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1.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1261, 2024 May 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720262

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In Bangladesh, remittances constitute a substantial portion of the country's foreign exchange earnings and serve as a primary source of income. However, a considerable number of Bangladeshi citizens reside overseas without proper documentation, exposing them to significant challenges such as limited access to healthcare and socioeconomic opportunities. Moreover, their irregular migration status often results in engaging in risky health behaviors that further exacerbate their vulnerability. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the risky health behavior and HIV/STI susceptibility of Bangladeshi irregular international migrants residing across the globe with undocumented status. METHODS: Using a qualitative Interpretative Phenomenological Approach (IPA), 25 illegal migrants were interviewed who are currently living illegally or returned to their home country. The author used a thematic approach to code and analyze the data, combining an integrated data-driven inductive approach with a deductive approach. Concurrent processing and coding were facilitated by employing the Granheim model in data analysis. RESULTS: The study identified four risky health behaviors among irregular Bangladeshi migrants: hazardous living conditions, risky jobs, suicidal ideation, and tobacco consumption. Additionally, the authors found some HIV/STI risk behavior among them including engaging in unprotected sex, consuming alcohol and drugs during sexual activity, and having limited access to medical facilities. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study can be used by health professional, governments, policymakers, NGOs, and concerned agencies to develop welfare strategies and initiatives for vulnerable undocumented migrant workers.


Asunto(s)
Conductas de Riesgo para la Salud , Investigación Cualitativa , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Migrantes , Humanos , Bangladesh/etnología , Femenino , Masculino , Adulto , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/etnología , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Migrantes/psicología , Adulto Joven , Persona de Mediana Edad , Inmigrantes Indocumentados/estadística & datos numéricos , Inmigrantes Indocumentados/psicología , Ideación Suicida , Asunción de Riesgos
2.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1387715, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706544

RESUMEN

Background: The causes behind migration movements are complex. The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted how several countries failed to respond to the virus adequately, while simultaneously infringing on people's rights. Male irregular migrants fled their countries of origin and embarked on a perilous migration journey to Spain. The highly restrictive COVID-19 measures and border closures affected the mobility of male irregular migrants, whose reception in the host country posed a challenge. It led to the establishment of emergency facilities to accommodate male irregular migrants affected by COVID-19, which had repercussions on their mental health. The aim of this study was to describe and understand the experiences of male irregular migrants throughout their migration process and reception in Spain during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Qualitative descriptive study. Sixteen male irregular migrants participated in this study. Data were collected between January and March 2023 through 16 one-on-one in-depth interviews. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data using ATLAS.ti computer software. Results: Three main themes emerged: (1) How the COVID-19 pandemic drove male irregular migrants to leave their countries of origin, (2) How COVID-19 lockdown policies affected the migration journey, and (3) Receiving male irregular migrants in a pandemic: a housing labyrinth marked by isolation and loneliness. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic increased the social, employment and health inequalities experienced by male irregular migrants. Border closures exacerbated the migration journey and the social stigmatization of this group, who were seen as carriers of the virus in both transit and host countries. Strict control measures in emergency and reception facilities had a significant psychological impact on the male irregular migrants due to the social isolation they experienced. Health institutions should develop programs to guarantee the care needs of irregular migrants.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Investigación Cualitativa , Migrantes , Humanos , Masculino , COVID-19/psicología , COVID-19/epidemiología , España , Migrantes/psicología , Adulto , Salud Mental , Emigración e Inmigración , Pandemias , Adulto Joven , SARS-CoV-2 , Persona de Mediana Edad
3.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1370436, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38694992

