of sensory information processing and decision making in the optimality criterion of movement control. A resulting tendency to decrease this cost can account for various phenomena observed during goal-directed movements.


Asunto(s)
Metas , Movimiento , Cognición , Toma de Decisiones , Humanos , Desempeño Psicomotor
3.
Am J Bioeth ; 20(3): 63-65, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116161
4.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110213, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148283

RESUMEN

Biological invasions severely impact on marine ecosystems around the world, but to date management is rare and has not previously been attempted in Africa. This study documents a trial management programme aimed at informing a national management strategy for the invasive European shore crab, Carcinus maenas, in South Africa. The approach involved testing control methods used elsewhere (baited traps, crab condos, diver collections and sediment dredging) and adapting these to the local context. Following these trials, baited traps were deployed over the course of the year, and the catch per unit effort (CPUE) tracked. A total of 36,244 crabs were collected during the management period, six times more than a pre-management population estimate. The population was not extirpated and CPUE increased once trapping ceased. The cost of attempting nationwide eradication is prohibitive, particularly given the lack of current impacts by this crab in this region and the possibility of reintroduction. We highlight key administrative challenges encountered, and the importance of such pilot trials in setting long-term goals when attempting alien species management interventions.


Asunto(s)
Braquiuros , Ecosistema , Animales , Metas , Sudáfrica
5.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110248, 2020 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148314

RESUMEN

Agroforestry is hypothesised to increase ecological and economic functions of farms. Yet it is unclear if and how much agroforestry should be embedded in diversified farming systems to satisfy farmers' needs while potentially enhancing environmental services. To address this research gap we use a mathematical programming model to investigate the role of different agroforestry systems in hypothetical farm portfolios that reduce trade-offs between farmers' goals. Our approach is innovative because it simultaneously considers multiple objectives and the effect of land-use diversification within a farm, is based on knowledge and perceptions of local farmers, and accounts for heterogeneity in farmer judgement. We test the model in a forest frontier region in Eastern Panama, using data from farmer interviews. Farmers evaluated conventional land uses and two agroforestry systems (silvopasture and alley cropping) against 10 pre-defined socio-economic and ecological objectives. First we determined the optimal farm land-use composition that reduces trade-offs between the 10 objectives. The model selects the mix of land uses that secures the best worst-case performance across all objectives, when considering uncertainty in the ability of each land use to achieve each objective (which we quantify by the variability in farmer opinion). Agroforestry dominates the optimised farm portfolio, which comprises 60% silvopasture, 39% forest and 1% plantation. This land-use portfolio, however, deviates strongly from the current land use of farmers, which is 59% pasture, 26% crops, 14% forest and 1% plantation. In a second step we explore the implicit objectives driving farmers' current land-use decisions. We find that immediate-term needs related to food security and liquidity best explain farmers' current land-use portfolio; optimising for these objectives produces a land-use portfolio comprising 60% pasture and 40% crops, which is similar to the current land use. This suggests that increasing agroforestry adoption in the study area will require systems that provide early and frequent returns and allow for ongoing crop production, to better satisfy farmers' cash flow and household consumption needs.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Metas , Productos Agrícolas , Agricultores , Humanos , Panamá
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(11): 286-289, 2020 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191684

RESUMEN

Since 1989, the United States has pursued a goal of eliminating tuberculosis (TB) through a strategy of rapidly identifying and treating cases and evaluating exposed contacts to limit secondary cases resulting from recent TB transmission (1). This strategy has been highly effective in reducing U.S. TB incidence (2), but the pace of decline has significantly slowed in recent years (2.2% average annual decline during 2012-2017 compared with 6.7% during 2007-2012) (3). For this report, provisional 2019 data reported to CDC's National Tuberculosis Surveillance System were analyzed to determine TB incidence overall and for selected subpopulations and these results were compared with those from previous years. During 2019, a total of 8,920 new cases were provisionally reported in the United States, representing a 1.1% decrease from 2018.* TB incidence decreased to 2.7 cases per 100,000 persons, a 1.6% decrease from 2018. Non-U.S.-born persons had a TB rate 15.5 times greater than the rate among U.S.-born persons. The U.S. TB case count and rate are the lowest ever reported, but the pace of decline remains slow. In recent years, approximately 80% of U.S. TB cases have been attributed to reactivation of latent TB infection (LTBI) acquired years in the past, often outside the United States (2). An expanded TB elimination strategy for this new decade should leverage existing health care resources, including primary care providers, to identify and treat persons with LTBI, without diverting public health resources from the continued need to limit TB transmission within the United States. Partnerships with health care providers, including private providers, are essential for this strategy's success.


