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2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(10): 3088-3098, 2020 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050766

RESUMEN

The intestinal microbiome plays an important role in the pathogenesis of liver diseases. Alcohol intake induces gut microbiota dysbiosis and alters its function. This study investigated the antibiotic effect of allicin in mice with hepatic steatosis. Male C57BL/6 mice were administered an ethanol diet supplemented with allicin (5 and 20 mg/(kg bw day)) for 4 weeks. Allicin modified the gut microbiota composition. Cecal microbiota exhibited a positive correlation with alcohol and hepatic triacylglycerol, but were suppressed with allicin. Ethanol diet with 5 mg of allicin induced a lower intestinal permeability compared to the ethanol diet alone. Allicin mediated the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-CD14-toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-induced hepatic inflammation pathway by reducing LPS, CD14, TLR4, and pro-inflammatory cytokines-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1ß, and IL-6. However, hepatic inflammation primarily resulted from alcohol toxicity rather than LPS production in the gut. The prediction of functional profiles from metagenomic 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) data revealed different functional profiles in each group. The predicted aldehyde dehydrogenase tended to increase in alcoholic mice administered allicin. The predicted LPS-related pathway and LPS biosynthesis protein results exhibited a similar trend as plasma LPS levels. Thus, alcohol and allicin intake shapes the gut microbiota and its functional profile and improves the CD14-TLR4 pathway to alleviate inflammation in the liver.


Asunto(s)
Hígado Graso Alcohólico/tratamiento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Ácidos Sulfínicos/administración & dosificación , Animales , Etanol/efectos adversos , Hígado Graso Alcohólico/inmunología , Hígado Graso Alcohólico/microbiología , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/inmunología , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/inmunología , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/inmunología , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Receptor Toll-Like 4/genética , Receptor Toll-Like 4/inmunología , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/genética , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/inmunología
3.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 103(4): e21654, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916310

RESUMEN

To study dietary pH effects on Lymantria dispar asiatica larvae and provide a theoretical basis for its control in different forests, phosphate buffers (PBs) of pH 6, 7, and 8 were used to prepare experimental diets. The diet prepared with pH 6 PB was named as DPB6, with pH 8 PB as DPB8, and with pH 7 PB as DPB7 (control). The dietary pH was 5.00 in DPB6, 6.05 in control, and 6.50 in DPB8. After feeding on the diets with different pH values for 84 hr, fourth-instar caterpillars were randomly collected. Growth and various physiological traits were determined and 16S recombinant DNA sequencing was performed using the intestinal microflora of surviving larvae. Results showed that the mortality was 30% in DPB6, and 10% in DPB8, while no mortality was observed in control. The partial least squares discriminant analyses suggested that diets prepared with PB of different pH resulted in different food intake, amount of produced feces, weight gain, digestive enzyme activities, and antioxidant enzyme activities in larvae. Interestingly, both the highest weight gain and the lowest total antioxidant capacities were seen in control larvae. Results also showed that the larval gut microbiota community structure was significantly affected by dietary pH. Moreover, linear discriminant analysis effect size suggested that the family Acetobacteraceae in control, genus Prevotella in DPB8, and genus Lactococcus, family Flavobacteriaceae, family Mitochondria, and family Burkholderiaceae in DPB6 contributed to the diversity of the larval gut microbial community.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Mariposas Nocturnas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Mariposas Nocturnas/microbiología , Animales , Dieta , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Larva/crecimiento & desarrollo , Larva/microbiología
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(6): 1750-1759, 2020 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971384

RESUMEN

Alcohol is a globally well-established cause of fatty liver disease (FLD). Increased salt consumption is associated with an increased prevalence of adipocyte hypertrophy and liver injury. In this study, high dietary salt potentiated chronic alcohol-induced hepatic damage. We explored the physiological mechanism of alcoholic FLD in the gastrointestinal tract. Male C57BL/6J mice (8-week-old) were fed a high-salt diet (HSD; 4% NaCl) with or without chronic ethanol (CE) for 1 month. The fecal microbiota, serum biochemical indices, intestinal permeability, level of liver damage, and liver mitochondria were evaluated. The HSD, CE, and their combination (HSDE) significantly changed the gut microbiota's structure, and the HSDE mice contained more probiotic species (e.g., Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus). The serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase levels were increased, and the lipid was accumulated in the liver tissues in the CE, HSD, and HSDE groups, which indicated liver damage, especially in the HSDE group. The increased intestinal permeability and mitochondrial dysfunction in the liver cells caused greater injury in the HSDE group than in the other groups. Thus, consuming HSD with alcohol contributes to FLD development and progression.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Hígado Graso Alcohólico/microbiología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Cloruro de Sodio Dietético/metabolismo , Animales , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Etanol/efectos adversos , Etanol/metabolismo , Hígado Graso Alcohólico/etiología , Hígado Graso Alcohólico/metabolismo , Heces/microbiología , Tracto Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Tracto Gastrointestinal/microbiología , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Cloruro de Sodio Dietético/efectos adversos
5.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(2): 289-302, 2020 Jan 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961431