RESUMEN

Introduction: While the well-documented negative correlation between both parents migrating and the academic performance of left-behind children (LBC) in rural China is widely acknowledged, it's important to recognize that statistical data reveals millions of children experiencing both parents migrating. This discrepancy between the documented negative impact and the prevalence of both parents migrating can be attributed to previous studies primarily focusing on the direct effects. Methods: Employing national representative panel data and FE model, this study estimates the direct impact of both parents migrating and the indirect effects of both parents migrating through private tutoring, family tutoring, family income, and boarding school participation. Finally, we consolidate the direct and indirect impacts to determine whether both parents migrating has a positive or negative net effect on LBC's cognitive ability. Results: The direct effect of both parents migrating on LBC's standardized cognitive ability is -0.140, indicating a negative direct impact of both parents migrating on LBC's cognitive ability. However, the indirect effects of both parents migrating through private tutoring, family tutoring, family income, and boarding school participation are -0.017, -0.008, 0.306 and 0.119 respectively. The toal effect of both parents migrating on LBC's standardized cognitive ability is 0.260. Conclusion: The initially observed negative direct impact of both parents' migrating can be completely offset by the indirect impact channels, including private tutoring, family tutoring, family income, and boarding school participation. In contrast to prior research, this study unveils a positive overall impact of both parents' migration on LBC's school performance.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Padres , Población Rural , Migrantes , Humanos , China , Población Rural/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Masculino , Padres/psicología , Femenino , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Migrantes/psicología , Adolescente
4.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303185, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723007

RESUMEN

Women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) may engage in a range of cultural food practices during pregnancy, including restricting or avoiding foods high in protein and iron, and foods rich in vitamins and minerals. While research has explored the cultural food practices of pregnant women in LMICs, there is less understanding of the continued cultural food practices of women who migrate to high-income countries and then become pregnant. This systematic review explores the existing research on cultural food practices and sources of nutrition information among pregnant and postpartum migrant women from LMICs, residing in high-income countries. A systematic search was conducted in April 2024 across Global Health, CINAHL, and MEDLINE, published in English, with no date restrictions. Eligible studies included those focused on pregnant and postpartum women who had migrated from LMICs to high-income countries. Studies were excluded if they comprised of non-immigrant women or did not involve LMIC participants. Screened were studies for eligibility, data were extracted, and study quality was assessed. In total, 17 studies comprising qualitative (n = 10) and quantitative (n = 7) approaches were included. In 14 studies participants adhered to cultural food practices, wherein certain nutritious foods were restricted during pregnancy or the postpartum period; three studies noted limited adherence due to support, acculturation, and access to traditional foods. Most studies (n = 10) reported traditional "hot" and "cold" food beliefs during pregnancy and postpartum, aiming to maintain humoral balance for maternal and child health and to prevent miscarriage. Nutrition advice was sought from family members, friends, relatives, healthcare providers, and media sources, with a preference for advice from family members in their home countries. There is a need for culturally appropriate nutrition education resources to guide pregnant migrants through healthy and harmful cultural food practices and overall nutrition during this crucial period. (PROSPERO Registration: CRD42023409990).


Asunto(s)
Países en Desarrollo , Periodo Posparto , Migrantes , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Migrantes/psicología , Países Desarrollados , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud
5.
BMJ Open ; 14(5): e078431, 2024 May 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724060

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the time course of medication adherence and some of the factors involved in this process in undocumented migrants with chronic diseases. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: A big non-governmental organisation in Milano, Italy, giving medical assistance to undocumented migrants. PARTICIPANTS: 1918 patients, 998 females and 920 males, with at least one chronic condition (diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), mental health disorders) seen over a period of 10 years (2011-2020). Their mean age was 49.2±13 years. RESULTS: Adherence to medications decreased over 1 year in all patients. This was more evident during the first 2 months of treatment. Patients on only one medication were less adherent than those on more than one medication; at 6 months the percentage of patients with high adherence was 33% vs 57% (p<0.0001) for diabetes, 15% vs 46% (p<0.0001) for mental disorders and 35% vs 59% (p<0.0001) for CVDs. Patients with mental disorders had the lowest adherence: 25% at 6 months and 3% at 1 year. Mental disorders, when present as comorbidities, greatly reduced the probability of being highly adherent: risk ratio (RR) 0.72 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.91; p=0.006) at 3 months, RR 0.77, (95% CI 0.59 to 1.01; p=0.06) at 6 months, RR 0.35 (95% CI 0.13 to 0.94; p=0.04) at 1 year. This was especially evident for patients with CVDs, whose percentage of high adherents decreased to 30% (p=0.0008) at 6 months and to 3% (p=0.01) at 1 year. We also noted that highly adherent patients usually were those most frequently seen by a doctor. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to increase medication adherence of undocumented migrants with chronic diseases are necessary, particularly in the first 2 months after beginning treatment. These should be aimed at people-centred care and include more outpatient consultations. Educational interventions should especially be taken into consideration for patients on monotherapy.