Asunto(s)
Erradicación de la Enfermedad , Vigilancia de la Población , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Tuberculosis/prevención & control , Adulto , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Metas , Humanos , Incidencia , Tuberculosis/etnología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(11): 281-285, 2020 Mar 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191687

RESUMEN

Worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from a single infectious disease agent (1), including among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (2). A World Health Organization (WHO) initiative, The End Tuberculosis Strategy, set ambitious targets for 2020-2035, including 20% reduction in TB incidence and 35% reduction in the absolute number of TB deaths by 2020 and 90% reduction in TB incidence and 95% reduction in TB deaths by 2035, compared with 2015 (3). This report evaluated global progress toward these targets based on data reported by WHO (1). Annual TB data routinely reported to WHO by 194 member states were used to estimate TB incidence and mortality overall and among persons with HIV infection, TB-preventive treatment (TPT) initiation, and drug-resistant TB for 2018 (1). In 2018, an estimated 10 million persons had incident TB, and 1.5 million TB-related deaths occurred, representing 2% and 5% declines from 2017, respectively. The number of persons with both incident and prevalent TB remained highest in the WHO South-East Asia and African regions. Decreases in the European region were on track to meet 2020 targets. Globally, among persons living with HIV, 862,000 incident TB cases occurred, and 1.8 million persons initiated TPT. Rifampicin-resistant or multidrug-resistant TB occurred among 3.4% of persons with new TB and 18% among persons who were previously treated for TB (overall, among 4.8% of persons with TB). The modest decreases in the number of persons with TB and the number of TB-related deaths were consistent with recent trends, and new and substantial progress was observed in increased TPT initiation among persons living with HIV. However, to meet the global targets for 2035, more intensive efforts are needed by public health partners to decrease TB incidence and deaths and increase the number of persons receiving TB curative and preventive treatment. Innovative approaches to case finding, scale-up of TB preventive treatment, use of newer TB treatment regimens, and prevention and control of HIV will contribute to decreasing TB.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Tuberculosis/prevención & control , Metas , Humanos , Incidencia , Tuberculosis/mortalidad , Organización Mundial de la Salud
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(3): 182, 2020 Feb 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072332

RESUMEN

Land management and biodiversity protection are highly dependent on ecosystem classification. To identify the ecosystems, often ecologically homogenous areas are distinguished based on physical and biological features at various scales. These areas can also be considered as biodiversity surrogates for protection policies and planning. We classified the terrestrial areas of Iran into ecosystems using revised and updated layers of landform and climate as our two main criteria. Moreover, we applied a revised vegetation layer as the confirmatory criterion. At a scale of 1:1,000,000, we obtained a total of 119 homogenous ecological units, and based on the dominant vegetation types, we classified them into 21 terrestrial ecosystems at the national level. Of these ecosystems, 11 were dominated by vegetation, and the remaining 10 had sparse nondominant vegetation. Evaluation of the least and most frequent ecosystem patches and ranking of their size classes using landscape metrics provided an information basis for better land protection planning. We maintain that each ecosystem needs to be represented by a protected area and its size and distribution also helps us form a comprehensive and effective protection network in Iran. Graphical abstract.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Metas , Biodiversidad , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Irán
10.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(2): 27-30, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009358

