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1.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(2): 1-9, abr.-jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-213880

RESUMEN

Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common mental health problem, and its core cognitive manifestation is the persistent fear of being evaluated, including both negatively (FNE) and positively (FPE). This study aimed to examine the longitudinal relationships of FNE, FPE and SAD and explore their neural basis. Methods: Three samples were retrieved in this study. First, the data of 649 college students who completed a survey and fMRI scan were used to explore the neural basis of FNE, FPE, and SAD symptoms. Next, the data of 450 participants who completed the same survey twice were used to examine the longitudinal relationships of the variables. Finally, the overlapping of the two samples (N = 288) who completed two surveys and the fMRI scan were used to establish a brain-behavior model. Results: Both FNE and FPE predicted SAD, and SAD also predicted FPE. The neural signals of subregions in prefrontal cortex were correlated with the scores of FNE, FPE and SAD. Abnormal prefrontal signals influenced SAD symptoms via fears of evaluation. Conclusions: Our findings explain the behavioral and neural underpinnings of social anxiety from a fear of evaluation angle. This contributes to a better theorical understanding of SAD and clinical practice. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Miedo , Fobia Social/clasificación , Fobia Social/etiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Universidades
2.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(2): 1-10, abr.-jun. 2023. ilus, graf, tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-213889

RESUMEN

Background/Objective: Most studies investigating the neural correlates of threat learning were carried out using an explicit Pavlovian conditioning paradigm where declarative knowledge on contingencies between conditioned (CS) and unconditioned stimuli (US) is acquired. The current study aimed at understanding the neural correlates of threat conditioning when contingency awareness is limited or even absent. Method: We conducted an fMRI report of threat learning in an implicit associative learning paradigm called multi-CS conditioning, in which a number of faces were associated with aversive screams (US) such that participants could not report contingencies between the faces and the screams. Results: The univariate results showed support for the recruitment of threat-related regions including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and the cerebellum during acquisition. Further analyses by the multivariate representational similarity technique identified learning-dependent changes in the bilateral dlPFC. Conclusion: Our findings support the involvement of the dlPFC and the cerebellum in threat conditioning that occurs with highly limited or even absent contingency awareness. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Corteza Prefrontal , Cerebelo , Aprendizaje , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Amenazas , Miedo
3.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 23(2): 1-7, abr.-jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-213894

RESUMEN

Background/objective: This study examines the paths through which Covid-19 can negatively impact health and lead to somatic symptoms. Based on the dual process theory, fears can impair health in two ways: through psychological distress, which is an automatic reaction to fear, and through a more conscious and deliberative rumination process. Method: Data from a representative sample of the Spanish population (N = 3083 subjects,18 years or older) were obtained from a Survey by the Sociological Research Center (CIS). The dual path model was tested, and a longer sequence was included where the two mediators act sequentially to produce an impact on somatic symptoms. Results: The results showed how Covid-19 fears translate into somatic problems. Beyond the direct relations, and after comparing with other possible alternative models, our findings support a process where rumination mediates between fears and psychological distress, and psychological distress in turn leads to somatic problems. Conclusions: This process reveals a plausible mechanism that explains the somatization of health problems during the Covid-19 pandemic, and it provides theoretical and practical inputs to better understand the role of fears in health in crisis contexts. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Pandemias , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Miedo , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , España
4.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280133, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607983