Asunto(s)
Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Trastornos Mentales , Migrantes , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedad Crónica/tratamiento farmacológico , Italia , Adulto , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Migrantes/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/tratamiento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamiento farmacológico
6.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1392657, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774041

RESUMEN

Introduction: Internal migrants constitute a significant generality in the socioeconomic development of developing countries. With the frequent occurrence of major public health emergencies, obstacles to labor supply due to health issues among internal migrants not only affect their livelihood stability but also urban economic resilience. Moreover, the design of basic public health service systems tends to favor local residents over internal migrants, further exacerbating the health and employment risks of internal migrants. As a result, urban economic resilience faces significant challenges. Objective: The objective of this study was to deconstruct economic resilience into economic resistance and recovery abilities, investigate the net effect and its heterogeneity of internal migrants' health on economic resilience in China's Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration (CYRD), and the mediating effect from labor participation rate and labor time supply, as well as the moderating effect of basic public health services. Methods: Based on the China Migrants Dynamic Survey data (CMDS), the study empirically estimated the effects of internal migrants' health on economic resilience in CYRD through microeconometric analysis methods, mediating and moderating effect model. Results: Our findings indicate that internal migrants' health has a positive effect on economic resilience in CYRD. For each unit increase in migrants' health, it will drive up the average economic resistance ability by 0.0186 and the average recovery ability by 0.0039. Secondly, the net effects of migrants' health on economic resilience show significant structural differences, industry and city heterogeneity. The effect of migrants' health on economic resistance ability is significantly higher than that on economic recovery ability; The effect of migrants' health on economic resilience of the secondary industry is higher than that of the tertiary industry; The cities with high economic resistance and recovery abilities have more prominent positive effect from migrants' health. Thirdly, migrants' health not only has a direct effect on the economic resistance and recovery abilities, but also has a mediating effect on which through labor participation rate and labor time supply. Discussion: Enhancing the accessibility and quality of basic public health services is beneficial for enhancing the positive effects of internal migrants' health on economic resilience.


Asunto(s)
Migrantes , Humanos , China , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Migrantes/psicología , Femenino , Adulto , Masculino , Salud Pública , Estado de Salud , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Factores Socioeconómicos
7.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1387182, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774051

RESUMEN

Background: Immigrants in New York City (NYC) have higher COVID-19 mortality than the general population. While migrant-serving organizations (MSOs) provide access to a breadth of services, they are disproportionately impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic due to staffing limitations, funding cuts, and resource limitations of communities served. Methods: Six focus-group discussions were conducted to explore the experiences of MSOs in NYC during the COVID-19 pandemic from November 2021 to March 2022. Study participants csomprised a subsample of survey respondents from a larger study identified via lists of MSOs. Results: Twenty-seven organizational representatives from 11 MSOs across NYC participated in the discussions. In addition to providing information on communities served, services offered, and organizational characteristics, the following themes emerged from the convenings: mental health challenges and resources needed for immigrants; immigration-related challenges; factors exacerbating hardships for immigrants during COVID-19; interorganizational collaborations and partnerships; policy change; and needs/requests of MSOs. MSOs provide a wide range of services as non-profit organizations and use interorganizational collaboration to improve service delivery. The proximity of MSOs to immigrant communities helps providers understand the needs of immigrants relating to the COVID-19 pandemic and factors that shape telehealth services. Conclusion: MSOs are important providers and advocates for immigration policy in the US given their relationship with the populations they serve. These findings have implications for how to support MSOs that serve immigrants in NYC. Strategies to achieve this include timelier availability and exchange of information, policies, and research as well as strengthening the experience-based advocacy of these groups.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Ciudad de Nueva York/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Femenino , SARS-CoV-2 , Masculino
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 73(19): 424-429, 2024 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753539