RESUMEN

Preeclampsia (PE) is regarded as a pregnancy-associated hypertension disorder that is related to excessive inflammatory responses. Although the gut microbiota (GM) and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been related to hypertension, their effects on PE remain unknown. We determined the GM abundance and faecal SCFA levels by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing and gas chromatography, respectively, using faecal samples from 27 patients with severe PE and 36 healthy, pregnant control subjects. We found that patients with PE had significantly decreased GM diversity and altered GM abundance. At the phylum level, patients with PE exhibited decreased abundance of Firmicutes albeit increased abundance of Proteobacteria; at the genus level, patients with PE had lower abundance of Blautia, Eubacterium_rectale, Eubacterium_hallii, Streptococcus, Bifidobacterium, Collinsella, Alistipes, and Subdoligranulum, albeit higher abundance of Enterobacter and Escherichia_Shigella. The faecal levels of butyric and valeric acids were significantly decreased in patients with PE and significantly correlated with the above-mentioned differential GM abundance. We predicted significantly increased abundance of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-synthesis pathway and significantly decreased abundance of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) pathway in patients with PE, based on phylogenetic reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt). Finally, we evaluated the effects of oral butyrate on LPS-induced hypertension in pregnant rats. We found that butyrate significantly reduced the blood pressure (BP) in these rats. In summary, we provide the first evidence linking GM dysbiosis and reduced faecal SCFA to PE and demonstrate that butyrate can directly regulate BP in vivo, suggesting its potential as a therapeutic agent for PE.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos Volátiles/análisis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiología , Hipertensión/fisiopatología , Preeclampsia/fisiopatología , Adulto , Animales , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Presión Sanguínea/efectos de los fármacos , Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Butiratos/administración & dosificación , Butiratos/análisis , Butiratos/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles/metabolismo , Heces/química , Heces/microbiología , Femenino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Hipertensión/metabolismo , Hipertensión/microbiología , Ácidos Pentanoicos/análisis , Ácidos Pentanoicos/metabolismo , Dinámica Poblacional , Preeclampsia/metabolismo , Preeclampsia/microbiología , Embarazo , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Ratas Sprague-Dawley
6.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 551-556, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892611

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/AIM: To investigate the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on gut microbiota. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty adults with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency [25(OH)D <30 ng/ml] were enrolled and given 600, 4,000 or 10,000 IUs/day of oral vitamin D3 Stool samples were collected at baseline and 8 weeks for identifying gut microbiota using 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing. RESULTS: Baseline serum 25(OH)D was associated with increased relative abundance of Akkermansia and decreased relative abundance of Porphyromonas (p<0.05). After the intervention, we observed a dose-dependent increase in relative abundance of Bacteroides with a significant difference between the 600 IUs and the 10,000 IUs groups (p=0.027), and Parabacteroides with a significant difference between the 600 IUs and the 4,000 IUs groups (p=0.039). CONCLUSION: Increased serum 25(OH)D was associated with increased beneficial bacteria and decreased pathogenic bacteria. A dose-dependent increase in bacteria associated with decreased inflammatory bowel disease activity was observed after vitamin D3 supplementation.


