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3.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(1): 1-2, 2020 01 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088678
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 35-59, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002921

RESUMEN

Electrocortical network dynamics are integral to brain function. Linear and nonlinear connectivity applications enrich neurophysiological investigations into anxiety disorders. Discrete EEG-based connectivity networks are unfolding with some homogeneity for anxiety disorder subtypes. Attenuated delta/theta/beta connectivity networks, pertaining to anterior-posterior nodes, characterize panic disorder. Nonlinear measures suggest reduced connectivity of ACC as an executive neuro-regulator in germane "fear circuitry networks" might be more central than considered. Enhanced network complexity and theta network efficiency at rest define generalized anxiety disorder, with similar tonic hyperexcitability apparent in social anxiety disorder further extending to task-related/state functioning. Dysregulated alpha connectivity and integration of mPFC-ACC/mPFC-PCC relays implicated with attentional flexibility and choice execution/congruence neurocircuitry are observed in trait anxiety. Conversely, state anxiety appears to recruit converging delta and beta connectivity networks as panic, suggesting trait and state anxiety are modulated by discrete neurobiological mechanisms. Furthermore, EEG connectivity dynamics distinguish anxiety from depression, despite prevalent clinical comorbidity. Rethinking mechanisms implicated in the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of anxiety from the perspective of EEG network science across micro- and macroscales serves to shed light and move the field forward.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/fisiopatología , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Electroencefalografía , Red Nerviosa , Trastornos de Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Trastorno Depresivo/diagnóstico , Trastorno Depresivo/fisiopatología , Miedo , Humanos
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 103-120, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002925

RESUMEN

Oxytocin, a neuropeptide synthesized by the hypothalamus, plays a central role in human social behavior, social cognition, anxiety, mood, stress modulation, and fear learning and extinction. The relationships between oxytocin and psychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorder have been extensively studied. In this chapter, we focus on the current knowledge about oxytocin and anxiety disorder. We discuss the anxiolytic effects of oxytocin in preclinical and clinical findings, possible related neurobehavioral mechanisms (social cognition, fear learning, and extinction), related neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine systems (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, serotoninergic, and GABAergic systems), and studies regarding plasma levels of oxytocin, genetic and epigenetic findings, and effects of intranasal oxytocin in DSM-5 anxiety disorder (primarily social anxiety disorder and separation anxiety disorder) patients.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/metabolismo , Oxitocina/metabolismo , Ansiedad/metabolismo , Miedo , Humanos , Conducta Social
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 523-541, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002944

RESUMEN

Exposure therapy, a key treatment for anxiety disorders, can be modelled in the laboratory using Pavlovian fear extinction. Understanding the hormonal and neurobiological mechanisms underlying fear extinction in females, who are twice more likely than males to present with anxiety disorders, may aid in optimising exposure therapy outcomes in this population. This chapter will begin by discussing the role of the sex hormones, estradiol and progesterone, in fear extinction in females. We will also propose potential mechanisms by which these hormones may modulate fear extinction. The second half of this chapter will discuss the long-term hormonal, neurological and behavioural changes that arise from pregnancy and motherhood and how these changes may alter the features of fear extinction in females. Finally, we will discuss implications of this research for the treatment of anxiety disorders in women with and without prior reproductive experience.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/metabolismo , Trastornos de Ansiedad/terapia , Ansiedad/metabolismo , Ansiedad/terapia , Estradiol/metabolismo , Progesterona/metabolismo , Reproducción , Ansiedad/psicología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/psicología , Extinción Psicológica , Miedo , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo
8.
Life Sci ; 245: 117386, 2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006528