RESUMEN

Measles, a highly contagious respiratory virus with the potential to cause severe complications, hospitalization, and death, was declared eliminated from the United States in 2000; however, with ongoing global transmission, infections in the United States still occur. On March 7, 2024, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) confirmed a case of measles in a male aged 1 year residing in a temporary shelter for migrants in Chicago. Given the congregate nature of the setting, high transmissibility of measles, and low measles vaccination coverage among shelter residents, measles virus had the potential to spread rapidly among approximately 2,100 presumed exposed shelter residents. CDPH immediately instituted outbreak investigation and response activities in collaboration with state and local health departments, health care facilities, city agencies, and shelters. On March 8, CDPH implemented active case-finding and coordinated a mass vaccination campaign at the affected shelter (shelter A), including vaccinating 882 residents and verifying previous vaccination for 784 residents over 3 days. These activities resulted in 93% measles vaccination coverage (defined as receipt of ≥1 recorded measles vaccine dose) by March 11. By May 13, a total of 57 confirmed measles cases associated with residing in or having contact with persons from shelter A had been reported. Most cases (41; 72%) were among persons who did not have documentation of measles vaccination and were considered unvaccinated. In addition, 16 cases of measles occurred among persons who had received ≥1 measles vaccine dose ≥21 days before first known exposure. This outbreak underscores the need to ensure high vaccination coverage among communities residing in congregate settings.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Vacuna Antisarampión , Sarampión , Migrantes , Humanos , Sarampión/epidemiología , Sarampión/prevención & control , Chicago/epidemiología , Masculino , Lactante , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Preescolar , Adolescente , Niño , Vacuna Antisarampión/administración & dosificación , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vacunación Masiva/estadística & datos numéricos
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 11275, 2024 05 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760415

RESUMEN

Limited data exist on viral hepatitis among migrant populations. This study investigated the prevalence of current hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and lifetime hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among Qatar's migrant craft and manual workers (CMWs), constituting 60% of the country's population. Sera collected during a nationwide COVID-19 population-based cross-sectional survey on CMWs between July 26 and September 9, 2020, underwent testing for HBsAg and HCV antibodies. Reactive samples underwent confirmatory testing, and logistic regression analyses were employed to explore associations with HBV and HCV infections. Among 2528 specimens tested for HBV infection, 15 were reactive, with 8 subsequently confirmed positive. Three samples lacked sufficient sera for confirmatory testing but were included in the analysis through multiple imputations. Prevalence of current HBV infection was 0.4% (95% CI 0.2-0.7%). Educational attainment and occupation were significantly associated with current HBV infection. For HCV infection, out of 2607 specimens tested, 46 were reactive, and 23 were subsequently confirmed positive. Prevalence of lifetime HCV infection was 0.8% (95% CI 0.5-1.2%). Egyptians exhibited the highest prevalence at 6.5% (95% CI 3.1-13.1%), followed by Pakistanis at 3.1% (95% CI 1.1-8.0%). Nationality, geographic location, and occupation were significantly associated with lifetime HCV infection. HBV infection is relatively low among CMWs, while HCV infection falls within the intermediate range, both compared to global and regional levels.


Asunto(s)
Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C , Migrantes , Humanos , Qatar/epidemiología , Hepatitis B/epidemiología , Hepatitis B/virología , Hepatitis B/sangre , Femenino , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Adulto , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudios Transversales , Persona de Mediana Edad , Hepacivirus/inmunología , Hepacivirus/aislamiento & purificación , Virus de la Hepatitis B/aislamiento & purificación , Virus de la Hepatitis B/inmunología , Adulto Joven , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/virología , Adolescente , Antígenos de Superficie de la Hepatitis B/sangre , Anticuerpos contra la Hepatitis C/sangre
10.
Reprod Health ; 21(1): 65, 2024 May 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760855

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Low use of modern methods of contraception has been linked to HIV seropositivity and to migration, but few studies have evaluated the intersection of both risk factors with contraceptive use. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data from sexually active female participants aged 15 to 49 years in the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS) between 2011 and 2013. The RCCS is an open population-based census and individual survey in south-central Uganda. Recent in-migrants (arrival within approximately 1.5 years) into RCCS communities were identified at time of household census. The primary outcome was unsatisfied demand for a modern contraceptive method (injectable, oral pill, implant, or condom), which was defined as non-use of a modern contraceptive method among female participants who did not want to become pregnant in the next 12 months. Poisson regression models with robust variance estimators were used to identify associations and interactions between recent migration and HIV serostatus on unsatisfied contraceptive demand. RESULTS: There were 3,417 sexually active participants with no intention of becoming pregnant in the next year. The mean age was 30 (± 8) years, and 17.3% (n = 591) were living with HIV. Overall, 43.9% (n = 1,500) were not using any modern contraceptive method. Recent in-migrants were somewhat more likely to have unsatisfied contraceptive demand as compared to long-term residents (adjusted prevalence risk ratio [adjPRR] = 1.14; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.02-1.27), whereas participants living with HIV were less likely to have unsatisfied contraceptive demand relative to HIV-seronegative participants (adjPRR = 0.80; 95%CI = 0.70-0.90). When stratifying on migration and HIV serostatus, we observed the highest levels of unsatisfied contraceptive demand among in-migrants living with HIV (48.7%); however, in regression analyses, interaction terms between migration and HIV serostatus were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Unsatisfied contraceptive demand was high in this rural Ugandan setting. Being an in-migrant, particularly among those living with HIV, was associated with higher unsatisfied contraceptive demand.