Asunto(s)
Colecalciferol/administración & dosificación , Colecalciferol/farmacología , Suplementos Dietéticos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Administración Oral , Adulto , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Método Doble Ciego , Humanos
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(3): 779-787, 2020 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894986

RESUMEN

The chain length of fructan determines its different physiological effects. This study is to explore the effects of low-performance inulin [LPI, degree of polymerization (DP) ≤ 9] and high-performance inulin (HPI, DP ≥ 23) on obesity-associated liver injury of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding mice and its underlying mechanism. Eight weeks of supplementation of C57BL/6J mice with HPI, relative to LPI (p < 0.05), caused the more efficient improvement against the HFD-induced liver insulin resistance through activating IRS1/PI3K/Akt pathway and reduced protein expressions of inflammatory factors nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the liver. HPI exhibited the more positive effects on liver steatosis by inhibiting acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) in comparison with LPI (p < 0.05). HPI also increased acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid levels in the colon of HFD-fed mice (p < 0.05). Compared to LPI, HPI feeding of HFD-fed mice led to the more effective decrease in the Firmicutes abundance from 72.1% to 34.5%, but a more significant increase in the Bacteroidetes population from 19.8 to 57.1% at the phyla level, and increased the abundance of Barnesiella, Bacteroides, and Parabacteroides at the genus level (p < 0.05). Depending on DP, HPI exerts the more positive regulation on liver injury and gut microbiota dysfunction than LPI.


Asunto(s)
Disbiosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Inulina/administración & dosificación , Inulina/química , Hígado/lesiones , Obesidad/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Disbiosis/genética , Disbiosis/metabolismo , Disbiosis/microbiología , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Obesos , FN-kappa B/genética , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Obesidad/genética , Obesidad/metabolismo , Obesidad/microbiología , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasas/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinasas/metabolismo , Polimerizacion
8.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110896, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654707

RESUMEN

Metal oxide nanoparticles (NP) are increasingly used in the food and agriculture industries, making human consumption nearly unavoidable. The goal of this study was to use the Gallus gallus (broiler chicken) intra-amniotic administration of physiologically relevant concentrations of TiO2, SiO2, and ZnO to better understand the effects of NP exposure on gut health and function. Immediately after hatch, blood, cecum, and small intestine were collected for assessment of iron (Fe)-metabolism, zinc (Zn)-metabolism, brush border membrane (BBM) functional, and pro-inflammatory related proteins gene expression; blood Fe and Zn levels; cecum weight; and the relative abundance of intestinal microflora. NP type, dose, and the presence or absence of minerals was shown to result in altered mineral transporter, BBM functional, and pro-inflammatory gene expression. Metal oxide NP also altered the abundance of intestinal bacterial populations. Overall, the data suggest that the in vivo results align with in vitro studies, and that NP have the potential to negatively affect intestinal functionality and health.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Nanopartículas del Metal/toxicidad , Microvellosidades/efectos de los fármacos , Dióxido de Silicio/toxicidad , Titanio/toxicidad , Óxido de Zinc/toxicidad , Amnios , Animales , Ciego/efectos de los fármacos , Ciego/microbiología , Pollos , Inyecciones , Nanopartículas del Metal/administración & dosificación , Tamaño de los Órganos/efectos de los fármacos , Dióxido de Silicio/administración & dosificación , Titanio/administración & dosificación , Óxido de Zinc/administración & dosificación
9.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125105, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675589

RESUMEN

In this study, Procambarus clarkii (P. clarkii) were exposed to different concentrations (0, 2, 5 and 10 mg/L) of cadmium (Cd). We studied the effects of Cd exposure on intestinal histology and microbiota in P. clarkii. The results demonstrated that exposure to Cd caused histological alterations in the intestines of P. clarkii. Meanwhile, high-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that Cd exposure could alter the richness, diversity, and composition of intestinal microbiota in P. clarkii. At the phylum level, the relative abundances of the prevalent phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, and Actinobacteria changed significantly after exposure to Cd. At the genus level, the most prevalent genera with significant difference in relative abundance were Bacteroides, Clostridium XlVb, Hafnia, Buttiauxella, Shewanella, Anaerorhabdus, Alistipes, Arcobacter, Azoarcus, Chryseobacterium, and so on. Furthermore, functional prediction analysis of intestinal microbial communities showed that Cd exposure could significantly alter the pathways related to metabolism, diseases, cellular processes, and so on. Taken together, exposure to Cd could induce intestinal histological damage and affect intestinal microbiota composition and functions of P. clarkii. Our study can be an important step toward a better understanding of the toxic effects of Cd on aquatic crustaceans.