RESUMEN

AIMS: Steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) is a key coactivator for the efficient transcriptional activity of steroids in the regulation of hippocampal functions. However, the effect of SRC-1 on hippocampal memory processes remains unknown. Our aim was to investigate the roles of hippocampal SRC-1 in the consolidation and reconsolidation of contextual fear memory in mice. MAIN METHODS: Contextual fear conditioning paradigm was constructed in adult male C57BL/6 mice to examine the fear learning and memory processes. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) was infused into hippocampus to block hippocampal SRC-1 level. Immunofluorescent staining was used to detect the efficiency of transfection. High plus maze and open field test were used to determine anxiety and locomotor activity. Western blot analyses were used to detect the expression of SRC-1 and synaptic proteins in the hippocampus. KEY FINDINGS: We first showed that the expression of SRC-1 was regulated by fear conditioning training in a time-dependent manner, and knockdown of SRC-1 impaired contextual fear memory consolidation without affecting innate anxiety or locomotor activity. In addition, hippocampal SRC-1 was also regulated by the retrieval of contextual fear memory, and downregulation of SRC-1 disrupted fear memory reconsolidation. Moreover, knockdown of SRC-1 reversed the increased GluR1 and PSD-95 levels induced by contextual fear memory retrieval. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data indicate that hippocampal SRC-1 is required for the consolidation and reconsolidation of contextual fear memory, and SRC-1 may be a potential therapeutic target for mental disorders that are involved in hippocampal memory dysfunction.


Asunto(s)
Miedo/efectos de los fármacos , Hipocampo/efectos de los fármacos , Memoria/efectos de los fármacos , Coactivador 1 de Receptor Nuclear/antagonistas & inhibidores , Animales , Western Blotting , Condicionamiento Clásico/efectos de los fármacos , Condicionamiento Clásico/fisiología , Miedo/fisiología , Miedo/psicología , Técnica del Anticuerpo Fluorescente , Hipocampo/fisiología , Masculino , Aprendizaje por Laberinto/efectos de los fármacos , Aprendizaje por Laberinto/fisiología , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Coactivador 1 de Receptor Nuclear/fisiología
12.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(1): 17-25, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888370

RESUMEN

AIMS: The aim of this study was to develop a psychometrically sound measure of recovery for use in patients who have suffered an open tibial fracture. METHODS: An initial pool of 109 items was generated from previous qualitative data relating to recovery following an open tibial fracture. These items were field tested in a cohort of patients recovering from an open tibial fracture. They were asked to comment on the content of the items and structure of the scale. Reduction in the number of items led to a refined scale tested in a larger cohort of patients. Principal components analysis permitted further reduction and the development of a definitive scale. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and responsiveness were assessed for the retained items. RESULTS: The initial scale was completed by 35 patients who were recovering from an open tibial fracture. Subjective and objective analysis permitted removal of poorly performing items and the addition of items suggested by patients. The refined scale consisted of 50 Likert scaled items and eight additional items. It was completed on 228 occasions by a different cohort of 204 patients with an open tibial fracture recruited from several UK orthoplastic tertiary referral centres. There were eight underlying components with tangible real-life meaning, which were retained as sub-scales represented by ten Likert scaled and eight non-Likert items. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were good to excellent. CONCLUSION: The Wales Lower Limb Trauma Recovery (WaLLTR) Scale is the first tool to be developed from patient data with the potential to assess recovery following an open tibial fracture. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(1):17-25.


Asunto(s)
Fracturas Abiertas/cirugía , Fracturas de la Tibia/cirugía , Actividades Cotidianas , Adaptación Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Miedo/psicología , Fracturas Abiertas/psicología , Fracturas Abiertas/rehabilitación , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Medición de Resultados Informados por el Paciente , Estudios Prospectivos , Recuperación de la Función , Autoeficacia , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Fracturas de la Tibia/psicología , Fracturas de la Tibia/rehabilitación , Adulto Joven
13.
Harefuah ; 159(1): 54, 2020 01.
Artículo en Hebreo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930810

Asunto(s)
Mala Praxis , Miedo , Humanos
14.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(1): 37-40, 2020 Jan 12.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930897

