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1.
Food Chem ; 367: 130735, 2022 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365247

RESUMEN

Green and black teas are regarded to possess therapeutic potential for the treatment of obesity, however it is not clear which tea performs better in body weight control. In this study, aiming to eliminate cultivar variation, green tea phenolics (GTP) were oxidized by tyrosinase to obtain oxidized tea phenolics (OTP). Thereafter, their anti-obesity effect on high-fat diet induced obese mice were compared. The results showed that despite their distinctive phenolic profiles, GTP and OTP exerted similar anti-obesity properties after 12 weeks of dietary intervention. Furthermore, cecal microbiota profiling exhibited comparable modulatory effects of GTP and OTP on multiple bacterial taxa, including Parabacteroides distasonis, Bifidobacterium, Prevotella, and Akkermansia muciniphila, which were strongly associated with obesity related indexes. Putative bacterial function profiling implicated that both GTP and OTP might regulate the lipid metabolism similarly. Collectively, the oxidation of GTP did not influence the anti-obesity and gut microbiota modulatory effects to any large extent.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , , Animales , Bacteroidetes , Ratones , Ratones Obesos , Obesidad/tratamiento farmacológico , Obesidad/etiología
2.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 500, 2021 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599144

RESUMEN

The gut microbiome has been speculated to modulate feeding behavior through multiple factors, including short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Evidence on this relationship in humans is however lacking. We aimed to explore if specific bacterial genera relate to eating behavior, diet, and SCFA in adults. Moreover, we tested whether eating-related microbiota relate to treatment success in patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Anthropometrics, dietary fiber intake, eating behavior, 16S-rRNA-derived microbiota, and fecal and serum SCFA were correlated in young overweight adults (n = 27 (9 F), 21-36 years, BMI 25-31 kg/m2). Correlated genera were compared in RYGB (n = 23 (16 F), 41-70 years, BMI 25-62 kg/m2) and control patients (n = 17 (11 F), 26-69 years, BMI 25-48 kg/m2). In young adults, 7 bacteria genera, i.e., Alistipes, Blautia, Clostridiales cluster XVIII, Gemmiger, Roseburia, Ruminococcus, and Streptococcus, correlated with healthier eating behavior, while 5 genera, i.e., Clostridiales cluster IV and XIVb, Collinsella, Fusicatenibacter, and Parabacteroides, correlated with unhealthier eating (all | r | > 0.4, FDR-corrected p < 0.05). Some of these genera including Parabacteroides related to fiber intake and SCFA, and to weight status and treatment response in overweight/obese patients. In this exploratory analysis, specific bacterial genera, particularly Parabacteroides, were associated with weight status and eating behavior in two small, independent and well-characterized cross-sectional samples. These preliminary findings suggest two groups of presumably beneficial and unfavorable genera that relate to eating behavior and weight status, and indicate that dietary fiber and SCFA metabolism may modify these relationships. Larger interventional studies are needed to distinguish correlation from causation.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Estudios Transversales , Fibras de la Dieta , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles , Conducta Alimentaria , Humanos , Adulto Joven
3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 503, 2021 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599147

RESUMEN

The gut-brain communication is mostly driven by the immune, metabolic and neural pathways which remained poorly explored in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD). The metabolites arising from the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway have gained considerable attention since they are at the interface between intestinal bacteria, host immune response and brain functions. This study described the circulating levels of kynurenine metabolites in AUD patients, at the onset (T1) and end (T2) of a 3-week detoxification program, and tested correlations between those metabolites and inflammatory markers, the gut microbiota and the psychological symptoms. Increased concentration of the neurotoxic metabolite quinolinic acid (QUIN) and decreased levels of the neuroprotector metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA) which both modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission were observed in AUD patients, particularly at T2. The inflammatory marker hsCRP was associated with several metabolic ratios of the kynurenine pathway. Tryptophan, KYNA and QUIN were correlated with depression, alcohol craving and reaction time, respectively. Analysis of gut microbiota revealed that bacteria known as short-chain fatty acid producers, as well as bacterial metabolites including butyrate and medium-chain fatty acids were associated with some metabolites of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway. Targeting the glutamatergic neurotransmission through the modulation of the kynurenine pathway, by manipulating the gut microbiota, might represent an interesting alternative for modulating alcohol-related behavior.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Inflamación , Ácido Quinurénico , Quinurenina , Ácido Quinolínico
4.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(20): 7721-7730, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596721