RESUMEN

The brain- and testis-specific Ig superfamily protein (BT-IgSF, also termed IgSF11) is a homotypic cell adhesion protein. In the nervous system, BT-IgSF regulates the stability of AMPA receptors in the membrane of cultured hippocampal neurons, modulates the connectivity of chandelier cells and controls gap junction-mediated astrocyte-astrocyte communication. Here, we performed behavioral tests in BT-IgSF-deficient mice. BT-IgSF-deficient mice were similar to control littermates with respect to their reflexes, motor coordination and gating, and associative learning. However, BT-IgSF-deficient mice displayed an increased tendency to stay in the central illuminated areas in the open field and O-Maze paradigms suggesting reduced anxiety or increased scotophobia (fear of darkness). Although BT-IgSF-deficient mice initially found the platform in the water maze their behavior was compromised when the platform was moved, indicating reduced behavioral flexibility. This deficit was overcome by longer training to improve their spatial memory. Furthermore, male BT-IgSF-deficient mice displayed increased aggression towards an intruder. Our results show that specific behaviors are modified by the lack of BT-IgSF and demonstrate a contribution of BT-IgSF to network functions.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , Moléculas de Adhesión Celular , Masculino , Ratones , Animales , Adhesión Celular/fisiología , Moléculas de Adhesión Celular/genética , Moléculas de Adhesión Celular/metabolismo , Miedo , Agresión , Aprendizaje por Laberinto/fisiología , Ratones Noqueados
5.
Behav Ther ; 54(1): 156-169, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608973

RESUMEN

Fear of enclosed spaces prevents many people from receiving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Although exposure therapy can effectively treat such fears, reductions in fear during exposure often do not generalize beyond the context in which they took place. This study tested a strategy designed to increase generalization, which involved revisiting the memory of a prior exposure to enhance retrieval of extinction learning. Forty-five participants with claustrophobia that included fear of MRI scans underwent a series of exposures lying inside a narrow cabinet. One week later, participants were randomly assigned to enhanced mental reinstatement (EMR) or control procedures. Prior to entering a mock MRI scanner, EMR participants recalled the memory of exposure training and listened to an audio recording of themselves describing what they learned, whereas control participants recalled a neutral memory. Compared to the control condition, EMR led to significantly reduced heart rate reactivity in the mock MRI scanner, but not self-reported fear or avoidance. There were no differences between conditions in claustrophobia symptoms or MRI fear at 1-month follow-up. Results suggest some benefits of mental reinstatement for improving generalization of gains following exposure training for claustrophobia, with measures of subjective fear and physiological arousal showing discordant outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Fóbicos , Humanos , Trastornos Fóbicos/terapia , Miedo/fisiología , Recuerdo Mental , Generalización Psicológica/fisiología , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Extinción Psicológica/fisiología
6.
Behav Ther ; 54(1): 29-42, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608975

RESUMEN

Socially anxious adolescents commonly experience impaired interpersonal functioning with unfamiliar, same-age peers. Yet, we lack short screening tools for assessing peer-related impairments. Recent work revealed that a parent-reported, three-item screening tool produced scores that uniquely related to social anxiety concerns. However, this tool ought to go beyond linking impairments to service needs (i.e., social anxiety symptoms). This tool should also inform the goals of services, in particular by linking impairments to key domains relevant to therapeutically addressing adolescents' anxiety-related needs, such as social skills when interacting with unfamiliar peers. This requires an assessment approach that involves strategic selection of informants who vary in their expertise for observing anxiety-related needs, as well as the therapeutic goals for addressing anxiety-related impairments (e.g., social skills within peer interactions). We leveraged parents' reports to link impairments to social anxiety-related needs. To link impairments to social skills, we leveraged informants (i.e., unfamiliar untrained observers [UUOs]) who observed adolescents within tasks designed to simulate interactions with same-age, unfamiliar peers. We tested this approach using a mixed-clinical/community sample of 134 adolescents, ages 14- to 15 years old. We leveraged multi-informant survey reports to assess adolescent social anxiety, and trained independent observers rated adolescents' social skills within unfamiliar peer interactions. Parents' reports performed best when distinguishing adolescents on referral status and predicting survey-reported social anxiety, whereas only UUOs' reports predicted independent observers' social skills ratings. These findings inform the strategic selection of informants for assessing impairments that commonly prompt the need for adolescents to access mental health services for social anxiety.


