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1.
Food Chem ; 346: 128969, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422920

RESUMEN

Rice, a staple food for half the world's population, easily accumulates arsenic (As). Research on As distribution in rice protein and starch and its relationship with rice As bioaccessibility remains limited. This study investigated As distribution, chemical composition, As bioaccessibility and speciation in rice by continuous extraction and in vitro digestion. Of the total As, 87.5-94.5% was in rice protein and 5.0-9.8% in rice starch. The As amount in different protein fractions decreased as follows: glutelin > globulin > albumin > prolamin. As(V), As(III) and DMA in rice were more bioaccessible in the small intestinal phase than the gastric phase, and almost all As(V) dissolved in the small intestinal phase. Bioaccessible As in gastrointestinal digestive solution and As mass in protein fractions (albumin, globulin, and glutelin) were significantly positively correlated (p < 0.05). These results illuminate the bioaccessibility of As to humans consuming As-contaminated rice and avoid overassessment.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico/análisis , Oryza/química , Albúminas/química , Arsénico/química , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Culinaria , Digestión , Globulinas/química , Glútenes/química , Humanos , Espectrometría de Masas , Microondas , Oryza/metabolismo , Prolaminas/química
2.
Food Chem ; 346: 128935, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385918

RESUMEN

The effect of a new microwave energy treatment on brewers' spent grain (BSG) functionality and its application in a bakery product was evaluated. The physicochemical modifications of BSG were studied with special emphasis on the analysis of non-enzymatic browning reactions. Microwave treatment induced the formation of Maillard reaction products with a high antioxidant activity. The structure of these compounds was fully analyzed and it was concluded that melanoidins were formed by polymerization of furanose rings. Results indicated that chlorogenic acids were also reactants involved in the development of this reaction, leading to the formation of new bioaccesible compounds with important antioxidant activity. Although the addition of BSG in cookie formulations negatively affect their texture, this effect was successfully reduced when the microwave treatment was applied on BSG. This was associated to the disrupting effect that the microwaves had on BSG fiber, which significantly reduced its water absorption index (p ≤ 0.05).


Asunto(s)
Bebidas Alcohólicas , Grano Comestible/química , Microondas , Antioxidantes/análisis , Fibras de la Dieta/análisis , Residuos
3.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(2): 487-500, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504710

RESUMEN

This study evaluated the impact of hydrothermal pretreatment on thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) for solubilization enhancement and biomethane production improvement through the mesophilic anaerobic digestion process. In order to assess the effect of temperature, retention time and severity index (SI) of the hydrothermal pretreatment, TWAS was exposed to fifteen different pretreatment conditions within a combination of 10 different pretreatment temperature range (150-240 °C), five different retention times (5-30 min) and five different severity indexes (SI = 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5 and 5). The solubilization enhancement was observed in all hydrothermally pretreated samples with the highest solubilization efficiency of 49% in pretreatment conditions of 200 °C and 10 min retention time within the corresponding SI = 4. Biomethane production was not improved in all fifteen pretreatment conditions, pretreatment with SI beyond 4 decreased the biodegradability of TWAS. The highest biomethane production was observed in the pretreatment condition of 170 °C and 10 min with a 40% increase compared to non-pretreated TWAS.


Asunto(s)
Metano , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Anaerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Microondas , Temperatura , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos
4.
J Environ Manage ; 280: 111832, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360259

RESUMEN

This study presents a critical overview of reported essential oil (EO) extractions from citrus peel wastes (CPW), including harmonized data on the various citrus species and cultivars. Harmonization is vital to enable sustainable management practices. The review only includes eco-efficient extraction techniques. In total, the review contains 66 quantified examples using i) mechanical cold press ii) thermal extraction with water or steam media iii) thermal microwave-assisted extraction iv) other innovative methods (such as ultrasound). The technologies were assessed for their potential use in cascading production to achieve economies of scope, particularly considering the use of extraction residues for subsequent fermentation to produce various products from energy carriers to enzymes. Two techniques were found insufficient for direct use in fermentation. Cold press extracts an inadequate amount of EO (average yield 2.85% DW) to ensure suitable fermentation, while solvent extraction contaminates the residues for its subsequent use. Extractions using water media, such as hydrodistillation and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (average EO yield 2.87% DW), are feasible for the liquid-based fermentation processes, such as submerged fermentation. Steam extraction is feasible for any type of fermentation. Our review highlighted solvent-free microwave extraction (average EO yield 5.29% DW) as the most effective method, which provides a high yield in a short extraction time. We also uncovered and discussed several inconsistencies in existing yields and energy consumption published data.


