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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246038, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339397

RESUMEN

Abstract Isla Arena is located in the coordinate 20° 70´ N - 90° 45´ W, from Campeche, Mexico. In these estuaries, the ocean mixes with fresh water, and ecosystems are concentrated where petenes and pink flamingos proliferate. Crustaceans and mollusks abound in the sea. Despite its enormous marine wealth, there are no studies carried out on which halophilic microorganisms are present in these waters. In this work, the diversity and structure of the microbial community was investigated through a metagenomics approach and corroborated for sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. It was found that the phylum Fimicutes predominates with more than 50%, in almost the same proportion of the class Bacilli and with almost 41% of relative abundance of the order Bacillales. The sequencing results showed that one of the samples presented a high percentage of similarity (99.75%) using the Nucleotide BLAST program with a peculiar microorganism: Bacillus subtilis. This microorganism is one of the best characterized bacteria among the gram-positive ones. Our results demonstrate that B. subtilis can be an efficient source of proteases, lipases and cellulases, from halophilic microbial communities located in poorly explored areas.


Resumo Isla Arena está localizada na coordenada 20°70'N - 90°45'W, de Campeche, México. Nesses estuários, o oceano se mistura com a água doce e os ecossistemas se concentram onde proliferam petenos e flamingos rosa. Crustáceos e moluscos abundam no mar. Apesar de sua enorme riqueza marinha, não há estudos realizados sobre a presença de microrganismos halofílicos nessas águas. Neste trabalho, a diversidade e estrutura da comunidade microbiana foram investigadas através de uma abordagem metagenômica e corroboradas para o sequenciamento de genes 16S rRNA. Verificou-se que o filo Fimicutes predomina com mais de 50%, quase na mesma proporção da classe Bacilli e com quase 41% de abundância relativa da ordem Bacillales. Os resultados do sequenciamento mostraram que uma das amostras apresentou alto percentual de similaridade (99,75%) pelo programa Nucleotide BLAST com um microrganismo peculiar: Bacillus subtilis. Nossos resultados demonstram que B. subtilis pode ser uma fonte eficiente de proteases, lipases e celulases, provenientes de comunidades microbianas halofílicas localizadas em áreas pouco exploradas.


Asunto(s)
Archaea , Microbiota , Filogenia , Bacterias/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , México
2.
Environ Pollut ; 302: 118961, 2022 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35183667

RESUMEN

The intestinal microbiota has a key role in human health via the interaction with the somatic and immune cells in the digestive tract environment. Food, through matrix effect, nutrient and non-nutrient molecules, is a key regulator of microbiota diversity. As a food contaminant, the pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) has an effect on the composition of the intestinal microbiota and induces perturbation of microbiota. Prebiotics (and notably inulin) are known for their ability to promote an equilibrium of the microbiota that favours saccharolytic bacteria. The SHIME® dynamic in vitro model of the human intestine was exposed to CPF and inulin concomitantly for 30 days, in order to assess variations in both the bacterial populations and their metabolites. Various analyses of the microbiota (notably temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis) revealed a protective effect of the prebiotic through inhibition of the enterobacterial (E. coli) population. Bifidobacteria were only temporarily inhibited at D15 and recovered at D30. Although other potentially beneficial populations (lactobacilli) were not greatly modified, their activity and that of the saccharolytic bacteria in general were highlighted by an increase in levels of short-chain fatty acids and more specifically butyrate. Given the known role of host-microbiota communication, CPF's impact on the body's homeostasis remains to be determined.