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Interpersonales , Grupo Paritario , Humanos , Adolescente , Habilidades Sociales , Miedo , Ansiedad/psicología
7.
Br J Psychol ; 114(1): 1-20, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36609781

RESUMEN

Aesthetic and moral evaluations engage appetitive and defensive emotions. While the role played by pleasure in positive aesthetic and moral judgements has been extensively researched, little is known about how defensive emotions influence negative aesthetic and moral judgements. Specifically, it is unknown which defensive emotions such judgements tap into, and whether both kinds of judgement share a common emotional root. Here, we investigated how participants' individual sensitivity to disgust, fear, anger and sadness predicted subjective judgements of aesthetic and moral stimuli. Bayesian modelling revealed that participants who were more sensitive to anger and fear found conventional and moral transgressions more wrong. In contrast, participants who were more sensitive to disgust disliked asymmetrical geometric patterns and untidy rooms more. These findings suggest that aesthetic and moral evaluations engage multiple defensive emotions, not just disgust, and that they may rely on different defensive emotions as part of their computational mechanism.


Asunto(s)
Asco , Juicio , Humanos , Teorema de Bayes , Emociones , Ira , Miedo , Principios Morales , Estética
8.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280194, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634072

RESUMEN

The purpose of the present study was to determine the perception of schoolchildren whether their academic performance improved or worsened during the pandemic, analyzing their social anxiety, gender, use of masks in the classroom, and school year. The total sample was 107 primary school students (25 in the fourth, 40 in the fifth and 42 in the sixth grade), with a mean age of 10.51 years old (SD = 1). The gender were 58 girls and 49 boys, from a school in the province of La Coruña (Spain). The study was based on a quantitative methodology, and the design was cross-sectional, descriptive, observational and correlational. The social anxiety questionnaire (CASO-N24) was used to assess social anxiety, and an ad hoc self-report register was elaborated to evaluate sociodemographic variables. The results indicated that 44.8% of the schoolchildren considered that the pandemic had neither improved nor worsened their academic performance. Although 38.3% considered that high and very high social anxiety increased progressively as the school year progressed, both in boys and girls. Besides, the schoolchildren who presented very low and low social anxiety improved their grades in Physical Education, while those who presented high social anxiety worsened them. In conclusion, having a low social anxiety, lower grades before the pandemic and higher grades after, makes children perceive an improvement in their academic performance during the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Académico , COVID-19 , Masculino , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , COVID-19/epidemiología , Miedo , Ansiedad/epidemiología
9.
Appl Nurs Res ; 69: 151664, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635018

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study aimed to provide basic data to improve the health behavior of patients diagnosed with coronary artery disease during pandemics such as that caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by identifying the fear of COVID-19 and the degree of social distancing behavior of coronary patients. METHODS: In this study, 162 patients diagnosed with coronary artery disease who received follow-up care at the cardiovascular center of Dong-A University Hospital in Busan were selected. The variables examined in this study included subjects' general characteristics and disease-related characteristics, fear of COVID 19, social distancing behavior, and health behavior. Data were collected from June 8-25, 2021, and data analysis was performed using the IBM SPSS26.0 program. RESULTS: The results showed that older participants, those who were religious, those with cohabitants, and those who showed better compliance with social distancing showed better health behavior practice. Factor with the greatest influence on the health behavior of patients with coronary artery disease was social distancing behavior (ß = 0.299, p < .001). CONCLUSION: After the COVID-19 pandemic, it is necessary to develop a health care program to promote the health behavior of high-risk patients, including coronary artery disease, in preparation for the COVID-19 era. The younger the patient, the fewer health activities are undertaken when living alone, so appropriate education and support for these individuals should increase the rate of implementation of health activities for coronary artery disease.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria , Humanos , Distanciamiento Físico , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemias , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Miedo
10.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 609, 2023 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36635353