Asunto(s)
Citrus , Aceites Volátiles , Fermentación , Microondas , Vapor
5.
Food Chem ; 338: 127724, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795878

RESUMEN

Peppermint is widely used medicinal plant with distinguished bioactive potential, therefore, the aim of present work was to develop novel peppermint extracts with high activity by application of traditional and emerging separation techniques. Conventional hydrodistillation and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MWHD) were applied for recovery of essential oil (EO), while organic solvent extraction using Soxhlet apparatus, microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted process and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) were applied for non-selective recovery of peppermint lipophilic extracts. Extracts were characterized in terms of terpenoids profile with special emphasis on content of major compounds (mentol, menthone, isomenthol and eucalyptol). Antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, FRAP, chelating and phosphomolybdenum assay) and enzyme-inhibitory assays (acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, tyrosinase, amylase and glucosidase inhibition) were used for screening of peppermint bioactivity. MWHD was recognized as alternative for traditional process in EO recovery, while SFE extracts were useful for green production of solvent-free peppermint extracts rich in terpenoids and other lipophilic bioactives.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/química , Inhibidores Enzimáticos/química , Mentha piperita/química , Aceites Volátiles/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Acetilcolinesterasa/química , Acetilcolinesterasa/metabolismo , Cromatografía con Fluido Supercrítico , Inhibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Mentha piperita/metabolismo , Microondas , Polifenoles/química , Polifenoles/aislamiento & purificación , Análisis de Componente Principal , Sonicación , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/aislamiento & purificación
6.
Food Chem ; 338: 128012, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927202

RESUMEN

The inactivation of S. Typhimurium and A. flavus along with quality degradation kinetics was studied during combined microwave-infrared (MW-IR) heating of paprika. The spatial changes in the distribution of temperature and variation in water activity (aw) of the paprika samples resulted in a 7.389 log reduction in S. Typhimurium, and 6.182 log reduction in A. flavus. During heating, the deterioration of red pigments was more pronounced compared to that of the yellow pigments. The alteration of color was observed to be due to the increase in a large number of brown pigments. The inhibition of DPPH radicals accelerated with an increase in the power level of MW-IR radiation; the inhibition rate increased from 0.0859 to 0.1485 s-1. Also, the pungency of dried paprika was found to increase due to moisture reduction, inactivation of peroxidase, and the short-duration of heating.


Asunto(s)
Capsicum/microbiología , Microondas , Pasteurización/métodos , Adulto , Ácido Ascórbico/análisis , Aspergillus flavus , Capsicum/química , Femenino , Microbiología de Alimentos , Calefacción , Humanos , Rayos Infrarrojos , Cinética , Masculino , Pigmentación , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Salmonella typhimurium , Gusto , Temperatura
7.
Food Chem ; 338: 128015, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932085

RESUMEN

The purpose of this research was to study the effect of hot air drying, microwave vacuum drying and freeze drying combined with explosion puffing drying (HDEPD, MDEPD and FDEPD) on physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and flavor characteristics of apples. The results showed that MDEPD and FDEPD products had better color and textural properties, exhibited a homogeneous porous structure. MDEPD and FDEPD better preserved scavenging abilities of DPPH, hydroxyl radical and FRAP, retained values of TFC and TPC. Aroma characteristics and taste properties of apples obviously changed with different drying methods, and drying qualities of products could be classified in terms of volatile compounds and taste profiles. Two principal components were able to describe 90.12% and 69.43% of the total volatile compound variance and total taste profile variance, respectively. Three main clusters of dried apples were identified, MDEPD and FDEPD can be used to enhance drying qualities of apple products.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/química , Desecación/métodos , Industria de Procesamiento de Alimentos/métodos , Malus/química , Gusto , Color , Nariz Electrónica , Flavonoides/análisis , Aromatizantes/análisis , Calidad de los Alimentos , Liofilización , Frutas/química , Microondas , Fenoles/análisis , Vacio , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis
8.
Food Chem ; 338: 127913, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092000