RESUMEN

The steadily increasing prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) worldwide and the lack of effective therapeutic agent attract novel therapeutic approach in recent years. In view of the close relationships between gut microbiota and AD, probiotics have been suggested as potential therapeutic options for AD in recent years. The present review discussed the research progresses concerning the effects of probiotics administration to combat AD. A total of 35 studies, including 26 animal model studies and 9 human studies, were included herein. Among the 26 animal model studies, 24 used mice model, and 2 used Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster AD models, respectively. As for probiotics, a total of 13 studies employed single-strain probiotic, and the rest studies used multi-strain probiotics (ranged from 2 to 9 probiotic strains), 4 used probiotic-fermented milk or probiotic-fermented soybean, 2 studies used engineered probiotic strain, and 4 studies focused on the combined effect of probiotics with AD drug memantine, selenium, or exercise. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species were the most frequently used probiotics in the included studies. Overall, currently available studies showed that probiotic administration conferred neuroprotective benefits and could attenuate cognitive deficits and modulate gut microbiota dysbiosis, which may be related to oxidative and inflammatory pathways. Several perspectives on future studies on this topic are proposed. Thus, probiotics seem to be an attractive approach to combat AD, which deserves to be further studied by well-designed large-scale clinical studies. KEY POINTS: •We discussed the recent progresses concerning the effects of probiotics administration to combat AD. •A total of 35 associated studies consisted of 26 animal model studies and 9 human studies were included. •Most studies found that probiotic administration conferred neuroprotective benefits and could attenuate cognitive deficits.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Bifidobacterium , Drosophila melanogaster , Ratones
5.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5): 735-739, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622585

RESUMEN

In recent years, immunotherapy, as an emerging anti-tumor therapy, has shown great potential in the treatment of both solid and hematologic tumors. There is increasing preclinical and clinical evidence linking the composition of gut microbiome with the efficacy as well as adverse effects of immune checkpoint inhibitor anti-tumor therapy. We summarized in this review the modulatory role of the gut microbiome in antitumor therapy with different immune checkpoint inhibitors. We also discussed the limitations of existing research and prospective development of the further clinical strategies.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Neoplasias , Humanos , Inhibidores de Puntos de Control Inmunológico , Inmunoterapia , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Estudios Prospectivos
6.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 109: 171-180, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607666

RESUMEN

Polymyxin B (PMB) is considered as the last line of antibiotic defense available to humans. The environmental effects of the combined pollution with PMB and heavy metals and their interaction mechanisms are unclear. We explored the effects of the combined pollution with PMB and arsenic (As) on the microbial composition of the soil and in the earthworm gut, as well as the spread and transmission of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The results showed that, compared with As alone, the combined addition of PMB and As could significantly increase the bioaccumulation factor and toxicity of As in earthworm tissues by 12.1% and 16.0%, respectively. PMB treatment could significantly increase the abundance of Actinobacteria in the earthworm gut (from 35.6% to 45.2%), and As stress could significantly increase the abundance of Proteobacteria (from 19.8% to 56.9%). PMB and As stress both could significantly increase the abundance of ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs), which were positively correlated, indicating that ARGs might be horizontally transferred. The inactivation of antibiotics was the main resistance mechanism that microbes use to resist PMB and As stress. Network analysis showed that PMB and As might have antagonistic effects through competition with multi-drug resistant ARGs. The combined pollution by PMB and As significantly promoted the relative abundance of microbes carrying multi-drug resistant ARGs and MGEs, thereby increasing the risk of transmission of ARGs. This research advances the understanding of the interaction mechanism between antibiotics and heavy metals and provides new theoretical guidance for the environmental risk assessment and combined pollution management.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Oligoquetos , Animales , Antibacterianos/toxicidad , Arsénico/toxicidad , Genes Bacterianos , Polimixina B/toxicidad , Suelo
7.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(10): 1224-1227, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601846