RESUMEN

To date, odor research has primarily focused on the behavioral effects of common odors on consumer perception and choices. We report a study that examines, for the first time, the effects of human body odor cues on consumer purchase behaviors. The influence of human chemosignals produced in three conditions, namely happiness, fear, a relaxed condition (rest), and a control condition (no odor), were examined on willingness to pay (WTP) judgments across various products. We focused on the speed with which participants reached such decisions. The central finding revealed that participants exposed to human odors reached decisions significantly faster than the no odor control group. The main driving force is that human body odors activate the presence of others during decision-making. This, in turn, affects response speed. The broader implications of this finding for consumer behavior are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Olor Corporal , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Humanos , Odorantes , Miedo , Felicidad , Olfato/fisiología
11.
BMC Med Educ ; 23(1): 6, 2023 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604738

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Physicians and nurses often exhibit strong negative emotional and behavioral reactions when patients they care for die, and death education helps them cope with these difficulties. When implementing death education, the literature shows that experiential activities are more effective than lecturing, and progressive exposure is the best way to reduce death anxieties. This study examined the effects of coffin-lying, an activity sometimes seen in Asian cultures, on life and death attitudes of medical and nursing students. METHODS: During a period from 2020 to 2021, 134 medical and nursing students from a medical university in northern Taiwan voluntarily participated in this study. Among them, 53 were in the experimental group, who participated in a coffin-lying activity for nearly 3 hours, and the other 81 were in the control group. All participants filled out questionnaires 1 week before the activity (T1), 1 week after the activity (T2), and 6 ~ 11 weeks after the activity (T3). Three waves of data were analyzed by a repeated-measure multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). RESULTS: The effects of "love and care" and "feeling of existence" were only manifested at T2, however, the scores of "fear of death" and "death avoidance" between the experimental and control groups significantly differed at T2 and T3. In addition, there were no significant differences between the experimental and control groups in "neutral acceptance", "approach acceptance", or "escape acceptance". CONCLUSIONS: The coffin-lying activity based on desensitization was effective in improving "fear of death" and "death avoidance", and the effects were sustained to 6 ~ 11 weeks. Coffin-lying is not only a well-designed activity that quickly reduces negative tendencies toward death, but it is also worth adopting by medical and nursing schools to make death education more comprehensive.


Asunto(s)
Actitud Frente a la Muerte , Estudiantes de Medicina , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Humanos , Análisis de Varianza , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Emociones , Miedo , Estudiantes de Enfermería/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Síndrome de Coffin-Lowry
12.
Int J Palliat Nurs ; 29(1): 28-33, 2023 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36692480

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Fear of COVID-19 may have adverse psychological effects on palliative patients; it may also reduce their quality of life, increase physical symptoms and lead to the postponement of treatment. AIM: This study aimed to determine how the fear of COVID-19 influences factors (personal and disease-related characteristics) in palliative care patients. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional design study was conducted on 110 patients. A patient information form, the 'Fear of COVID-19 scale' and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status were used for data collection. FINDINGS: The mean score obtained from the COVID-19 scale was 20.44±5.78. There was a statistical significance between the stage of disease and the fear of COVID-19 score. The fear of COVID-19 was higher for participants who had received polymerase chain reaction testing. CONCLUSION: There was a positive and statistically significant relationship between the oxygen flow rate and fear of COVID-19 score, as well as a statistically significant relationship between the stage of disease and fear of COVID-19 score. It was determined that the COVID-19 pandemic process affected the mental health of palliative care patients.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Cuidados Paliativos , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Pandemias , Calidad de Vida , Miedo
13.
J Affect Disord ; 324: 143-152, 2023 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587902