RESUMEN

The salted egg yolk (SEY) is very popular in China for its pleasant flavor and texture. However, the long production cycle of traditional pickling and the waste of salted egg white had limited its industrialization. To solve these problems, a salted egg yolk flavoring was generated through enzymatic hydrolysis and microwave irradiation from fresh egg yolk in this study. The combination of enzymatic hydrolysis and microwave irradiation could force water and lipids in egg yolk to migrate out, and lead to lipid oxidation in high temperature. Lipid oxidation and Strecker degradation were defined as the major pathways of flavor generation. Among the generated volatile compounds, Hexanal, Heptanal, Benzaldehyde and 2-Pentyl-furan were supposed closely related to SEY flavor. This method could be used as an alternative method for the production of salted egg yolk. Furthermore, it could provide a foundation for further investigation of egg yolk containing flavor system.


Asunto(s)
Yema de Huevo/metabolismo , Enzimas/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/análisis , Microondas , Cloruro de Sodio/química , Yema de Huevo/química , Aromatizantes/química , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Calor , Hidrólisis , Peroxidación de Lípido , Reología , Viscosidad , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/química
9.
Food Chem ; 338: 128129, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092010

RESUMEN

Aroma, phenolic compounds and sensory properties of fresh and powdered organic and conventional sweet red peppers dried by three methods (hot air, intermittent microwave and infrared) were studied. The number of aroma compounds was higher in both fresh and powdered organic pepper samples; however, the total amount was higher in conventional samples. In both organic and conventional samples, alcohols were the dominant aroma group. (E)-ß-ionone and ß-ocimene, which are important compounds in peppers, were determined only in organic peppers. Among the drying methods, intermittent microwave drying was more effective in creating new aroma compounds. The liquid chromatography, coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) revealed that luteolin derivative compounds comprised an average of 70% of the phenolics. Higher amount of phenolic were determined in organic samples. Infrared drying was more effective in retaining of phenolics than the other two methods. Sensory analysis revealed that hot air-dried samples were least preferred.


Asunto(s)
Capsicum/química , Desecación/métodos , Fenoles/análisis , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis , Microondas , Polvos
10.
Food Chem ; 337: 127811, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799155

RESUMEN

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of microwave processing (2.45 GHz, 1000 W, 75-125 °C, and 5-15 min) on the secondary structures, in-vitro protein digestibility, microstructural characteristics, and allergenicity of shrimp. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the band intensity of tropomyosin reduced with the increase of processing temperatures and durations. The significant reduction in the allergenicity of tropomyosin was up to 75% when treated with microwave at 125 °C for 15 min. A significant reduction by 30-75% in the total soluble protein content, peptide content, and in-vitro protein digestibility of shrimp protein was observed. These changes mentioned above were strongly associated with the modification of the secondary structure of shrimp proteins, including the increase in ß-sheets, and the loss in turns. Also, more microscopic holes, fragments, strips in treated samples were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Therefore, high-intensity microwave treatment showed great potential in reducing the allergenicity of shrimp.


Asunto(s)
Microondas/efectos adversos , Penaeidae/química , Alimentos Marinos/análisis , Tropomiosina/química , Alérgenos , Animales , Conformación Proteica en Lámina beta , Estructura Secundaria de Proteína , Proteolisis , Tropomiosina/inmunología , Tropomiosina/metabolismo
11.
Environ Pollut ; 270: 116120, 2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341552

RESUMEN

Understanding the migration and conversion of nitrogen in wood-based panels (WBPs) during pyrolysis is fundamentally important for potentially transforming the N-containing species into valuable material-based products. This review firstly summarizes the commonly used methods for examining N evolution during the WBPs pyrolysis before probing into the association between the wood and adhesives.The potential effects of wood-adhesive interaction on the pyrolysis process are subsequently analyzed. Furthermore, the controversial statements from literature on the influence of adhesives on wood pyrolysis behavior are discussed, which is followed by the detailed investigation into the distribution and evolution of N-containing species in gas, liquid and char, respectively, during WBPs pyrolysis in recent studies. The differences in N species due to the heating sources (i.e. electrical heating vs microwave heating) are particularly compared. Finally, based on the characteristics of staged pyrolysis, co-pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis, the converting pathways for WBPs are proposed with an emphasis on the production of value-added chemicals and carbon materials, simultaneously mitigating NOx emission.