Asunto(s)
Cloropirifos , Microbiota , Cloropirifos/toxicidad , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Humanos , Inulina/metabolismo , Inulina/farmacología , Prebióticos/análisis
3.
Environ Microbiol Rep ; 14(1): 60-69, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797028

RESUMEN

Root endospheres house complex and diverse bacterial communities, of which many strains have not been cultivated yet by means of the currently available isolation techniques. The Prospector® (General Automation Lab Technologies, San Carlos, CA, USA), an automated and high-throughput bacterial cultivation system, was applied to analyse the root endomicrobiome of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). By using deep sequencing, we compared the results obtained with the Prospector and the traditional solid medium culturing and extinction methods. We found that the species richness did not differ and that the amount of previously uncultured bacteria did not increase, but that the bacterial diversity isolated by the three methods varied. In addition, the tryptic soy broth and King's B media provided a lower, but different, diversity of bacteria than that of Reasoner's 2A (R2A) medium when used within the Prospector system and the number of unique bacterial strains did not weigh up against those isolated with the R2A medium. Thus, to cultivate as broad a variety of bacteria as possible, divergent isolation techniques should be used in parallel. Thanks to its speed and limited manual requirements, the Prospector is a valuable system to enlarge root microbiome culture collections.


Asunto(s)
Lechuga , Microbiota , Medios de Cultivo , Fuerza de la Mano , Ríos
5.
Microb Genom ; 8(5)2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503723

RESUMEN

Metagenomics has become a prominent technology to study the functional potential of all organisms in a microbial community. Most studies focus on the bacterial content of these communities, while ignoring eukaryotic microbes. Indeed, many metagenomics analysis pipelines silently assume that all contigs in a metagenome are prokaryotic, likely resulting in less accurate annotation of eukaryotes in metagenomes. Early detection of eukaryotic contigs allows for eukaryote-specific gene prediction and functional annotation. Here, we developed a classifier that distinguishes eukaryotic from prokaryotic contigs based on foundational differences between these taxa in terms of gene structure. We first developed Whokaryote, a random forest classifier that uses intergenic distance, gene density and gene length as the most important features. We show that, with an estimated recall, precision and accuracy of 94, 96 and 95 %, respectively, this classifier with features grounded in biology can perform almost as well as the classifiers EukRep and Tiara, which use k-mer frequencies as features. By retraining our classifier with Tiara predictions as an additional feature, the weaknesses of both types of classifiers are compensated; the result is Whokaryote+Tiara, an enhanced classifier that outperforms all individual classifiers, with an F1 score of 0.99 for both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, while still being fast. In a reanalysis of metagenome data from a disease-suppressive plant endospheric microbial community, we show how using Whokaryote+Tiara to select contigs for eukaryotic gene prediction facilitates the discovery of several biosynthetic gene clusters that were missed in the original study. Whokaryote (+Tiara) is wrapped in an easily installable package and is freely available from https://github.com/LottePronk/whokaryote.


Asunto(s)
Metagenoma , Microbiota , Bacterias/genética , Eucariontes/genética , Metagenómica/métodos , Microbiota/genética
6.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1853): 20210156, 2022 06 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491599

RESUMEN

Social corbiculate bees are major pollinators. They have characteristic bacterial microbiomes associated with their hives and their guts. In honeybees and bumblebees, worker guts contain a microbiome composed of distinctive bacterial taxa shown to benefit hosts. These benefits include stimulating immune and metabolic pathways, digesting or detoxifying food, and defending against pathogens and parasites. Stressors including toxins and poor nutrition disrupt the microbiome and increase susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens. Administering probiotic bacterial strains may improve the health of individual bees and of hives, and several commercial probiotics are available for bees. However, evidence for probiotic benefits is lacking or mixed. Most bacterial species used in commercial probiotics are not native to bee guts. We present new experimental results showing that cultured strains of native bee gut bacteria colonize robustly while bacteria in a commercial probiotic do not establish in bee guts. A defined community of native bee gut bacteria resembles unperturbed native gut communities in its activation of genes for immunity and metabolism in worker bees. Although many questions remain unanswered, the development of natural probiotics for honeybees, or for commercially managed bumblebees, is a promising direction for protecting the health of managed bee colonies. This article is part of the theme issue 'Natural processes influencing pollinator health: from chemistry to landscapes'.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Probióticos , Urticaria , Animales , Bacterias/genética , Abejas
7.
Clin Transl Med ; 12(5): e790, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522900