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of hypnosis on pain and fear in the healthy acupuncture subjects. METHODS: A total of 52 healthy subjects were randomized into an observation group and a control group, 26 cases in each one. In the observation group, the subjects received the first-time acupuncture under hypnosis. After wakened up and 30 min later, the subjects received the second-time acupuncture under clear consciousness condition. In the control group, the subjects received the first-time acupuncture under clear consciousness condition, 30 min later, received the second-time acupuncture under hypnosis. Likert scale was adopted to investigate the relaxation, pain sensation and the willingness in the subjects at the normal condition before acupuncture, after the first-time and the second-time acupuncture of the two groups separately. Using Boeran electronic blood pressure monitor, the pulse and blood pressure were measured in the subjects at the normal condition and after the first-time acupuncture of the two groups. RESULTS: Compared with the normal condition, the relaxation degree was increased, the pain sensation decreased and the willingness enhanced after acupuncture either after hypnosis or after wakened-up in the observation group (P<0.001). The difference was not significant in each index between acupuncture after hypnosis and acupuncture after wakened-up in the observation group (P>0.05). In the control group, compared with the normal condition, after the first-time acupuncture (acupuncture in clear consciousness), the relaxation degree was decreased, pain was alleviated and the willingness was increased when acupuncture was exerted once again (P<0.001, P<0.05); compared with the normal condition, after the second-time acupuncture (acupuncture after hypnosis), pain was alleviated and the willingness increased (P<0.001), but the difference in relaxation was not significant (P>0.05); compared with the first-time acupuncture, the relaxation degree was increased, pain alleviated and willingness enhanced after the second-time acupuncture (acupuncture after hypnosis) (P<0.05, P<0.001). Compared with the control group after the first-time acupuncture (acupuncture in clear consciousness), the relaxation degree and willingness were increased and the pain sensation was reduced in the observation group during acupuncture either after hypnosis or after wakened-up (P<0.001). Compared with the control group the second-time acupuncture (during acupuncture after hypnosis), the relaxation degree was increased and pain sensation reduced in the observation group during acupuncture either after hypnosis or after wakened-up (P<0.01, P<0.001), but the difference was not significant in willingness (P>0.05). In the control group, compared with the normal condition, the pulse was faster, both the diastolic pressure and systolic pressure were increased after the first-time acupuncture (P<0.05, P<0.01). In the observation group, compared with the normal condition, the pulse was getting slow and blood pressure was reduced after the first-time (acupuncture under hypnosis, P<0.01). Compared with the first-time acupuncture in the control group, pulse was getting slow and blood pressure was reduced in the observation group after acupuncture under hypnosis (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: During acupuncture, with hypnosis combined, the fear alleviates, pain reduces and the willingness of acupuncture increases in the subjects.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Acupuntura , Miedo , Hipnosis , Manejo del Dolor , Humanos , Dolor
15.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(2): 128-133, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902125

RESUMEN

Ankle sprains are the most prevalent injuries, and elevated fear avoidance beliefs after ankle sprain episodes could inhibit athletic performance and contribute to residual symptoms, such as functional and/or mechanical instability. However, it remains unclear how fear avoidance beliefs differ according to conditions of posttraumatic sequelae. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fear of movement/reinjury differed between individuals with and without functional ankle instability (FI, NFI) and healthy controls (CON) and to examine the relationship between fear and ankle joint laxity by sex. Participants (115 male athletes, 105 female athletes) completed the Identification of Functional Ankle Instability, Athlete Fear Avoidance Questionnaire (AFAQ), Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK), and ankle joint laxity test. Total 168 athletes (79 males, 89 females) data were eligible for analysis. The results demonstrated that fear of movement/reinjury was lower in individuals in the absence of functional ankle instability although they experienced ankle sprain (FI; TSK=38.6±4.5, AFAQ=27.4±6.2, NFI; TSK=35.7±5.6, AFAQ=24.5±6.6). The fear of movement/reinjury had correlation with ankle joint laxity only in female athletes (TSK; r=0.285, p=0.013, AFAQ; r 0=0.322, p=0.045).