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between intestinal flora and serum inflammatory factors IL-1, IL-2, IL-6 and hs-CRP in post-stroke depression (PSD) in ischemic stroke patients. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. Study Place and Duration of Study: Jiulongpo District Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chongqing City, China, from October 2018 to May 2020. METHODOLOGY: One hundred and sixty-three patients with ischemic stroke were divided into Group A (PSD) and Group B (no PSD), according to whether they had PSD. Intestinal flora indexes (Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Bifidobacterium) and serum IL-1, IL-2, IL-6 and hs-CRP were detected. RESULTS: Among 163 patients with ischemic stroke, 67 (41.10%) had PSD (Group A) and 96 (58.90%) had no PSD (Group B). Contents of Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli in Group A were higher than those in Group B (both p <0.001), and content of Bifidobacterium in Group A was lower than that in Group B (p <0.001). Serum IL-1, IL-2, IL-6 and hs-CRP levels in Group A were higher than those in Group B (all p <0.001). Pearson correlation test showed that contents of Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli in Group A were positively correlated with IL-1, IL-2, IL-6 and hs-CRP, and content of Bifidobacterium was negatively correlated with IL-1, IL-2, IL-6 and hs-CRP. CONCLUSION: There are intestinal flora imbalance and Bifidobacterium undergrowth in patients with PSD, which can lead to overexpression of serum inflammatory factors. Both may be involved in occurrence and progress of PSD in patients with ischemic stroke. Key Words: Ischemic stroke, Post-stroke depression (PSD), Intestinal flora, Inflammatory factors.


Asunto(s)
Isquemia Encefálica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Accidente Cerebrovascular Isquémico , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/etiología , Humanos , Accidente Cerebrovascular/complicaciones
8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 701109, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604105

RESUMEN

The heme catabolite bilirubin has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-mutagenic effects and its relation to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is currently under evaluation. Although the main metabolic steps of bilirubin metabolism, including the formation of stercobilin and urobilin, take place in the human gastrointestinal tract, potential interactions with the human gut microbiota are unexplored. This study investigated, whether gut microbiota composition is altered in Gilbert's Syndrome (GS), a mild form of chronically elevated serum unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) compared to matched controls. Potential differences in the incidence of CRC-associated bacterial species in GS were also assessed. To this end, a secondary investigation of the BILIHEALTH study was performed, assessing 45 adults with elevated UCB levels (GS) against 45 age- and sex-matched controls (C). Fecal microbiota analysis was performed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. No association between mildly increased UCB and the composition of the gut microbiota in this healthy cohort was found. The alpha and beta diversity did not differ between C and GS and both groups showed a typical representation of the known dominant phyla. Furthermore, no difference in abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, which have been associated with the mucosa of CRC patients were observed between the groups. A sequence related to the Christensenella minuta strain YIT 12065 was identified with a weak association value of 0.521 as an indicator species in the GS group. This strain has been previously associated with a lower body mass index, which is typical for the GS phenotype. Overall, sex was the only driver for an identifiable difference in the study groups, as demonstrated by a greater bacterial diversity in women. After adjusting for confounding factors and multiple testing, we can conclude that the GS phenotype does not affect the composition of the human gut microbiota in this generally healthy study group.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Enfermedad de Gilbert , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Clostridiales , Femenino , Enfermedad de Gilbert/genética , Humanos , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 719542, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604109

RESUMEN

More and more studies have shown that the intestinal microbiota is the main factor in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Beta cell expansion factor A (BefA) is a protein expressed by intestinal microorganisms. It has been proven to promote the proliferation of ß-cells and has broad application prospects. However, as an intestinal protein, there have not been studies and reports on its application in diabetes and its mechanism of action. In this study, a T1DM model induced by multiple low-dose STZ (MLD-STZ) injections was established, and BefA protein was administered to explore its therapeutic effect in T1DM and the potential mechanism of intestinal microbiota. BefA protein significantly reduced the blood glucose, maintained the body weight, and improved the glucose tolerance of the mice. At the same time, the BefA protein significantly increased the expression of ZO-1, Occludin, and significantly reduced the expression of TLR-4, Myd88, and p-p65/p65. BefA protein significantly reduced the relative expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α. In addition, our high-throughput sequencing shows for the first time that the good hypoglycemic effect of BefA protein is strongly related to the increase in the abundance of the beneficial gut bacteria Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Oscillospria and the decrease in the abundance of the opportunistic pathogen Acinetobacter. Our group used animal models to verify the hypoglycemic effect of BefA protein, and first explored the potential mechanism of intestinal microbiota in BefA protein treatment.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animales , Proliferación Celular , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamiento farmacológico , Ratones , Vitamina B 12/análogos & derivados
10.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(37): 3012-3017, 2021 Oct 12.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638193