RESUMEN

Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the adequacy of glycaemic, lipid and blood pressure (BP) goals of diabetic patients, To evaluate the differences in goal attainment rates between various parameters like age, sex, body mass index, complications, medications and compliance. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 diabetic patients coming to HIMS, Hassan were studied and evaluated for BP, fasting blood sugar (FBS) , post prandial blood sugar (PPBS), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides (TG). Patients were evaluated and reviewed past medical records for complications. All diabetics on treatment were included in the study; newly diagnosed, type-1 diabetes, seriously ill, pregnant and those who don't want to be the part of study were excluded. Study Design: Case series study. Results: Out of 250 patients, 55.6% were males, 44.4% were females. BP, FBS and PPBS were tested in all patients. HbA1C was tested in 72%. Lipid parameters like LDL, HDL, and TG were tested in 42%, 37.6% and 52.4% respectively. FBS, PPBS and HBA1C target goals were achieved in 43.89%, 63.89% and 11.67% respectively in patients with complications and 77%, 88.50% and 68.5% respectively in those without complications. LDL, HDL and TG target goals were achieved in 37.78%, 47.22% and 41.11% respectively in patients with complications and 67.1%, 67.20% and 71.4% respectively in those without complications. BP goal was achieved in 53.89% and 78.55% in patients with and without complications respectively.


Asunto(s)
Glucemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Presión Sanguínea , Femenino , Hemoglobina A Glucada , Metas , Humanos , Lípidos , Masculino
11.
Matern Child Health J ; 24(Suppl 1): 57-65, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981065

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Almost all preventable neonatal deaths take place in low- and middle-income countries and affect the poorest who have the least access to high quality health services. Cost of health care is one of the factors preventing access to quality health services and universal health coverage. In Nepal, the majority of expenses related to newborn care are borne by the caregiver, regardless of socioeconomic status. We conducted a study to assess the out of pocket expenditure (OOPE) for sick newborn care in hospitals in Nepal. METHODS: This cross-sectional study of hospital care for newborns was conducted in 11 hospitals in Nepal and explored OOPE incurred by caregivers for sick newborn care. Data were collected from the caregivers of the sick newborn on the topics of cost of travel, accommodation, treatment (drugs, diagnosis) and documented on a sick newborn case record form. RESULTS: Data were collected from 814 caregivers. Cost of caregivers' stay accounted for more than 40% of the OOPE for sick newborn care, followed by cost of travel, and the baby's stay and treatment. The overall OOPE ranged from 13.6 to 226.1 US dollars (USD). The median OOPE was highest for preterm complications ($33.2 USD; CI 14.0-226.1), followed by hyperbilirubinemia ($31.9 USD; CI 14.0-60.7), respiratory distress syndrome ($26.9 USD; 15.3-121.5), neonatal sepsis ($ 25.8 USD; CI 13.6-139.8) and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy ($23.4 USD; CI 13.6-97.7). DISCUSSION FOR PRACTICE: In Nepal, OOPE for sick newborn care in hospitals varied by neonatal morbidity and duration of stay. The largest proportion of OOPE were for accommodation and travel. Affordable and accessible health care will substantially reduce the OOPE for sick newborn care in hospitals.


Asunto(s)
Financiación Personal , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitalización/economía , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Metas , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Nepal , Desarrollo Sostenible
12.
Nature ; 577(7788): 7-8, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894154
15.
J Urol ; 203(2): 424-425, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584844
17.
Gesundheitswesen ; 82(2): 163-171, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113006