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) adversely affects the neurobiological and behavioral functions of offspring. Increasing evidence indicates that alcohol-use disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly co-occur. Enhanced function of hyperpolarization-activated gated channel 1 (HCN1) may be involved in the pathogenesis of PTSD. This study aimed to explore the effect of PAE on fear extinction, spontaneous recovery, alcohol preference, and function of HCN1 channels in offspring of both sexes. METHODS: The PAE model was established with a 20 % (m/V) ethanol solution, and offspring were treated with 0.5, 1, and 2 µg/mL ZD7288 to block the HCN1 channel. Behavioral tests were used to detect the mental state and fear of extinction of the mice. Western blot was used to detect HCN1 expression in the synaptosomes. The BDNF/TrkB-pmTOR pathway was also examined. RESULTS: ZD7288 administration ameliorated PAE-induced impairment of fear extinction and depression-like behavior. ZD7288 administration also alleviated PAE-induced inhibition of the HCN1 channel in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the BDNF/TrkB-pmTOR pathway in the hippocampus of offspring. In addition, the therapeutic effect of ZD7288 in males was better than that in females. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these results suggest that PAE enhances alcohol preference and susceptibility to PTSD through synaptic HCN1 channels in the PFC. In addition, ZD7288 may be a promising candidate for preventing alcohol-associated PTSD-like syndrome, particularly in males. LIMITATIONS: The effects of ZD7288 were only studied in PAE animals and not in healthy animals.


Asunto(s)
Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático , Animales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Ratones , Embarazo , Factor Neurotrófico Derivado del Encéfalo/metabolismo , Etanol , Extinción Psicológica , Miedo , Canales Regulados por Nucleótidos Cíclicos Activados por Hiperpolarización , Canales de Potasio/metabolismo , Canales de Potasio/uso terapéutico , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/tratamiento farmacológico
14.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 240(2): 347-359, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36633660

RESUMEN

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and opioid use disorder (OUD) are comorbid in clinical populations. However, both pre-clinical and clinical studies of these co-occurring disorders have disproportionately represented male subjects, limiting the applicability of these findings. Our previous work has identified chronic escalating heroin administration and withdrawal can produce enhanced fear learning. This behavior is associated with an increase in dorsal hippocampal (DH) interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity. Further, we have shown that these increases in IL-1ß and TNF-α are mechanistically necessary for the development of enhanced fear learning. Although these are exciting findings, this paradigm has only been studied in males. The current studies aim to examine sex differences in the behavioral and neuroimmune effects of chronic heroin withdrawal and future enhanced fear learning. In turn, we determined that chronic escalating heroin administration can produce withdrawal in female rats comparable to male rats. Subsequently, we examined the consequence of heroin withdrawal on future enhanced fear learning and IL-1ß, TNF-α, and GFAP immunoreactivity. Strikingly, we identified sex differences in these neuroimmune measures, as chronic heroin administration and withdrawal does not produce enhanced fear learning or immunoreactivity changes in females. Moreover, we determined whether heroin withdrawal produces short-term and long-term anxiety behaviors in both female and males. Collectively, these novel experiments are the first to test whether heroin withdrawal can sensitize future fear learning, produce neurobiological changes, and cause short-term and long-term anxiety behaviors in female rats.


Asunto(s)
Heroína , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa , Femenino , Masculino , Ratas , Animales , Caracteres Sexuales , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Ansiedad , Narcóticos/farmacología , Miedo
15.
Patient Educ Couns ; 108: 107611, 2023 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603469

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To explore concerns about procedural abortion and abortion-related pain in a cohort searching for abortion online. METHODS: The Google Ads Abortion Access Study was a national longitudinal cohort study that recruited people searching for abortion online. Participants completed a baseline demographic survey and a follow-up survey four weeks later evaluating barriers and facilitators to abortion. This qualitative study utilized thematic analysis to produce a descriptive narrative based on overarching themes about procedural abortion and abortion-related pain. RESULTS: There were 57 separate mentions from 45 participants regarding procedural abortion or abortion-related pain. We identified two main themes: 1) concerns about the procedure (with subthemes, fear of procedural abortion, comparison to medication abortion, lack of sedation) and 2) abortion-related pain (with subthemes fear of abortion-related pain, experiences of pain, fear of complications and cost-barriers to pain control). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the need for improved anticipatory guidance and accessible resources to assuage potential fears and misconceptions regarding abortion. PRACTICE IMPLIACTIONS: Abortion resources, particularly online, should provide accurate and unbiased information about abortion methods and pain to help patients feel more prepared. Providers should be aware of potential concerns surrounding procedural abortion and pain when counseling patients presenting for care.