RESUMEN

Objective: To explore the effects of gut microbiota and the serum level of folicacid on psychiatric symptoms in first-episode, drug-free schizophrenic (SCZ) patients. Methods: A total of 100 first-episode, drug-free SCZ patients (SCZ group) from the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University and 90 demographically matched healthy individuals (healthy control group) were enrolled. The serum level of folic acid was measured by the electrochemical luminescence method.Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess the psychiatric symptoms and Matrics Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) was used to evaluate cognitive function. Bacterial DNA was extracted from the fecal samples for high-through put sequencing of the 16S rRNA.The effects of gut microbiota and folic acid on the psychiatric symptoms and cognitive function in SCZ patients were explored. Results: A total of 41 males and 59 females, with an age of (22.6±8.2) years were included in the patient group, and 32 males and 58 females with an age of (23.0±3.0) years were included in the healthy control group. The fasting folic acid level inserum of the SCZ group was lower than that of healthy control group [6.92(4.98, 8.49) µg/L vs 8.93(7.13, 13.37) µg/L,P<0.001]. The relative abundance of genus Bifidobacterium[0.005(0.003, 0.013) vs 0.014(0.004, 0.031)] and genus Bacteroides[0.015(0.001, 0.091) vs 0.083(0.029, 0.193)]was lower in the SCZ group than that of the healthy control group (both P<0.001). In comparison with the healthy control group, scores of cognitive function in the seven domains were significantly lower in the SCZ group (all P<0.05). In the patient group, the serum level of folic acid was negatively related to the negative symptom score(r=-0.378, P<0.001), but had a positive correlation with the score of speed of processing (r=0.310, P=0.011).In the SCZ group, the relative abundance of the genus Bifidobacterium was positively correlated with the serum level of folic acid (r=0.374,P<0.001) and the score of speed of processing(r=0.330,P=0.003) respectively, but was negatively correlated with the general psychopathology score (r=-0.326, P=0.001). The results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that the interaction term between folic acid and genus Bifidobacteriumin in SCZ patients were correlated with the general psychopathology score, with a regression coefficient of -29.240 (F=8.655, P=0.007). There was no statistical correlation between the aforementioned interaction term and cognitive function (both P>0.05). Conclusion: In first-episode, drug-free SCZ patients, there were decreases in the serum folic acid level and the relative abundance of genus Bifidobacterium, which were related to the psychiatric symptoms, suggesting that these two substances can be used as potential objective indicators for evaluating psychiatric symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Esquizofrenia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cognición , Femenino , Ácido Fólico , Humanos , Masculino , ARN Ribosómico 16S , Adulto Joven
11.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 711055, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621688

RESUMEN

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been widely recognized as an approach to determine the microbiome's causal role in gut dysbiosis-related disease models and as a novel disease-modifying therapy. Despite potential beneficial FMT results in various disease models, there is a variation and complexity in procedural agreement among research groups for performing FMT. The viability of the microbiome in feces and its successful transfer depends on various aspects of donors, recipients, and lab settings. This review focuses on the technical practices of FMT in animal studies. We first document crucial factors required for collecting, handling, and processing donor fecal microbiota for FMT. Then, we detail the description of gut microbiota depletion methods, FMT dosages, and routes of FMT administrations in recipients. In the end, we describe assessments of success rates of FMT with sustainability. It is critical to work under the anaerobic condition to preserve as much of the viability of bacteria. Utilization of germ- free mice or depletion of recipient gut microbiota by antibiotics or polyethylene glycol are two common recipient preparation approaches to achieve better engraftment. Oral-gastric gavage preferred by most researchers for fast and effective administration of FMT in mice. Overall, this review highlights various methods that may lead to developing the standard and reproducible protocol for FMT.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Animales , Disbiosis/terapia , Trasplante de Microbiota Fecal , Heces , Ratones
12.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 712381, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631598