Asunto(s)
Astacoidea/efectos de los fármacos , Cadmio/toxicidad , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Intestinos/anatomía & histología , Microbiota/efectos de los fármacos , Actinobacteria , Animales , Bacteroidetes , Firmicutes , Agua Dulce , Intestinos/efectos de los fármacos
10.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113463, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677875

RESUMEN

Growing evidence suggests that metallic oxide nanoparticles can pose a severe risk to the health of invertebrates. Previous attention has been mostly paid to the effects of metallic oxide nanoparticles on the survival, growth and physiology of animals. In comparison, the effects on gut microbiota and incidence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soil fauna remain poorly understood. We conducted a microcosm study to explore the responses of the non-target soil invertebrate Enchytraeus crypticus gut microbiota and resistomes to copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) and copper nitrate by using bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons sequencing and high throughput quantitative PCR. The results showed that exposure to Cu2+ resulted in higher bioaccumulation (P < 0.05) and lower body weight and reproduction (P < 0.05) of Enchytraeus crypticus than exposure to CuO NPs. Nevertheless, exposure to CuO NPs for 21 days markedly increased the alpha-diversity of the gut microbiota of Enchytraeus crypticus (P < 0.05) and shifted the gut microbial communities, with a significant decline in the relative abundance of the phylum Planctomycetes (from 37.26% to 19.80%, P < 0.05) and a significant elevation in the relative abundance of the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Acidobacteria (P < 0.05). The number of detected ARGs in the Enchytraeus crypticus gut significantly decreased from 45 in the Control treatment to 16 in the Cu(NO3)2 treatment and 20 in the CuO NPs treatment. The abundance of ARGs in the Enchytraeus crypticus gut were also significantly decreased to 38.48% when exposure to Cu(NO3)2 and 44.90% when exposure to CuO NPs (P < 0.05) compared with the controls. These results extend our understanding of the effects of metallic oxide nanoparticles on the gut microbiota and resistome of soil invertebrates.


Asunto(s)
Cobre/toxicidad , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Nanopartículas del Metal/toxicidad , Oligoquetos/fisiología , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Animales , Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiología , Microbiota/efectos de los fármacos , Nitratos , Oligoquetos/efectos de los fármacos , Oligoquetos/microbiología , ARN Ribosómico 16S , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(5): 1237-1247, 2020 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722525

RESUMEN

Alcoholic liver injury, known as the most general result of chronic alcohol intake, is induced by inflammatory responses, which is activated by intestine-derived endotoxins formed from intestinal dysbiosis. The hepatoprotective activity of rice bran phenolic extract (RBPE) on ethanol-fed mice was investigated for the first time in this study, and the underlying mechanism was explored from gut microbiota, barrier function, and hepatic inflammation. Mice were fed an alcohol-containing liquid diet alone or in mixture with RBPE for 8 weeks. RBPE treatment mitigated ethanol-induced liver damage, evidenced by the declined lipid profile levels and hepatic function markers. Moreover, ethanol intake induced intestinal microbiota dysbiosis, which was attenuated by RBPE supplementation. RBPE treatment improved the alcohol-induced decrease in the expression of ZO-1, Claudin-1, Claudin-4, and Reg3g, revealing the ameliorative effect of RBPE on intestinal barrier dysfunction. Furthermore, RBPE treatment repressed the alcohol-induced trigger of the hepatic endotoxin-TLR4-NF-κB pathway, followed by the mitigated liver inflammation. The findings indicate that RBPE supplementation ameliorates intestinal microbiota dysbiosis and barrier dysfunction, inactivates the endotoxin-TLR4-NF-κB pathway, and represses inflammatory responses in liver, and therefore, intake of RBPE or brown rice may be an effective way to mitigate alcoholic liver injury.


Asunto(s)
Disbiosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiología , Hepatopatías Alcohólicas/prevención & control , FN-kappa B/inmunología , Oryza/química , Fenoles/administración & dosificación , Extractos Vegetales/administración & dosificación , Receptor Toll-Like 4/inmunología , Animales , Disbiosis/genética , Disbiosis/inmunología , Disbiosis/microbiología , Endotoxinas/efectos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/inmunología , Hepatopatías Alcohólicas/genética , Hepatopatías Alcohólicas/inmunología , Hepatopatías Alcohólicas/microbiología , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , FN-kappa B/genética , Sustancias Protectoras/administración & dosificación , Receptor Toll-Like 4/genética
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 704: 135273, 2020 Feb 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806321