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), Staphylococcus aureus frequently colonizes lesions and is hypothesized to be linked to disease severity and progression. Treatments that reduce S. aureus colonization without significantly affecting the skin commensal microbiota are needed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study, we tested ATx201 (niclosamide), a small molecule, on its efficacy to reduce S. aureus and propensity to evolve resistance in vitro. Various cutaneous formulations were then tested in a superficial skin infection model. Finally, a Phase 2 randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial was performed to investigate the impact of ATx201 OINTMENT 2% on S. aureus colonization and skin microbiome composition in patients with mild-to-severe AD (EudraCT:2016-003501-33). ATx201 has a narrow minimal inhibitory concentration distribution (.125-.5 µg/ml) consistent with its mode of action - targeting the proton motive force effectively stopping cell growth. In murine models, ATx201 can effectively treat superficial skin infections of methicillin-resistant S. aureus. In a Phase 2 trial in patients with mild-to-severe AD (N = 36), twice-daily treatment with ATx201 OINTMENT 2% effectively reduces S. aureus colonization in quantitative colony forming unit (CFU) analysis (primary endpoint: 94.4% active vs. 38.9% vehicle success rate, p = .0016) and increases the Shannon diversity of the skin microbiome at day 7 significantly compared to vehicle. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that ATx201 could become a new treatment modality as a decolonizing agent.


Asunto(s)
Dermatitis Atópica , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina , Microbiota , Infecciones Estafilocócicas , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Dermatitis Atópica/tratamiento farmacológico , Dermatitis Atópica/patología , Humanos , Ratones , Niclosamida/farmacología , Pomadas/farmacología , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus
8.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2555, 2022 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538056

RESUMEN

Exercise and diet are treatments for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and prediabetes, however, how exercise and diet interventions impact gut microbiota in patients is incompletely understood. We previously reported a 8.6-month, four-arm (Aerobic exercise, n = 29; Diet, n = 28; Aerobic exercise + Diet, n = 29; No intervention, n = 29) randomized, singe blinded (for researchers), and controlled intervention in patients with NAFLD and prediabetes to assess the effect of interventions on the primary outcomes of liver fat content and glucose metabolism. Here we report the third primary outcome of the trial-gut microbiota composition-in participants who completed the trial (22 in Aerobic exercise, 22 in Diet, 23 in Aerobic exercise + Diet, 18 in No Intervention). We show that combined aerobic exercise and diet intervention are associated with diversified and stabilized keystone taxa, while exercise and diet interventions alone increase network connectivity and robustness between taxa. No adverse effects were observed with the interventions. In addition, in exploratory ad-hoc analyses we find that not all subjects responded to the intervention in a similar manner, when using differentially altered gut microbe amplicon sequence variants abundance to classify the responders and low/non-responders. A personalized gut microbial network at baseline could predict the individual responses in liver fat to exercise intervention. Our findings suggest an avenue for developing personalized intervention strategies for treatment of NAFLD based on host-gut microbiome ecosystem interactions, however, future studies with large sample size are needed to validate these discoveries. The Trial Registration Number is ISRCTN 42622771.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico , Estado Prediabético , Dieta , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Humanos , Hígado , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/complicaciones , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/terapia , Estado Prediabético/complicaciones
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7628, 2022 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538098

RESUMEN

Amylase genes reside in a structurally complex locus, and their copy numbers vary greatly, and several studies have reported their association with obesity. The mechanism of this effect was partially explained by changes in the oral and gut microbiome compositions; however, a detailed mechanism has been unclarified. In this study, we showed their association with diabetes in addition to obesity, and further discovered a plausible mechanism of this association based on the function of commensal bacteria. First, we confirmed that the amylase copy number in the population tends to be larger than that reported in other studies and that there is a positive association between obesity and diabetes (p = 1.89E-2 and 8.63E-3). Second, we identified that relative abundance of some genus level microbiome, Capnocytophaga, Dialister, and previously reported bacteria, were significantly associated with amylase copy numbers. Finally, through functional gene-set analysis using shotgun sequencing, we observed that the abundance of genes in the Acarbose pathway in the gut microbiome was significantly decreased with an increase in the amylase copy number (p-value = 5.80E-4). Our findings can partly explain the mechanism underlying obesity and diabetes in populations with high amylase copy numbers.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Microbiota , alfa-Amilasas Salivales , Amilasas/genética , Variaciones en el Número de Copia de ADN , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Dosificación de Gen , Humanos , Japón , Microbiota/genética , Obesidad/epidemiología , Obesidad/genética , alfa-Amilasas Salivales/genética
10.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1853): 20210171, 2022 06 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491605