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Every person who is in the need of long-term care (according to German Social Code SGB XI §14) fulfills the requirements of disability according to German Social Code SGB IX, § 2. The right of participation and autonomy must be specially protected and realized for persons with long-term care needs because these persons have a limited capacity to advance their interests. The rights of people in the need of long-term care or assistance are protected not only by the national constitution but also by the UN Disability Rights Convention. Participation is an important principle of these extra-statutory regulations and has an extraordinary significance and individual meaning for quality of life. For concretizing the aim of participation and for realizing participation in daily practice, the following question arises: How must organizations be configured to achieve individual aims of participation for persons with long-term care need, complex health care needs and with potential for rehabilitation across sectoral, disciplinary and professional borders? This analysis focuses on people older than 70 years with geriatric-relevant multimorbidity and with potential for rehabilitation. AIM: The aim of this study was to create a configuration model for the organization of interdisciplinary cooperation in rehabilitation out of a case study and on the basis of the service blueprinting method [1]. In a next step this configuration model can be evaluated concerning its effectiveness for achieving individual participation goals and quality of life of persons with long-term care need and with potential for rehabilitation. METHOD: For creating the configuration model, the service blueprinting method [1] on the basis of Dervin's sense making theory [11] was applied to a case vignette of geriatric rehabilitation against a background of organization theories and nursing science concepts. With the case study the configuration model can be applied exemplarily at the setting of restorative care, therapy and rehabilitation. With the service blueprinting method, the rehabilitation process is aligned onto the geriatric patient's individual health care needs, perceptions of participation and quality of life. RESULTS: As a result of the sequencing and service blueprinting process we offer a dynamic model for the coordination of responsibility of interdisciplinary rehabilitation teams with a user-centered alignment. Its effectiveness (and side-effects) for interdisciplinary cooperation and for patient's individual goals of participation and quality of life must be evaluated in further studies. A mixed-method design should be used to evaluate objective outcome parameters such as dependency on nursing care, hospital admission rates and subjective outcome parameters such as patient's perception of participation, autonomy and quality of life. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTHCARE PRACTICE: The configuration model can be used for evaluating already implemented geriatric rehabilitation processes and organizations. The configuration model can be used in health care research or organizational research. After more evidence for desirable effects, it can be implemented into the health care system. Side effects should be monitored.This paper was written in cooperation with the working group "Nursing", department "Practical Social Medicine and Rehabilitation" of the German Society of Social Medicine and Prevention (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sozialmedizin und Prävention DGSMP e.V.).


Asunto(s)
Enfermería , Medicina Social , Anciano , Alemania , Metas , Humanos , Modelos Organizacionales , Calidad de Vida
18.
Gesundheitswesen ; 82(1): e1-e8, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30332707

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Revision of the evaluation concept of Germany's sixth national health target entitled "Depressive illnesses - prevention, early diagnosis, sustainable treatment" developed in 2006. OBJECTIVES: Analysis of available of data since 2006 to determine if the objectives of the health target and its sub-goals (awareness, prevention, diagnosis/indication/therapy, health care structure, patient empowerment, rehabilitation) were achieved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 6 sub-goals were screened in terms of indicators of progress towards goal over the last decade, and then examined for accessible data sources. RESULTS: The sub-goal prevention yielded routine data from t0 onwards (start of activities). The other sub-goals awareness, diagnosis, and health care provided selective data sources, generated mostly by scientific studies. An important milestone within the sub-goal of diagnosis/indication/therapy was the development of the National Clinical Practice guideline for depression. Data were sparse in the areas rehabilitation and patient empowerment. CONCLUSIONS: The six sub-goals are still valid. Yet, the validity of the data in terms of the evaluation of the health target is limited mainly because of the cross-sectional designs of studies. Prospective systematic surveys are required to further evaluate the national health target and its implementation for both qualitative and quantitative longitudinal indicators.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Estudios Transversales , Trastorno Depresivo/diagnóstico , Trastorno Depresivo/terapia , Diagnóstico Precoz , Alemania , Metas , Implementación de Plan de Salud , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos
19.
Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am ; 32(1): 153-165, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685342

RESUMEN

Many of the aesthetic facial procedures can be performed simultaneously at the time of initial orthognathic surgery. Correction of any residual deformities after surgery, such as mandibular notching, malar asymmetry, labiomental crease, and any camouflage treatment, should be performed as a delayed procedure, when the outcome is more predictable. Additionally, these procedures could be used to enhance the orthodontic result, without the need of osteotomies to reposition the bones.


Asunto(s)
Estética Dental , Cara/cirugía , Lipectomía , Ortodoncia , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Ortognáticos/métodos , Rinoplastia , Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/uso terapéutico , Metas , Humanos , Cirugía Ortognática
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