RESUMEN

The widespread use of nanomaterials has raised concerns about the potential impact of nanoparticles on human health and the natural environment. Although high doses of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) are toxic to animals, low doses of TiO2 NPs have been shown to benefit their growth and immune functions. Intestinal microorganisms are critical in maintaining the normal life activities and ensuring the health of their host. The intestinal microorganisms of lepidopteran insects can promote growth and development, foster insecticide resistance, and improve resilience against diseases. However, to date, there is no report on the effects of TiO2 NPs on the intestinal microbiota of lepidopteran insects. In this work, we examined the effects of a low dose of TiO2 NPs (5 mg/L) on the intestinal microbiota of silkworm (Bombyx mori). The results showed that the exposure to TiO2 NPs did not alter the dominant species of intestinal microbiota significantly, but changed the abundance of individual species of intestinal microorganisms. Specifically, exposure to TiO2 NPs increased the uniformity of intestinal microorganisms. The abundance of Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group, involved in the metabolism of nutrients, as well as the abundance of Pseudomonas and Sphingomonas, both involved in detoxification and disease resistance, was increased. Meanwhile, among the non-dominant species, the conditional pathogenic bacteria Serratia exhibited decreased abundance. In addition, exposure to TiO2 NPs also increased the abundance of norank_f_Bacteroidales_S24-7_group, which could help relieve inflammation and regulate immune functions. The current study is the first to report the effects of TiO2 NPs on the intestinal microbiota of lepidopteran insects. The results demonstrated that TiO2 NPs could alter the composition of the intestinal microbiota of B. mori, and thus promote its growth and development, regulate its immune functions, and enhance its resistance to insecticide.


Asunto(s)
Bombyx/microbiología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidad , Titanio/toxicidad , Animales , Proteínas de Insectos , Insecticidas , Larva
13.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 84(3): 613-620, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718523

RESUMEN

Cellulose nanofiber (CN) consumption with exercise could be a potential strategy to control obesity. Here, we studied the effects of CN supplementation and voluntary exercise on obesity and gut microbiota in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Consumption of CN increased voluntary wheel running activity. CN intake and exercise together suppressed the increase in body weight and fat mass, and improved glucose tolerance. The fecal gut microbiota was analyzed by sequencing 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Principal component analysis revealed a shift in the microbiota composition resulting from exercise, but not from CN supplementation. Erysipelotrichaceae and Rikenellaceae decreased with exercise. Exercise also increased Ruminococcaceae, whereas exercise and CN intake together increased Eubacteriaceae. These two families are butyrate producers. Exercise increased the amount of acetate in the cecum. These results suggest that CN consumption improves exercise performance and exerts anti-obesity effects by modulating the balance of the gut microbiota.


Asunto(s)
Celulosa/farmacología , Dieta Alta en Grasa , Fibras de la Dieta/farmacología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Nanofibras , Obesidad/prevención & control , Condicionamiento Físico Animal , Tejido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animales , Peso Corporal , Ciego/metabolismo , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
14.
Bull Cancer ; 107(1): 72-83, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582175

RESUMEN

Allogeneic hematopoïetic stem cell transplantation is one of the most efficient curative treatment for acute leukemia. But it is also a heavy process with an important risk of complications, particularly infection and graft versus host disease. Increasing data in literature show that an alteration of the intestinal microbiota of allogeneic stem cell recipients is associated with these complications. Indeed, treatments used during conditioning regimen lead to an impaired microbiota, which cannot fulfill its protective functions anymore. To limit this microbiota impairment, we could restore a healthy microbiota by a fecal microbiota transplantation, which has already shown its efficiency in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. The aim of this review is to describe the intestinal microbiota, the link between microbiota and complications of allogeneic stem cells transplantation, and the recent published data on fecal microbiota transplantation in this field.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trasplante de Células Madre Hematopoyéticas , Aloinjertos , Infecciones por Clostridium/etiología , Infecciones por Clostridium/prevención & control , Clostridium difficile , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Disbiosis/etiología , Disbiosis/microbiología , Disbiosis/terapia , Trasplante de Microbiota Fecal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiología , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de la radiación , Enfermedad Injerto contra Huésped/etiología , Enfermedad Injerto contra Huésped/microbiología , Trasplante de Células Madre Hematopoyéticas/efectos adversos , Humanos , Neoplasias/microbiología , Neoplasias/terapia , Recurrencia , Acondicionamiento Pretrasplante/efectos adversos
15.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(1): 161-169, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549206