Through a cross-sectional study, we explored the relationship between HIV status, migration, and contraceptive use among sexually active women of reproductive age in rural south-central Uganda. People who had moved into the study area within the last 1.5 years were considered in-migrants, compared to long-term residents i.e. people who had not moved. We examined unsatisfied demand for a modern contraceptive method, which is to say female participants who did not want to become pregnant in the next 12 months and were not using at least one of the following contraceptive methods: injectable, oral pill, implant, or condom. We included 3,417 sexually active female participants with no intention of becoming pregnant in the next year. The average age of these women was 30 years, less than 20% were living with HIV, and almost half were not using any modern contraceptive methods. Recent in-migrants were somewhat more likely to have unsatisfied contraceptive demand as compared to long-term residents, whereas participants living with HIV were less likely to have unsatisfied contraceptive demand relative to HIV-negative participants. Being an in-migrant, particularly among those living with HIV, was associated with higher unsatisfied contraceptive demand. This study shows the need for integrating contraceptive and HIV services for mobile populations in East Africa.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Anticonceptiva , Infecciones por VIH , Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Uganda/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Conducta Anticonceptiva/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anticoncepción/estadística & datos numéricos , Anticoncepción/métodos , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Sexual
11.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0300388, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701061

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Women migrant workers are vulnerable to discrimination and violence, which are significant public health problems. These situations may have been intensified during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to investigate discrimination against women migrant workers in Thailand during the COVID-19 pandemic and its intersection with their experiences of violence and associated factors. METHODS: A mixed-methods study design was employed to collect data from 572 women migrant workers from Myanmar, Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Cambodia. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 494 participants using a structured questionnaire for quantitative data, whereas qualitative data was collected through 24 in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 54 migrant women. Simple and multiple logistic regression and content analysis were employed. RESULTS: This study found that about one in five women migrant workers experienced discrimination during the COVID-19 pandemic. Among those who experienced discrimination, 63.2% had experienced intimate partner violence and 76.4% had experienced non-intimate partner violence in their lifetime. The multivariable analysis revealed that women migrant workers who had experienced any violence (AOR = 2.76, 95% CI = 1.49, 5.12), lost their jobs or income during the pandemic (AOR = 3.99, 95% CI = 2.09, 7.62), and were from Myanmar (AOR = 4.68, 95% CI = 1.79, 12.21) were more likely to have experienced discrimination. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the intersection of discrimination and violence against women migrant workers in Thailand demands special interest to understand and address the problem. It is recommended that policymakers provide interventions and programs that are inclusive and responsive to the unique needs of women migrants depending on their country of origin and job profile.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Migrantes , Humanos , Femenino , Tailandia/epidemiología , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Migrantes/psicología , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiología , Pandemias , Adulto Joven , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mianmar/epidemiología , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Laos/epidemiología , Cambodia/epidemiología
12.
Int J Public Health ; 69: 1606568, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698911

RESUMEN

Objectives: This study aims to map sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) policies, strategies, and interventions targeting young migrants and describe the patterns of organisation, resources, and services across Sweden's 21 regions. Methods: We conducted a document analysis of accessible online documents on SRHR policies, strategies, and interventions targeting young migrants in Sweden's 21 regions. We used ideal-type analysis of the documents to create a typology, which formed the basis of a ratings system illustrating variations in organisation, resources, and services across regions. Results: Findings suggest that efforts aimed at addressing young migrants' SRHR are fragmented and unequal across regions. While SRHR policies and strategies are commonplace, they routinely lack specificity. Available resources vary depending on region and resource type. Additionally, information and interventions, although common, do not consistently meet the specific needs of migrant youths. Conclusion: This study suggests that fragmented efforts are fuelling geographic inequalities in fulfilling SRHR among young migrants. There is an urgent need to improve national coordination and collaboration between national and local actors in SRHR efforts targeting young migrants to ensure equity.