RESUMEN

Bee performance and well-being strongly depend on access to sufficient and appropriate resources, in particular pollen and nectar of flowers, which constitute the major basis of bee nutrition. Pollen-derived microbes appear to play an important but still little explored role in the plant pollen-bee interaction dynamics, e.g. through affecting quantities and ratios of important nutrients. To better understand how microbes in pollen collected by bees may affect larval health through nutrition, we investigated correlations between the floral, bacterial and nutritional composition of larval provisions and the gut bacterial communities of the solitary megachilid bee Osmia bicornis. Our study reveals correlations between the nutritional quality of pollen provisions and the complete bacterial community as well as individual members of both pollen provisions and bee guts. In particular pollen fatty acid profiles appear to interact with specific members of the pollen bacterial community, indicating that pollen-derived bacteria may play an important role in fatty acid provisioning. As increasing evidence suggests a strong effect of dietary fatty acids on bee performance, future work should address how the observed interactions between specific fatty acids and the bacterial community in larval provisions relate to health in O. bicornis. This article is part of the theme issue 'Natural processes influencing pollinator health: from chemistry to landscapes'.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos , Microbiota , Animales , Bacterias , Abejas , Larva/microbiología , Polen/microbiología
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7451, 2022 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523988

RESUMEN

Microbial life in soil is fueled by dissolved organic matter (DOM) that leaches from the litter layer. It is well known that decomposer communities adapt to the available litter source, but it remains unclear if they functionally compete or synergistically address different litter types. Therefore, we decomposed beech, oak, pine and grass litter from two geologically distinct sites in a lab-scale decomposition experiment. We performed a correlative network analysis on the results of direct infusion HR-MS DOM analysis and cross-validated functional predictions from 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and with DOM and metaproteomic analyses. Here we show that many functions are redundantly distributed within decomposer communities and that their relative expression is rapidly optimized to address litter-specific properties. However, community changes are likely forced by antagonistic mechanisms as we identified several natural antibiotics in DOM. As a consequence, the decomposer community is specializing towards the litter source and the state of decomposition (community divergence) but showing similar litter metabolomes (metabolome convergence). Our multi-omics-based results highlight that DOM not only fuels microbial life, but it additionally holds meta-metabolomic information on the functioning of ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Microbiota , 2,5-Dimetoxi-4-Metilanfetamina/metabolismo , Microbiota/genética , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Plantas/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , ARN Ribosómico 16S/metabolismo , Suelo , Microbiología del Suelo
12.
BMC Biol ; 20(1): 100, 2022 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524305

RESUMEN

Marine sponges (phylum Porifera) form symbioses with diverse microbial communities that can be transmitted between generations through their developmental stages. Here, we integrate embryology and microbiology to review how symbiotic microorganisms are transmitted in this early-diverging lineage. We describe that vertical transmission is widespread but not universal, that microbes are vertically transmitted during a select developmental window, and that properties of the developmental microbiome depends on whether a species is a high or low microbial abundance sponge. Reproduction, development, and symbiosis are thus deeply rooted, but why these partnerships form remains the central and elusive tenet of these developmental symbioses.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Poríferos , Animales , Filogenia , Poríferos/genética , Poríferos/microbiología , ARN Ribosómico 16S , Reproducción , Simbiosis
13.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(6): 187, 2022 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524899