Asunto(s)
Aborto Inducido , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Aborto Inducido/psicología , Investigación Cualitativa , Miedo , Dolor
16.
BMC Womens Health ; 23(1): 34, 2023 Jan 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36694190

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Fear of childbirth can develop due to the concerns or adverse maternal or foetal outcomes experienced in a previous pregnancy. The aim of this study was to examine the main risk factors associated with the development of fear of childbirth during subsequent pregnancies and deliveries. METHODS: In this case-control study, data from the National Medical Birth Register were used to evaluate the events in previous pregnancies that were potential risk factors for fear of childbirth in subsequent pregnancies. The first and second pregnancies of women registered during our study period (2004-2018) were included. The exposure variable was delivery mode, obstetric challenge or adverse neonatal outcomes during the first pregnancy. The outcome was the development of FOC during the second pregnancy. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% CIs were used for comparison. RESULTS: A total of 13 064 pregnancies were included in the case group and 195 351 in the control group. Previous emergency caesarean section was the strongest risk factor for the development of FOC in the second pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio 5.27, CIs 4.83-5.75). In addition, unplanned CS (adjusted odds ratio 3.93, CIs 3.77-4.10) and vacuum delivery (adjusted odds ratio 1.69, CIs 1.61-1.77) also increased the odds of fear of childbirth. Of the obstetric complications, third- or fourth-degree tear of the perineum was the strongest risk factor (adjusted odds ratio 2.99, CIs 2.69-3.31), followed by shoulder dystocia (adjusted odds ratio 2.82, CIs 2.16-3.62). Neonatal mortality also increased the odds for the development of FOC (adjusted odds ratio 2.17, CIs 1.77-2.64). CONCLUSION: The main risk factors for the development of fear of childbirth in the second pregnancy were previous fear of childbirth, unplanned CS, vacuum delivery, perineal tear or shoulder dystocia. The results of this study can be used in a clinical setting to improve the prevention of fear of childbirth.


Asunto(s)
Cesárea , Distocia de Hombros , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Finlandia/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Parto , Miedo , Parto Obstétrico
17.
Psicothema ; 35(1): 30-40, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36695848

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Using a foreign language can influence emotion modulation, but whether different psychotherapy processes would be affected by a foreign language is still unclear. The current study explored the foreign language effect on the extinction of fear. METHOD: During the conditioning phase, part of the neutral stimuli presented to the participants were associated with a threat, while they performed a countdown task in their native language. In the extinction phase, participants performed the same task either in their native/foreign language and were informed that the threat would no longer appear. We collected self-reports of fear, and pupil dilation and electrodermal activity as physiological measures of arousal. RESULTS: Extinction was successful, indicated by greater self-reported fear and pupil dilation during the threat condition compared to neutral in the conditioning phase, but no significant differences during extinction. Although the foreign language group presented higher arousal, fear extinction occurred regardless of the linguistic context. CONCLUSIONS: Fear extinction via verbal instructions is equally effective in a foreign and a native language context. These results indicate that evidence should be continue to be gathered on the role of foreign languages using basic paradigms with clinical applications.


Asunto(s)
Extinción Psicológica , Miedo , Humanos , Miedo/fisiología , Miedo/psicología , Extinción Psicológica/fisiología , Emociones , Lenguaje , Psicoterapia , Respuesta Galvánica de la Piel
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674392