Asunto(s)
Salud Reproductiva , Salud Sexual , Migrantes , Humanos , Suecia , Adolescente , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Masculino , Derechos Sexuales y Reproductivos , Política de Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud
13.
Pediatr Ann ; 53(5): e171-e177, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700915

RESUMEN

This article examines the influx of migrants to the United States and highlights current global and local immigration trends. The authors focus on migrant children-specifically the effect of migration trauma in the context of humanitarian responses to the intentional movement of migrants to Democrat-led cities across the US to humanize the compounded effects of migration trauma, restrictive immigration policies, and the current resettlement landscape for migrants. The authors are directly involved with supporting migrant arrivals who have relocated to Chicago from the southern border, and apply field knowledge to articulate current barriers to accessing health care and best practices within pediatric settings supporting migrant arrivals. Clinical and practice implications for medical providers in pediatric settings are included. The article also highlights the role of interdisciplinary collaboration in providing health care to asylum-seeking migrants and implications for transdisciplinary workforce development in this area. [Pediatr Ann. 2024;53(5):e171-e177.].


Asunto(s)
Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Migrantes , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Niño , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud/organización & administración , Altruismo , Refugiados , Pediatría/métodos , Emigración e Inmigración , Sistemas de Socorro/organización & administración
14.
BMC Med ; 22(1): 186, 2024 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702767

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Migrants in the UK and Europe face vulnerability to vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) due to missed childhood vaccines and doses and marginalisation from health systems. Ensuring migrants receive catch-up vaccinations, including MMR, Td/IPV, MenACWY, and HPV, is essential to align them with UK and European vaccination schedules and ultimately reduce morbidity and mortality. However, recent evidence highlights poor awareness and implementation of catch-up vaccination guidelines by UK primary care staff, requiring novel approaches to strengthen the primary care pathway. METHODS: The 'Vacc on Track' study (May 2021-September 2022) aimed to measure under-vaccination rates among migrants in UK primary care and establish new referral pathways for catch-up vaccination. Participants included migrants aged 16 or older, born outside of Western Europe, North America, Australia, or New Zealand, in two London boroughs. Quantitative data on vaccination history, referral, uptake, and sociodemographic factors were collected, with practice nurses prompted to deliver catch-up vaccinations following UK guidelines. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with staff and migrants explored views on delivering catch-up vaccination, including barriers, facilitators, and opportunities. Data were analysed using STATA12 and NVivo 12. RESULTS: Results from 57 migrants presenting to study sites from 18 countries (mean age 41 [SD 7.2] years; 62% female; mean 11.3 [SD 9.1] years in UK) over a minimum of 6 months of follow-up revealed significant catch-up vaccination needs, particularly for MMR (49 [86%] required catch-up vaccination) and Td/IPV (50 [88%]). Fifty-three (93%) participants were referred for any catch-up vaccination, but completion of courses was low (6 [12%] for Td/IPV and 33 [64%] for MMR), suggesting individual and systemic barriers. Qualitative in-depth interviews (n = 39) with adult migrants highlighted the lack of systems currently in place in the UK to offer catch-up vaccination to migrants on arrival and the need for health-care provider skills and knowledge of catch-up vaccination to be improved. Focus group discussions and interviews with practice staff (n = 32) identified limited appointment/follow-up time, staff knowledge gaps, inadequate engagement routes, and low incentivisation as challenges that will need to be addressed. However, they underscored the potential of staff champions, trust-building mechanisms, and community-based approaches to strengthen catch-up vaccination uptake among migrants. CONCLUSIONS: Given the significant catch-up vaccination needs of migrants in our sample, and the current barriers to driving uptake identified, our findings suggest it will be important to explore this public health issue further, potentially through a larger study or trial. Strengthening existing pathways, staff capacity and knowledge in primary care, alongside implementing new strategies centred on cultural competence and building trust with migrant communities will be important focus areas.