RESUMEN

Many kinds of antibiotics have effects on intestinal structure and function. In the current experimental study, we evaluate the effect of oral florfenicol on intestinal barrier in mice. Thirty adult male mice were randomly divided into two groups, the group none (N) and the group florfenicol (F), the mice in group F were orally administered florfenicol 100 mg/kg body weight (BW) for 7 days. At day 8, mice were euthanized and sampled for the analysis of alterations in genes and proteins from jejunum, jejunum morphology and microbiota analysis. Administration of florfenicol caused higher liver index (P < 0.05). In the jejunum, mucosa injury and villus rupture, compared with the group N, the villus length and V/C (villus length/crypt depth) in group F were marked decrease (P < 0.01). The transcription level of Muc2 and occludin in group F were significantly lower than those in group N (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). The expression of APRIL, IL-17, IL-22, BAFF and sIgA on protein level were significantly down-regulated (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), while the expression of IL-10, TGF-ß, IL-6, IL-4 were significantly up-regulated (P < 0.01) in group F. The abundances of bacteria in Firmicutes and Lactobacillus decreased significantly (P < 0.01) in group F. Our results indicated that oral administration of florfenicol might have a negative impact on functions of intestinal mucosal barrier, immune system and the intestinal microbiota.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Tianfenicol/análogos & derivados , Administración Oral , Animales , Antibacterianos/administración & dosificación , Antibacterianos/efectos adversos , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Firmicutes/efectos de los fármacos , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Interleucina-10 , Yeyuno/efectos de los fármacos , Lactobacillus/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Ratones , Distribución Aleatoria , Tianfenicol/administración & dosificación , Tianfenicol/efectos adversos , Tianfenicol/farmacología
16.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 41(1): 45-59, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630605

RESUMEN

The present study investigated the effects of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (FOS) as dietary supplements on stress, immune response, gut microbiota, growth, and survivability of three different treatment groups of Pacific white shrimp, Litopaneous vennamei, cultured in a recirculating system. The experiment was conducted over a 35-day trial period. Shrimps were fed diets, 15 times a day using automated feeder, supplemented with GOS at 0%, 0.15%, and 0.30% by weight. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the enteric microbial community of shrimp fed the basal diet differed markedly (<80.0% similarity coefficient) from those fed FOS-supplemented diets. However, shrimp survival, weight gain, and immune responses among the treatment groups were good but not significantly different (P > 0.05), probably due to the limited length of the feeding trial.


Asunto(s)
Acuicultura , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Oligosacáridos/farmacología , Penaeidae/efectos de los fármacos , Alimentación Animal , Animales , Suplementos Dietéticos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/inmunología , Oligosacáridos/administración & dosificación , Penaeidae/crecimiento & desarrollo , Penaeidae/inmunología
17.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110865, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618664

RESUMEN

Development is especially sensitive to Chlorpyrifos (CPF) toxicity, associated with several neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders where motor function dysfunction is a core symptom. Amongst the alternative molecular targets to cholinesterases inhibition, developmental CPF alters different components in the most important neurotransmitter systems, although this depends on the exposure period. Exposure during the late postnatal preweaning stage is the least studied by far. This period includes essential neurodevelopmental processes and has an important translational meaning. The present study analyzed the influence of low doses of CPF on this developmental window on locomotor activity and the state of the different neurotransmitter systems by pharmacological challenges. Brain gene expression and microbiome modulation following CPF were also analyzed. CPF exposure long-term increased spontaneous vertical activity, female's activity following acute stress, hyposensitized the cholinergic system and hypersensitized the GABAergic system, up-regulated both muscarinic 2 receptor and GABA-A-α2 receptor subunit in the dorsal striatum and the frontal cortex, respectively and induced gut microbiota dysbiosis at both genus and species levels. The present study supports alternative molecular targets than the ChEs following late postnatal, preweaning exposure to low doses of CPF, focusing on both cholinergic and GABAergic systems and the gut microbiome as an important factor.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/efectos de los fármacos , Cloropirifos/toxicidad , Inhibidores de la Colinesterasa/toxicidad , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Insecticidas/toxicidad , Locomoción/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Femenino , Masculino , Embarazo , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Receptor Muscarínico M2/metabolismo , Destete , Ácido gamma-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 128-137, 2020 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825613