Asunto(s)
Pirólisis , Madera , Catálisis , Calefacción , Microondas
12.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 32(1): 33-38, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308948

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To determine effect of body mass index (BMI) on safety and cancer-related outcomes of thermal ablation for renal cell carcinoma (RRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated 427 patients (287 men and 140 women; mean [SD] age, 72 [12] y) who were treated with thermal ablation for RCC between October 2006 and December 2017. Patients were stratified by BMI into 3 categories: normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥ 30 kg/m2). Of 427 patients, 71 (16%) were normal weight, 157 (37%) were overweight, and 199 (47%) were obese. Complication rates, local recurrence, and residual disease were compared in the 3 cohorts. RESULTS: No differences in technical success between normal-weight, overweight, and obese patients were identified (P = .72). Primary technique efficacy rates for normal-weight, overweight, and obese patients were 91%, 94%, and 93% (P = .71). There was no significant difference in RCC specific-free survival, disease-free survival, and metastasis-free survival between obese, overweight, and normal-weight groups (P = .72, P = .43, P = .99). Complication rates between the 3 cohorts were similar (normal weight 4%, overweight 2%, obese 3%; P = .71). CONCLUSIONS: CT-guided renal ablation is safe, feasible, and effective regardless of BMI.


Asunto(s)
Índice de Masa Corporal , Carcinoma de Células Renales/cirugía , Criocirugia , Neoplasias Renales/cirugía , Microondas/uso terapéutico , Obesidad/diagnóstico , Ablación por Radiofrecuencia , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Carcinoma de Células Renales/mortalidad , Carcinoma de Células Renales/secundario , Criocirugia/efectos adversos , Criocirugia/mortalidad , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Supervivencia sin Enfermedad , Femenino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renales/mortalidad , Neoplasias Renales/patología , Masculino , Microondas/efectos adversos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia , Obesidad/mortalidad , Seguridad del Paciente , Ablación por Radiofrecuencia/efectos adversos , Ablación por Radiofrecuencia/mortalidad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento
13.
Food Chem ; 339: 127888, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866705

RESUMEN

This study present the effects of different pre-treatment maceration techniques (microwave, thermo-maceration, and enzymatic treatment) on the content of phenolic compounds (by UPLC-PDA) and their redox potential by cyclic voltammetry (CV), antioxidant capacity (ABTS radical cation decolorization assay and FRAP as Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma), and other basic chemical properties of red wine made from cv. Dornfelder. The pre-treatment maceration technique significantly (p < 0.05) affected the content of total phenolics in Dornfelder must (freshly crushed grapes), with particularly high amounts in the must pre-treated by microwaves (4344.0 mg/100 mL), and the lowest in the must pre-treatment by thermo-maceration (2979.8 mg/100 mL). A positive correlation was found between the content of total phenolics and antioxidant activity (R = 0.69 and 0.52 by ABTS and FRAP assay, respectively) and individual groups of polyphenols (for ABTS assay with anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, respectively R = 0.60, 0.64 and 0.66, while for FRAP method only for anthocyanins R = 0.79). The highest antioxidant activity was also determined for the variant with microwave pre-treatment (must 3.31 mM and 3.05 mM Trolox/100 mL for ABTS and FRAP assay, respectively). Following the fermentation and maturation, the amount of polyphenols decreased. No thermal pre-treatment maceration methods gave lighter or redder must. After winemaking process all the samples were characterized by less red and more yellow shade.


Asunto(s)
Microondas , Fenoles/análisis , Vino/análisis , Antocianinas/análisis , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Frío , Color , Técnicas Electroquímicas , Enzimas/metabolismo , Fermentación , Polifenoles/análisis
14.
Waste Manag ; 119: 91-100, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045490

RESUMEN

The sustainable future of contemporary society has been compromised due to environmental pollution from industrial systems and the generation of solid waste. Consequentially, the managed exploitation of natural resources to a sustainable level within the Earth's capacity remains a present and future challenge. Furthermore, the pursuit of materials free from toxic substances made from renewable sources is a tendency towards effective cleaner production and waste management. To address these problems, this article reports the results of exploratory and experimental research that developed a novel eco-efficient product - a pyramidal absorber of electromagnetic radiation - from rice husks and MDF (Medium Density Fibreboard) residues through design from waste principles. Key findings indicated that the technical performance of the absorber is better in the frequency of 2.45 GHz, resulting in a difference of -18.71 dB concerning the reflective metal plate used in the tests. This result is above the expected limit of -10 dB found in similar commercial products. This study is an innovation in improving the design from waste of pyramidal microwave absorbers used in radio frequency anechoic chambers. The product represents a new and sustainable alternative to similar products in the market that are produced from toxic materials extracted from non-renewable raw materials. The limitations and technical characteristics of usage for which the pyramidal absorbers of electromagnetic radiation are applicable should be considered.