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Adolescents with functional neurological symptoms disorder (FNSD) commonly present walking abnormalities. Walking is influenced by 'objective' (e.g., fitness) and 'subjective' (e.g., fear) components. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) reflects the interaction between these two components. This study compared the walking ability and RPE before and after rehabilitation of adolescents with FNSD to adolescents with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Factors predicting walking and RPE were also examined. METHODS: Adolescents with FNSD (n = 31) and adolescents with moderate-to-severe TBI (n = 28) aged 6 to 18 years participated in the study. Participants received a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program. Six-minute walk test (6MWT) and RPE were assessed before and after rehabilitation. RESULTS: At pre-test, the TBI group presented lower RPE than the FNSD group (3.38 ± 2.49 and 6.25 ± 2.71, respectively). In the FNSD group, pre-test 6MWT was a significant predictor of post-test 6MWT (adjusted R2 = 0.17; p = 0.01). In the TBI group, post-test 6MWT was significantly predicted by both the pre-test 6MWT and age (adjusted R2 = 0.16; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Prior to the intervention, adolescents with FNSD perceived walking as a more difficult activity than adolescents with TBI. Post-intervention, although the intervention was effective in terms of changes in 6MWT and RPE, the 'subjective' component still contributed to the elevated RPE of the FNSD group.


Asunto(s)
Esfuerzo Físico , Caminata , Adolescente , Humanos , Niño , Prueba de Paso , Miedo , Prueba de Esfuerzo
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674499

RESUMEN

The Bdnf (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) gene contains eight regulatory exons (I-VIII) alternatively spliced to the protein-coding exon IX. Only exons I, II, IV, and VI are relatively well studied. The BDNF system and brain serotonergic system are tightly interconnected and associated with aggression. The benzopentathiepine TC-2153 affects both systems and exerts antiaggressive action. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of TC-2153 on the Bdnf exons I-IX's expressions and serotonin receptors' mRNA levels in the brain of rats featuring high aggression toward humans (aggressive) or its absence (tame). Aggressive and tame adult male rats were treated once with vehicle or 10 or 20 mg/kg of TC-2153. mRNA was quantified in the cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and midbrain with real-time PCR. Selective breeding for high aggression or its absence affected the serotonin receptors' and Bdnf exons' transcripts differentially, depending on the genotype (strain) and brain region. TC-2153 had comprehensive effects on the Bdnf exons' expressions. The main trend was downregulation in the hypothalamus and midbrain. TC-2153 increased 5-HT1B receptor hypothalamusc mRNA expression. For the first time, an influence of TC-2153 on the expressions of Bdnf regulatory exons and the 5-HT1B receptor was shown, as was an association between Bdnf regulatory exons and fear-induced aggression involving genetic predisposition.


Asunto(s)
Factor Neurotrófico Derivado del Encéfalo , Receptor de Serotonina 5-HT1B , Humanos , Ratas , Animales , Masculino , Factor Neurotrófico Derivado del Encéfalo/metabolismo , Receptor de Serotonina 5-HT1B/genética , Receptor de Serotonina 5-HT1B/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Miedo/fisiología , ARN Mensajero/análisis , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Agresión/fisiología
20.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1234, 2023 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36683069

RESUMEN

The well-being of humans is closely linked to the well-being of species in any ecosystem, but the relationship between humans and nature has changed over time as societies have become more industrialized. In order to ensure the future of our ecosystems, we need to protect our planet's biodiversity. In this work, a prey-predator model with fear dropping prey's birth as well as death rates and nonlinear harvesting, is investigated. In addition, we consider that the consumption rate of predators, i.e., the functional response, is dependent on schooling behavior of both species. We have investigated the local stability of the equilibrium points and different types of bifurcations, such as transcritical, saddle-node, Hopf and Bogdanov-Takens (BT). We find that consumption rate of predator, fear and harvesting effort give complex dynamics in the neighbourhood of BT-points. Harvesting effort has both stabilizing and destabilizing effects. There is bistability between coexistence and predator-free equilibrium points in the system. Further, we have studied the deterministic model in fluctuating environment. Simulation results of stochastic system includes time series solutions of one simulation run and corresponding phase portraits. Notably, several simulation runs are conducted to obtain time series solutions, histograms, and stationary distributions. Our findings exhibit that during stochastic processes, model species fluctuate around some average values of the deterministic steady-state for lower environmental disturbances. However, higher values of environmental disturbances lead the species to extinction.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Cadena Alimentaria , Humanos , Animales , Modelos Biológicos , Conducta Predatoria/fisiología , Dinámica Poblacional , Miedo
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