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos del Tobillo/psicología , Reacción de Prevención , Miedo , Esguinces y Distensiones/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Inestabilidad de la Articulación/psicología , Masculino , Movimiento , Recurrencia , Estudiantes , Adulto Joven
16.
Zool Res ; 41(1): 32-38, 2020 01 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709783

RESUMEN

Previous studies have revealed faster detection of snake images in humans and non-human primates (NHPs), suggesting automatic detection of evolutionary fear-relevant stimuli. Furthermore, human studies have indicated that general fear-relevance rather than evolutionary relevance is more effective at capturing attention. However, the issue remains unclarified in NHPs. Thus, in the present study, we explored the attentional features of laboratory-reared monkeys to evolutionary and general fear-relevant stimuli (e.g., images of snakes, capturing gloves). Eye-tracking technology was utilized to assess attentional features as it can provide more accurate latency and variables of viewing duration and frequency compared with visual search task (VST) and response latency adopted in previous studies. In addition, those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show abnormal attention to threatening stimuli, including snake images. Rett syndrome (RTT) is considered a subcategory of ASD due to the display of autistic features. However, the attentional features of RTT patients or animal models to such stimuli remain unclear. Therefore, we also investigated the issue in MECP2 gene-edited RTT monkeys. The influence of different cognitive loads on attention was further explored by presenting one, two, or four images to increase stimulus complexity. The eye-tracking results revealed no significant differences between RTT and control monkeys, who all presented increased viewing (duration and frequency) of snake images but not of aversive stimuli compared with control images, thus suggesting attentional preference for evolutionary rather than general fear-relevant visual stimuli. Moreover, the preference was only revealed in visual tasks composed of two or four images, suggesting its cognitive-load dependency.


Asunto(s)
Atención/fisiología , Movimientos Oculares/fisiología , Macaca fascicularis/fisiología , Serpientes , Animales , Evolución Biológica , Medidas del Movimiento Ocular , Miedo , Femenino , Macaca fascicularis/genética , Proteína 2 de Unión a Metil-CpG/genética
17.
Acta Odontol Scand ; 78(1): 13-19, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287346

RESUMEN

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of dental anxiety, and to explore factors that may increase the risk of reporting dental anxiety among 18-year-old Norwegians in 2016. A further objective was to report changes in dental anxiety since 1996.Material and methods: An anonymous survey from a strategic sample of upper secondary students (n = 351) in 2016 with high response rate (93%) was compared with the results of an investigation of a similar population conducted in 1996.Results: The prevalence of dental anxiety and dental distrust was reduced from 1996 to 2016. Dental Fear Survey (DFS) from 19 to 8% (p < .001), and Dental Belief Survey (DBS) from 15 to 6% (p < .001). Geer Fear Scale (GFS) which measure phobic anxiety did not show a similar reduction (17 versus 15%, p = .37). Phobic anxiety, avoidance behaviour, self-reported poor oral health and previous experiences of pain were all associated with dental anxiety.Conclusion: The prevalence of dental anxiety was reduced from 1996 to 2016, but 8% still report dental anxiety. Proper pain management and use of behavioural management techniques still needs to be highlighted to prevent development of dental anxiety, avoidance behaviour and poor oral health.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad al Tratamiento Odontológico/epidemiología , Miedo , Adolescente , Ansiedad al Tratamiento Odontológico/etiología , Ansiedad al Tratamiento Odontológico/psicología , Atención Odontológica/psicología , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiología , Salud Bucal , Dolor/epidemiología , Dolor/psicología , Prevalencia , Odontología en Salud Pública , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
19.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 62(1-2): 138-158, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265373

RESUMEN

It is unquestioned that reaching the hypnotic state is helped along by relational factors and that, conversely, relational experiences can be deepened through hypnosis. It is also true that deepening the experience of being in a relationship with another person is neither comfortable nor indicated for every patient or therapist. Most humans feel ambivalent about closeness. People vary in their desire for and their skill in sustaining mature intimacy. When we move along the continuum from rudimentary notions about relational factors in psychotherapy, such as rapport, to complex concepts, such as enactments, we move along a corresponding continuum of increasing need for specialized training, supervised experience, and personal therapy. The field of psychotherapy has been plagued from its inception by not knowing what to do with the tensions that emerge when two people listen to and look at each other. Avoiding relational factors may be a very human response to a very daunting matter.


Asunto(s)
Miedo , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Psicoterapia , Emociones , Miedo/psicología , Humanos , Hipnosis , Relaciones Interpersonales , Psicoanálisis , Alianza Terapéutica
20.
Med J Aust ; 212(3): 140-140.e1, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872877
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