RESUMEN

The gut microbiota is closely associated with the health of the host and is affected by many factors, including exercise. In this study, we compared the gut microbial changes and exercise performance over a 14-week period in mice that performed exercise (NE; n = 15) and mice that did not perform exercise (NC; n = 15). Mice were subjected to stool collection and exercise tests one week prior to adaptive training and after 2, 6, 10, and 14 weeks of exercise. Bacteria associated with the stool samples were assessed via Illumina-based 16S rRNA gene sequencing. While there was no significant difference in body weight between the groups (p > 0.05), the NE group had a significantly higher exercise performance from weeks 2-14 (p < 0.01) and lower fat coefficient (p < 0.01) compared with the NC group. The Shannon index of the gut microbiota in the NC group was higher than that in the NE group at weeks 6 and 10, and the Chao1 index was higher than that in the NE group at week 14. Exercise performance positively correlated with the relative abundance of Phascolarctobacterium. Grouped time series data analysis demonstrated that Bifidobacteria, Coprococcus, and one unnamed genus in the Clostridiales order were significantly increased in the NE group, which correlated with increased glucose, flavonoid, arginine, and proline metabolism. In conclusion, moderate-intensity treadmill exercise significantly increased the exercise performance of mice and changed the core bacteria and bacterial metabolic activity. These results provide a reference for studying the effects of exercise intervention and exercise performance on the gut microbiota of mice.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Condicionamiento Físico Animal , Animales , Bacterias/genética , Heces , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Ratones , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
13.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(10): 1119-25, 2021 Oct 12.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628745

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of moxibustion at "Zusanli" (ST 36) and "Shenshu" (BL 23) on inflammatory factors and intestinal flora in the rats with adjuvant arthritis. METHODS: A total of 36 Wistar rats were randomized into a normal group, a model group and a moxibustion group, 12 rats in each one. In the model group and the moxibustion group, the adjuvant arthritis model was established by a compound method, including the environmental factors, i.e. wind, cold and damp, and Freund's complete adjuvant. In the moxibustion group, moxibustion intervention was exerted at "Zusanli" (ST 36) and "Shenshu" (BL 23), for 20 min at each acupoint, once daily, consecutively for 21 days. The paw swelling degree and arthritis index (AI) score were observed before and after intervention in the rats of each group. Using real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR method (real-time PCR) and Western blot method, the mRNA and protein expressions of inflammatory factors of colon tissue, i.e. interleukin (IL) 1ß, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-6, were detected after intervention in the rats of each group. The intestinal flora was detected with 16SrRNA sequencing technology after intervention in the rats of each group. RESULTS: Compared with the normal group, the paw swelling degree and AI score were increased in the rats of the model group (P<0.05); after intervention, compared with the model group, the paw swelling degree and AI score were reduced in the rats of the moxibustion group (P<0.05). Compared with the normal group, the expressions of IL-1ß, TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA, as well as proteins were increased in the colon tissue of the rats in the model group (P<0.05); compared with the model group, the expressions of IL-1ß, TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA, as well as proteins were reduced in the colon tissue of the rats in the moxibustion group (P<0.05). Compared with the normal group, OTUs count was reduced in the rats of the model group (P<0.05); and compared with the model group, OTUs count was increased in the rats of the moxibustion group (P<0.05). Compared with the normal group, Simpson index was increased, Chao1 and Ace were reduced in the rats of the model group (P<0.05); while, compared with the model group, Chao1 and Ace were increased in the rats of the moxibustion group (P<0.05). Compared with the normal group, the relative abundance of uncategorized Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Prevotella, uncategorized Porphyromonadaceae and uncategorized Prevotella was increased (P<0.05), and the relative abundance of uncategorized Spironella was reduced in the model group (P<0.05). While, compared with the model group, the relative abundance of uncategorized Clostridium, Lactobacillus, uncategorized Prevotella was reduced in the moxibustion group (P<0.05) and that of uncategorized Spironella was increased (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Moxibustion at "Zusanli" (ST 36) and "Shenshu" (BL 23) relieves the joint symptoms of adjuvant arthritis rats and inhibits the expressions of inflammatory factors, which is probably related to the regulation of the structure of intestinal flora.