Asunto(s)
Oryza , Administración de Residuos , Contaminación Ambiental , Microondas , Residuos Sólidos
15.
Food Chem ; 340: 127911, 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896778

RESUMEN

Emerging technologies, such as focused microwave heating of liquid foods, have been studied to reduce quality losses due to the high temperatures of conventional processing. Besides faster heating, microwaves can also have non-thermal effects on inactivation; however, this is a controversial issue. The objective of this study was to compare conventional and focused microwave heating under similar conditions for the inactivation of two polyphenol oxidases (PPOs): mushroom tyrosinase in buffer and the PPO present in coconut water. Small samples under stirring were treated at temperatures between 50 and 90 °C and three kinetic models were adjusted considering the whole time-temperature history. The Weibull model could best describe inactivation in both heating processes, which was more effective with microwave heating for temperatures over 70 °C. Validation runs show that the model can satisfactorily describe the PPO inactivation. This study contributes for the design of liquid food pasteurization by focused microwave technology.


Asunto(s)
Catecol Oxidasa/química , Pasteurización/métodos , Agaricales/enzimología , Tampones (Química) , Catecol Oxidasa/metabolismo , Cocos/enzimología , Activación Enzimática , Industria de Procesamiento de Alimentos/métodos , Calefacción , Cinética , Microondas , Modelos Teóricos , Monofenol Monooxigenasa/química , Monofenol Monooxigenasa/metabolismo , Temperatura
16.
Food Chem ; 340: 128132, 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011468

RESUMEN

Piperine (PIP) is an alkaloid which is potent as a therapeutic agent. However, its applications are restricted by its poor water solubility. Nanosponges (NS) derived from polymers are versatile carriers for poor water-soluble substances. The aim of this work was to synthesize ß-cyclodextrin NS, by microwave-assisted fusion, for the encapsulation of PIP. Different formulations of NS were synthesized by varying the molar ratio of ß-cyclodextrin:diphenyl carbonate (ß-CD:DPC; 1:2, 1:6 and 1:10). NS specimens derived from 1:2, 1:6 and 1:10 ß-CD:DPC molar ratios exhibited degree of substitution values of 0.345, 0.629 and 0.878, respectively. The crystallinity of NS was enhanced by increasing diphenyl carbonate concentration. A high degree of crosslinking in the NS increased the loading efficiency due to increased surface area available for bioactive inclusion. This study demonstrated the feasibility of synthesizing NS derived from ß-cyclodextrin of high crystallinity for the encapsulation of PIP at high loading capacity.


Asunto(s)
Alcaloides/química , Benzodioxoles/química , Nanoestructuras/química , Piperidinas/química , Alcamidas Poliinsaturadas/química , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Composición de Medicamentos , Microondas , Piper nigrum/química , Piper nigrum/metabolismo , Solubilidad
17.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1117): 20200415, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245679

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) combined with microwave ablation (MWA) to treat patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and type Ⅱ-Ⅲ portal vein tumour thrombosis (PVTT) intolerant to targeted drug (TG) therapy. METHODS: A total of 18 patients with HCC and type Ⅱ-Ⅲ PVTT intolerant to TG were enrolled between June 2015 and December 2019, who were treated with TACE + MWA (MWA group). 24 patients were treated with TACE + TG (TG group; control cohort). Time to progression and overall survival (OS) were analysed along with the incidence of adverse events. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 19.0 months (9.0-32.0 months). The median OS was 17.0 months (8.3-29.3 months; MWA group) and 13.5 months (5.5-22.5 months; TG group) and was not significantly different. The 1- and 2 year OS was also comparable (MWA group: 66.7%, 44.4% vs Target group: 41.7%, 29.2%). Time to progression showed no distinct differences (MWA group: 11.5 months; TG group: 9.0 months) between the two groups. Moreover, the incidence of major Grade 3-4 adverse events in the MWA group (5.6%) was similar to those in the TG group (8.3%). CONCLUSION: TACE + MWA and TACE + TG were comparable in their safety and efficacy in patients with HCC, type Ⅱ-Ⅲ PVTT, and intolerance to TG. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: TACE + MWA can be used as a palliative treatment alternative for TACE + TG in patients with HCC, type Ⅱ-Ⅲ PVTT, and intolerance to TG.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Ablación/métodos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Quimioembolización Terapéutica/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Vena Porta/patología , Trombosis de la Vena/terapia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/complicaciones , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirugía , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Hígado/cirugía , Neoplasias Hepáticas/complicaciones , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirugía , Masculino , Microondas , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Trombosis de la Vena/etiología , Trombosis de la Vena/cirugía
18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(1): 323-332, 2021 Jan 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372484