RESUMEN

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has led to innovations in environmental metagenomics and investigations involving humans and microbes. However, it is necessary to analyze the components that will affect analysis of the method upon processing a large amount of information. In particular, the processing method after sample collection affects the NGS results, and it is necessary to check for inaccurate results. Here, we show that the microbial communities obtained from fingertip samples differ from those obtained from fingertips remaining on mobile phones and desks, when cultured or not for 24 h. We also confirmed changes in microbial communities in fingertip samples from desks incubated for 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 h. Samples of prints from mobile phones that are considerably vulnerable to external factors were not analyzed. Ratios of Firmicutes and Bacillus were, respectively, increased in cultures at the phylum and species levels. Collectively, we identified bacterial species that can aid in determining whether a sample has been cultured. In addition, although microbial communities differed depending on sample types, we confirmed changes after culture for 4 and 8 h. However, since this study is a sample limited to three types, it is necessary to analyze other types of samples in the same way and check whether they are applicable to all types. This strategy can verify the suitability of samples for deriving informative results from cultured or uncultured bacterial communities.


Asunto(s)
Metagenómica , Microbiota , Bacterias/genética , Firmicutes , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento/métodos , Humanos , Metagenómica/métodos , Microbiota/genética
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7509, 2022 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525865

RESUMEN

Dietary whole grain consumption has been postulated to have metabolic benefits. The purpose of this study was to compare a pregnancy diet containing 75% of total carbohydrates as refined grains with a diet of 75% of total carbohydrates as whole grains for pregnancy outcomes and effects on the microbiome. Gestational weight gain, glucose tolerance and newborn outcomes were measured on 248 enrolled compliant women from whom a subset of 103 women consented to give 108 vaginal and 109 anal swabs. The data presented here are limited to the patients from whom the vaginal and anal swabs were obtained in order to study the microbiome. A microbiome-16SrRNA survey-was characterized in these samples. Samples and measurements were obtained at the first obstetrical visit, before beginning a prescribed diet (T1-baseline) and after 17-32 weeks on the prescribed diet (T3). Food frequency questionnaires and total plasma alkylresorcinols were used as a measure of whole grain consumption. There were no dietary differences in maternal weight gain, birth weight, or glucose tolerance test. Mothers consuming the whole grains diet showed a trend of gestational decrease in vaginal bacterial alpha diversity, with increasing Lactobacillus-dominance. No significant difference was observed for the anal microbiome. The results suggest that diet modulations of the vaginal microbiome during gestation may have important implications for maternal and neonatal health and in the intergenerational transfer of maternal microbiome. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03232762.


Asunto(s)
Ganancia de Peso Gestacional , Microbiota , Dieta , Carbohidratos de la Dieta , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Embarazo , Granos Enteros
15.
Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol (Engl Ed) ; 97(5): 264-275, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526950

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: The microbiome is strongly implicated in a wide spectrum of immune-mediated diseases, whereas gut commensal microbiota plays a pivotal role in immune and intestinal homeostasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A thorough literature search was performed in PubMed database. An additional search was made in Google Scholar to complete the collected items. RESULTS: Due to complex interactions with the host genetics and other factors, intestinal dysbiosis has been linked to various immune-mediated disorders. In particular, the role of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of uveitis has been demonstrated by several studies, indicating that changes in the microbiome can trigger autoimmune ocular inflammatory processes or affect their severity. CONCLUSIONS: This review summarizes how alterations in the intestinal microbiota can conduce to immune-mediated ocular pathologies and how microbiome can be targeted in order to form novel therapeutic approaches to treat these severe and potentially blinding conditions.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Uveítis , Disbiosis/complicaciones , Humanos , Uveítis/etiología
16.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 45(5): 519-524, 2022 May 12.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35527469

RESUMEN

Bronchial asthma (asthma) is one of the most common chronic airway diseases, with more than 300 million people worldwide suffering from this disease. In recent years, studies have shown that compared with healthy people, the airway microecological structure and relative abundance of various flora of asthmatic patients have changed, and are related to the airway inflammatory phenotype of asthma. Airway microecology can affect the occurrence and development of asthma through immune response. The mechanism of interaction between airway microecology and asthma can provide new ideas for the accurate treatment of asthma. This article mainly reviewed the current research on airway microecology in asthma, and puts forward prospects for the accurate treatment of asthma in the future.