Asunto(s)
Medicina General , Migrantes , Vacunación , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto , Masculino , Adolescente , Femenino , Adulto , Reino Unido , Adulto Joven , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Medicina General/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad
15.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 65(1): E65-E72, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706762

RESUMEN

Background: Occupation significantly influences oral health, with factors like the work environment, stress levels, access to dental care, and job-related habits playing crucial roles. The oral health of construction workers, especially migrant workers, is a noteworthy concern. Understanding the oral health of this population is crucial for enhancing their quality of life through various means. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of dental caries, oral hygiene status, and deleterious habits in this occupational group of Belagavi district, Karnataka. Materials and methods: Study design was cross-sectional in nature. Before commencement of the study a pilot study was conducted. Multi-stage random sampling technique was employed, and 610 participants were recruited for the study. Trained and calibrated examiners recorded WHO dentition status and treatment needs (2013) and Oral Hygiene Index Simplified (OHI-S). Collected data was analyzed using descriptive analysis, chi-square, one-way ANOVA, and multiple linear regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of dental caries among construction workers was significantly high (81%), and poor oral hygiene was observed among 36.9% of them. The prevalence of smoking, the tobacco chewing habit, and alcohol consumption among the construction workers was found to be 21.6%, 59.9%, and 37.3%, respectively. The dependence of OHI-S and DMFT on predictors (age, gender and deleterious habits) was found to be 21.5% and 39.6%, respectively. Conclusions: Migrant construction workers in Belagavi had a high caries prevalence, poor oral hygiene status, and a high prevalence of deleterious habits such as tobacco use. These results emphasize the necessity of awareness and dental health education programs to improve the oral health of construction workers.


Asunto(s)
Industria de la Construcción , Caries Dental , Higiene Bucal , Migrantes , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Masculino , Adulto , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevalencia , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Fumar/epidemiología , Adulto Joven , Salud Bucal , Proyectos Piloto , Índice de Higiene Oral , Índice CPO
16.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1371119, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38756883

RESUMEN

Background: The influx of undocumented migrants and asylum seekers into Lithuania, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic, presents unique public health challenges. This study employs the Social Determinants of Health framework to explore the healthcare and social needs of this vulnerable population. Methods: In May 2022, we carried out a qualitative study through semi-structured interviews with asylum seekers across four centers in Lithuania. Employing both purposive and snowball sampling techniques, we selected participants for our investigation. The study comprised 21 interviews-19 conducted in Arabic and 2 in English-with durations ranging between 20 and 40 min each. We audio-recorded all interviews, transcribed them verbatim, and subsequently performed a thematic analysis using Atlas.ti software. This process of design and analysis strictly followed the principles of thematic analysis as outlined by Braun and Clarke, guaranteeing methodological precision and rigor. Findings: 21 interviews revealed critical insights into the healthcare access challenges, mental health issues, and social integration barriers faced by the participants. Key themes included 'Healthcare Needs and the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic 'and 'Social needs and Aspirations Amidst Pandemic-Induced Uncertainty '. The findings highlight the multifaceted healthcare and social needs of asylum seekers, juxtaposed against significant barriers they face. Access to medical services is hindered by long waiting times and financial constraints, especially for specialized care such as dental services. Communication issues during medical appointments due to language barriers and the lack of gender-specific healthcare, such as access to gynecological services, further exacerbate the challenges. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic introduces hurdles such as limited testing, isolation measures, language-specific information barriers, and insufficient social distancing practices. Mental health has emerged as a critical concern, with asylum seekers reporting significant stress and emotional exhaustion due to uncertainty and restrictive living conditions. Social needs extend to delayed asylum application processes, inconsistent language education opportunities, inadequate clothing, and nutrition that lacks cultural sensitivity, and living conditions characterized by overcrowding and insufficient facilities. The restricted freedom of movement within asylum seeking centres severely impacts their psychological well-being, underscoring a deep longing for autonomy and a better life despite the myriad of challenges faced. Discussion: The study illustrates the complex interplay between migration, health, and social factors in the context of a global pandemic. It highlights the need for culturally sensitive healthcare services, mental health support, and structured language education programs. Offering educational avenues alongside language courses for children and adults is essential for fostering social inclusion and securing economic prosperity. Addressing the challenge of language barriers is of utmost importance, as these barriers significantly impede undocumented migrants' and asylum seekers employment opportunities and their access to crucial services. The findings emphasized immigration as a health determinant and underscored the importance of inclusive health policies and advocacy for undocumented migrants and asylum seekers' rights and needs. Conclusion: There is an urgent need for comprehensive policies and practices that are grounded in the principles of equity, compassion, and human rights. Additionally, advocating for practice adaptations that are culturally sensitive, linguistically inclusive, and responsive to the unique challenges faced by undocumented migrants and asylum seekers. As global migration continues to rise, these findings are crucial for informing public health strategies and social services that cater to the diverse needs of this vulnerable population.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Investigación Cualitativa , Refugiados , Humanos , Lituania , Refugiados/psicología , Femenino , Masculino , Adulto , Inmigrantes Indocumentados/psicología , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Persona de Mediana Edad , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Entrevistas como Asunto , Salud Mental , Migrantes/psicología , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos
17.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 71(3): 551-565, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38754941