Asunto(s)
Artritis Experimental , Artritis Reumatoide , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Moxibustión , Animales , Artritis Experimental/genética , Artritis Experimental/terapia , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
14.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(9): 9752-9764, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628901

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A meta-analysis was conducted on the correlation between intestinal flora and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) to provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of GDM. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE, Ovid, Springer, and Web of Science databases were searched from the establishment of the databases to December 31, 2020, to retrieve randomized control trials (RCTs) involving GDM patients. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Intervention 5.0.2 was used to assess the bias risk of the included articles, and Rev Man 5.3 was used for the meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 7 studies were included in the meta-analysis, comprising 665 study participants. The meta-analysis results showed that the GDM patients in the experimental group had a lower level of Bifidobacterium [MD (mean difference) =-2.49; 95% confidence interval (CI): -3.54 to -1.45; Z=4.66; P<0.00001], Lactobacillus [MD =-1.69; 95% CI: -1.84 to -1.53; Z=20.66; P<0.00001], Bacteroides [MD =-1.17; 95% CI: -1.45 to -0.89; Z=8.15; P<0.00001], Bacteroidetes [MD =-1.22; 95% CI: -1.71 to -0.72; Z=4.81; P<0.00001], and a higher level of Enterobacter [MD =1.79; 95% CI: 1.13 to 2.45; Z=5.3; P<0.00001], Enterococcus [MD =1, 29; 95% CI: 0.98 to 1.6; Z=8.06; P<0.00001], Fusobacterium [MD =0.03; 95% CI: -0.13 to 0.19; Z=0.37; P=0.71], tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) [MD =113.66; 95% CI: 52.01 to 175.31; Z=3.61; P=0.0003], interleukin (IL)-17 [MD =37.92; 95% CI: 29.74 to 46.1; Z=9.09; P<0.00001], and IL-6 [MD =66.38; 95% CI: 33.6 to 99.15; Z=3.97; P<0.0001] than those in the control group; however, no statistically significant difference was found in relation to Fusobacterium between the experimental group and the control group. DISCUSSION: Intestinal microecological changes are closely related to the occurrence of GDM in our study, which manifested as a decrease in the level of probiotics, an increase in the level of intestinal bacteria and other strains, and an increase in the level of inflammatory factors. Thus, special attention should be paid to changes in patients' intestinal flora to prevent GDM.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Gestacional , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo
15.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 697640, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595128

RESUMEN

Current antidepressants do not confer a clear advantage in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). Accumulating evidence highlights the potential antidepressant-like effects of inosine on adult MDD, and gut microbiomes are significantly associated with MDD via the microbiota-gut-brain axis. However, few studies have investigated possible associations between inosine and gut microbiota in adolescents with MDD. The current study investigated the potential antidepressant effects of inosine in adolescent male C57BL/6 mice. After 4 weeks of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) stimulation, the mice were assessed by body weight, the sucrose preference test (SPT), open field test, and the elevated plus maze (EPM). The microbiota compositions of feces were determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Inosine significantly improved CUMS-induced depressive and anxiety-like behaviors in adolescent mice including SPT and EPM results. Fecal microbial composition differed in the CON+saline, CUMS+saline, and CUMS+inosine groups, which were characterized by 126 discriminative amplicon sequence variants belonging to Bacteroidetes and Firmicute at the phylum level and Muribaculaceae and Lachnospiraceae at the family level. Muribaculaceae was positively associated with depressive and anxiety-like behaviors. KEGG functional analysis suggested that inosine might affect gut microbiota through carbohydrate metabolism and lipid metabolism pathways. The results of the study indicated that inosine improved depressive and anxiety-like behaviors in adolescent mice, in conjunction with the alteration of fecal microbial composition. Our findings may provide a novel perspective on the antidepressant effects of inosine in children and adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo Mayor , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animales , Ansiedad/tratamiento farmacológico , Depresión/tratamiento farmacológico , Inosina , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Estrés Psicológico
16.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1984105, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632957

RESUMEN

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (Ace2) is expressed in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and a receptor for SARS-CoV-2, making the GI tract a potential infection site. This study investigated the effects of commensal intestinal microbiota on colonic Ace2 expression using a humanized mouse model. We found that colonic Ace2 expression decreased significantly upon microbial colonization. Humanization with healthy volunteer or dysbiotic microbiota from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients resulted in similar Ace2 expression. Despite the differences in microbiota, no associations between α-diversity, ß-diversity or individual taxa, and Ace2 were noted post-humanization. These results highlight that commensal microbiota play a key role in regulating intestinal Ace2 expression and the need to further examine the underlying mechanisms of this regulation.