Asunto(s)
Asma , Microbiota , Humanos , Inmunidad
17.
Clin Transl Med ; 12(5): e865, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35542966

RESUMEN

Although evidence showing that Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is directly causative of atopic dermatitis (AD) is still lacking, there is evidence that S. aureus abundance is associated with disease flares and therapeutic responses. Patients receiving ATx201 OINTMENT 2% twice-daily had a significant reduction in the abundance of S. aureus and increasing Shannon diversity of skin microbiome compared to vehicle after seven days. A small molecule with a narrow-spectrum effect, especially on S. aureus, might be an attractive alternative for the treatment of AD.


Asunto(s)
Dermatitis Atópica , Microbiota , Infecciones Estafilocócicas , Dermatitis Atópica/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Piel , Staphylococcus aureus
19.
Neoplasia ; 29: 100800, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500546

RESUMEN

Dietary patterns contribute to cancer risk. Separately, microbial factors influence the development of several cancers. However, the interaction of diet and the microbiome and their joint contribution to cancer treatment response needs more research. The microbiome significantly impacts drug metabolism, immune activation, and response to immunotherapy. One of the critical factors affecting the microbiome structure and function is diet. Data demonstrate that the diet and microbiome composition affects the immune response. Moreover, malnutrition is a significant confounder to cancer therapy response. There is little understanding of the interaction of malnutrition with the microbiome in the context of cancer. This review aims to address the current knowledge of dietary intake patterns and malnutrition among cancer patients and the impact on treatment outcomes. Second, this review will provide evidence linking the microbiome to cancer treatment response and provide evidence of the potentially strong effect that diet could have on this interaction. This review will formulate critical questions that will need further research to understand the diet-microbiome relationship in cancer treatment response and directions for future research to guide us to precision nutrition therapy to improve cancer outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Desnutrición , Microbiota , Neoplasias , Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiología , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias/terapia , Estado Nutricional
20.
Environ Health ; 21(1): 46, 2022 05 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501856

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dietary habits have a profound influence on the metabolic activity of gut microorganisms and their influence on health. Concerns have been raised as to whether the consumption of foodstuffs contaminated with pesticides can contribute to the development of chronic disease by affecting the gut microbiome. We performed the first pesticide biomonitoring survey of the British population, and subsequently used the results to perform the first pesticide association study on gut microbiome composition and function from the TwinsUK registry. METHODS: Dietary exposure of 186 common insecticide, herbicide, or fungicide residues and the faecal microbiome in 65 twin pairs in the UK was investigated. We evaluated if dietary habits, geographic location, or the rural/urban environment, are associated with the excretion of pesticide residues. The composition and metabolic activity of faecal microbiota was evaluated using shotgun metagenomics and metabolomics respectively. We performed a targeted urine metabolomics analysis in order to evaluate whether pesticide urinary excretion was also associated with physiological changes. RESULTS: Pyrethroid and/or organophosphorus insecticide residues were found in all urine samples, while the herbicide glyphosate was found in 53% of individuals. Food frequency questionnaires showed that residues from organophosphates were higher with increased consumption of fruit and vegetables. A total of 34 associations between pesticide residue concentrations and faecal metabolite concentrations were detected. Glyphosate excretion was positively associated with an overall increased bacterial species richness, as well as to fatty acid metabolites and phosphate levels. The insecticide metabolite Br2CA, reflecting deltamethrin exposure, was positively associated with the phytoestrogens enterodiol and enterolactone, and negatively associated with some N-methyl amino acids. Urine metabolomics performed on a subset of samples did not reveal associations with the excretion of pesticide residues. CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of conventionally grown fruit and vegetables leads to higher ingestion of pesticides with unknown long-term health consequences. Our results highlight the need for future dietary intervention studies to understand effects of pesticide exposure on the gut microbiome and possible health consequences.


Asunto(s)
Herbicidas , Insecticidas , Microbiota , Residuos de Plaguicidas , Plaguicidas , Adulto , Exposición Dietética/análisis , Herbicidas/análisis , Humanos , Insecticidas/análisis , Compuestos Organofosforados , Residuos de Plaguicidas/análisis , Verduras/química
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