RESUMEN

The waste sludge of municipal wastewater treatment plants is an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). It is necessary to explore the fate of ARG, microbial community succession, and the correlations between them. Therefore, the distribution of ARG and the microbial community structure of waste sludge from wastewater treatment plants with A2O and A2O-MBR processes during microwave pretreatment and anaerobic digestion were studied in this research. The results showed that the occurrence of ARG and the microbial community structure were quite different in the waste sludge of A2O and A2O-MBR processes. The microwave pretreatment did not change the microbial community much, whereas the community structure of the digested sludge with pretreatment showed significant differences. Anaerobic digestion had a conformity effect on the distribution of ARG and MGE in the digested sludge with or without pretreatment. Among genes, ermF, qnrS, and blaNDM-1 were the most difficult to be reduced ARG and were prone to propagation during anaerobic digestion. The influence of biomass, ammonia nitrogen, and phosphorus on the distribution of ARG and MGE was higher than that of other environmental factors. The sludge characteristics also showed important impacts on the microbial community, especially on some genera with specific functions. These results could help people to better understand the spread and control of ARG during sludge anaerobic digestion.


Asunto(s)
Microondas , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Anaerobiosis , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos
19.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127800, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750592

RESUMEN

This study aimed to determine the mineral profile of hair samples of free-ranging capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) in remnants of the Atlantic Forest located in the Northeast of Brazil, and to evaluate the effects of origin, gender and age of the animals on their mineral accumulation in hair. Twenty hair samples from animals of different areas, genders and ages were prepared using microwave-assisted digestion, employing 5 mL of HNO3 and 2.5 mL of H2SO4 for 100 mg of sample. Digestion efficiency was assessed by residual carbon content. The digested samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed considering the composition data of 11 elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, and Na). The digestion method applied was efficient and the most abundant elements with their respective concentration ranges in mg kg-1 were Al (396-2746), Ca (36-3420), Fe (476-51180), K (115-4843), and Na (72-473). ANOVA and PCA differentiated among the capybaras regarding age (adults) and origin (A3), both associated with higher concentrations of Al, Cd, Fe, and K. Although a higher metal bioaccumulation was observed in adult animals, it is important to highlight that this result could have been affected by diet and physiological parameters. The results suggest that A3 was the most anthropized remnant area due to agricultural and urban influences. Multi-elemental determination in hair can be used as a non-invasive method to assess heavy metal contamination in capybaras.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Roedores/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Animales , Brasil , Bosques , Cabello/química , Metales Pesados/análisis , Microondas , Minerales/análisis , Oligoelementos/análisis
20.
Food Chem ; 336: 127728, 2021 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795782

RESUMEN

This study explored the influence of constant power microwave on the adsorption ability of myofibril protein from beef to typical aldehyde flavour compounds. Results showed that there was a significant increasing trend in surface hydrophobicity and reactive sulfhydryls content of myofibril protein with an increase in microwave power and treatment time. The adsorption ability of myofibril protein to aldehyde flavour compounds increased with increasing microwave power and time. The percentage of free aldehyde flavour compounds was related to the content of surface hydrophobicity, and reactive and total sulfhydryls of myofibril protein under microwave conditions, which could be fitted according to the multilevel relational (MLR) model. Furthermore, the reduced interface energy was probably the driving force for myofibril protein-flavour compounds adsorption behaviour at the gas-liquid interface.


Asunto(s)
Aromatizantes/química , Microondas , Miofibrillas/química , Adsorción , Aldehídos/química , Dicroismo Circular , Interacciones Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Compuestos de Sulfhidrilo/química , Tensión Superficial
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