Asunto(s)
Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Colon/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animales , Colon/microbiología , Disbiosis , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Vida Libre de Gérmenes , Humanos , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/microbiología , Ratones , Receptores Virales/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2
17.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 735, 2021 Oct 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635054

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Numerous Ebola virus outbreaks have occurred in Equatorial Africa over the past decades. Besides human fatalities, gorillas and chimpanzees have also succumbed to the fatal virus. The 2004 outbreak at the Odzala-Kokoua National Park (Republic of Congo) alone caused a severe decline in the resident western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) population, with a 95% mortality rate. Here, we explore the immediate genetic impact of the Ebola outbreak in the western lowland gorilla population. RESULTS: Associations with survivorship were evaluated by utilizing DNA obtained from fecal samples from 16 gorilla individuals declared missing after the outbreak (non-survivors) and 15 individuals observed before and after the epidemic (survivors). We used a target enrichment approach to capture the sequences of 123 genes previously associated with immunology and Ebola virus resistance and additionally analyzed the gut microbiome which could influence the survival after an infection. Our results indicate no changes in the population genetic diversity before and after the Ebola outbreak, and no significant differences in microbial community composition between survivors and non-survivors. However, and despite the low power for an association analysis, we do detect six nominally significant missense mutations in four genes that might be candidate variants associated with an increased chance of survival. CONCLUSION: This study offers the first insight to the genetics of a wild great ape population before and after an Ebola outbreak using target capture experiments from fecal samples, and presents a list of candidate loci that may have facilitated their survival.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola , Animales , Brotes de Enfermedades , Gorilla gorilla/genética , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/epidemiología , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/veterinaria , Humanos , Pan troglodytes
18.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 62(8): 900-908, 2021.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497229

RESUMEN

A huge number of indigenous commensal bacteria reside in the intestines of humans and animals. However, the host animals do not unconditionally accept gut microbiota. In order to contain gut microbiota by secreting immunoglobulin A, the intestine is equipped with the intestinal immune system, literally the largest peripheral lymphoid tissue in the body where 60 to 70% of peripheral immune cells are accumulated. On the other hand, the gut microbiota greatly impact the host physiology and pathology. Normal development of the host immune system relies on interaction with the gut microbiota. In addition, abnormal gut microbiota, or dysbiosis, is known to be associated with various disease statuses including autoimmune diseases. Understanding of the causal relationship between the pathophysiology of these diseases and dysbiosis is still limited, but verification experiments using animal models have been clarifying that gut microbiota is an important regulatory factor the pathogenesis and progression of these diseases.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Autoinmunes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animales , Disbiosis , Humanos , Sistema Inmunológico , Intestinos
19.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(30): 5037-5046, 2021 Aug 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497433

RESUMEN

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) include a spectrum of chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract whose pathogenesis is yet to be elucidated. The intestinal microbiome has been studied as a causal component, with certain microbiotic alterations having been observed in subtypes of IBD. Physical exercise is a modulator of the intestinal microbiome, causing shifts in its composition that are partially corrective of those observed in IBD; furthermore, physical exercise may be beneficial in patients with certain IBD subtypes. This review studies the effects of physical exercise on the human gut microbiome while investigating pathophysiologic mechanisms that could explain physical activity's clinical effects on patients with IBD.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino , Microbiota , Disbiosis , Ejercicio Físico , Humanos , Enfermedades Inflamatorias del Intestino/terapia
20.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(30): 5019-5036, 2021 Aug 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497432

RESUMEN

The gut microbiome is a complex microbial community, recognized for its potential role in physiology, health, and disease. The available evidence supports the role of gut dysbiosis in pancreatic disorders, including acute pancreatitis (AP). In AP, the presence of gut barrier damage resulting in increased mucosal permeability may lead to translocation of intestinal bacteria, necrosis of pancreatic and peripancreatic tissue, and infection, often accompanied by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Preserving gut microbial homeostasis may reduce the systemic effects of AP. A growing body of evidence suggests the possible involvement of the gut microbiome in various pancreatic diseases, including AP. This review discusses the possible role of the gut microbiome in AP. It highlights AP treatment and supplementation with prebiotics, synbiotics, and probiotics to maintain gastrointestinal microbial balance and effectively reduce hospitalization, morbidity and mortality in an early phase. It also addresses novel therapeutic areas in the gut microbiome, personalized treatment, and provides a roadmap of human microbial contributions to AP that have potential clinical benefit.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Pancreatitis , Probióticos , Enfermedad Aguda , Disbiosis , Humanos , Pancreatitis/terapia , Prebióticos , Probióticos/uso terapéutico
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