RESUMEN

Salmonellosis is a world-wide epidemic, and n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) possess various health benefits. This study is aimed to investigate the preventive effects of n-3 LCPUFAs against Salmonella infection. By pretreatment with n-3 LCPUFAs, but not n-6 LCPUFAs, the survival rate of the infected mice was increased. Further studies showed that n-3 LCPUFAs significantly increased the fecal contents of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The cytokine expression in the liver and production in serum were both modulated by n-3 LCPUFAs into an anti-inflammatory profile against infection. Moreover, the changes in gut microbiota by n-3 LCPUFAs favored the host against pathogens, closely related to the modified SCFA production and immune responses. In conclusion, n-3 LCPUFAs prevented Salmonella infection through multiple mechanisms, especially by the interaction with gut microbiota and host immunology. Our results suggested great perspectives for n-3 LCPUFAs and their related products to control the prevalence of Salmonella, a most predominant food-borne pathogen.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos/análisis , Ácidos Grasos Omega-3/administración & dosificación , Infecciones por Salmonella/prevención & control , Animales , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Bacterias/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles/metabolismo , Femenino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Salmonella/efectos de los fármacos , Salmonella/fisiología , Infecciones por Salmonella/microbiología
19.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110872, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622728

RESUMEN

The gut microbiota comprises a large number of microorganisms, whose composition can be modified by genetic and environmental factors. The host's genetic background, including the different isoforms of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene, can exert an influence over microbiota composition. Exposure to the widely-used pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), can lead to dysbiosis and alter the levels of metabolites produced by the microbiota, such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). This study was aimed at assessing the contribution of the APOE genotype and early exposure to CPF on gut microbiota and SCFA in brain. For it, C57BL/6, apoE3-and apoE4-TR mice were orally exposed to CPF from postnatal day (PND) 10 to PND 15. Microbiota in the gut and SCFA in the brain were assessed at PND 15 after CPF exposure. Differences between genotypes at different taxonomic levels were found, A. muciniphila presented greater abundance in APOE4 genotype, but was reduced by CPF exposure. APOE and CPF influenced cerebral SCFAs, with APOE3 genotype showing the highest levels of acetic, propionic and butyric acids and CPF exposure inducing the highest levels of isovaleric and 4-methylvaleric acids. These results provide further knowledge about gut microbiota and cerebral SCFAs composition at early ages and their modulation by APOE and postnatal CPF exposure.


Asunto(s)
Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Encéfalo/efectos de los fármacos , Cloropirifos/toxicidad , Ácidos Grasos Volátiles/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Genotipo , Insecticidas/toxicidad , Animales , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cloropirifos/administración & dosificación , Femenino , Insecticidas/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Destete
20.
Int J Cancer ; 146(7): 1780-1790, 2020 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291465

RESUMEN

The prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has markedly increased worldwide in the last decade. Alterations of bile acid metabolism and gut microbiota have been reported to play vital roles in intestinal carcinogenesis. About trillions of bacteria have inhabited in the human gut and maintained the balance of host metabolism. Bile acids are one of numerous metabolites that are synthesized in the liver and further metabolized by the gut microbiota, and are essential in maintaining the normal gut microbiota and lipid digestion. Multiple receptors such as FXR, GPBAR1, PXR, CAR and VDR act as sensors of bile acids have been reported. In this review, we mainly discussed interplay between bile acid metabolism and gut microbiota in intestinal carcinogenesis. We then summarized the critical role of bile acids receptors involving in CRC, and also addressed the rationale of multiple interventions for CRC management by regulating bile acids-microbiota axis such as probiotics, metformin, ursodeoxycholic acid and fecal microbiota transplantation. Thus, by targeting the bile acids-microbiota axis may provide novel therapeutic modalities in CRC prevention and treatment.


Asunto(s)
Transformación Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiología , Animales , Ácidos y Sales Biliares/metabolismo , Terapia Biológica , Biomarcadores , Neoplasias Colorrectales/etiología , Neoplasias Colorrectales/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorrectales/patología , Neoplasias Colorrectales/terapia , Disbiosis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/patología , Redes y Vías Metabólicas/efectos de los fármacos , Terapia Molecular Dirigida , Unión Proteica , Receptores Citoplasmáticos y Nucleares/metabolismo
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