RESUMEN

In this article, the authors provide an overview how the COVID-19 pandemic impacted the health and wellbeing of migrant children in conflict zones, in transit and post-settlement in the United States. In particular, the authors explore how policies implemented during the pandemic directly and indirectly affected migrant children and led to widening disparities in the aftermath of the pandemic. Given these circumstances, the authors provide recommendations for child health care providers caring for migrant children to mitigate and bolster resilience and health.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Salud Infantil , Migrantes , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Niño , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Política de Salud , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemias
18.
Glob Public Health ; 19(1): 2352570, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38752424

RESUMEN

ABSTRACTMigrants who work seasonally in agriculture face living and working conditions that significantly impact their health. Some of these conditions are related to inadequate food access or food preservation and preparation hygiene. This study aimed to explore how migrant and seasonal agricultural farmworkers access food in Spain from the perspective of professionals supporting this population. We conducted a qualitative study in 2021 based on semistructured interviews with 92 social and health service professionals involved in the care of seasonal migrant workers in 4 Spanish provinces. We identified three themes through reflective thematic analysis: (1) Access to food depends on NGOs and institutions, especially after the COVID-19 pandemic; (2) Relevant cultural differences in diet depending on North African or sub-Saharan origin; (3) Seasonal migrant workers frequently suffer from nutritional and other health problems related to food security. The professionals interviewed described the diet of seasonal migrant workers as based on food with little variety, insufficient protein content, and obesogenic products. They also reported a generalized lack of hygiene in food storage and preparation. This study calls for encouraging dietary support strategies to reduce challenges in food accessibility, which would prevent health problems in this population and bring them social justice.


Asunto(s)
Agricultores , Investigación Cualitativa , Migrantes , Humanos , España , Femenino , Masculino , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estaciones del Año , Agricultura , Entrevistas como Asunto , Persona de Mediana Edad
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10171, 2024 05 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702409

RESUMEN

Mental health issues are intricately linked to socioeconomic background, employment and migration status. However, there remains a gap in understanding the mental health challenges faced by graduate youth in India, particularly in Kolkata City. This study aims to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of depression, anxiety, and stress among higher-educated migrant youth. A survey was conducted on four hundred migrant graduate youths aged 21-35 residing in Kolkata. Measures included socio-demographics and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression were employed to identify factors associated with mental health issues. The overall prevalence rates were 54.4% for depression, 61.8% for anxiety, and 47.9% for stress. Unemployed youths exhibited significantly more symptoms of depression and anxiety than their employed counter parts. The logistic regression model showed that unemployed youth, female sex, never married, and second- and third-time migrant youths were risk factors for high scores on the DASS-21. This study showed that mental health issues were alarming in the higher educated migrant youth. The study suggests the implementation of skill-based, job-oriented, and professional courses at the graduation level to prevent graduates from being rendered unproductive and jobless. Beside these, regular psychological support should be provided to the higher educated youth by the local governments.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , Depresión , Migrantes , Desempleo , Humanos , Femenino , Masculino , India/epidemiología , Migrantes/psicología , Migrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Desempleo/psicología , Desempleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/psicología , Factores de Riesgo , Prevalencia , Salud Mental , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Escolaridad
20.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0300747, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696378

RESUMEN

We investigate the impact of left-behind experiences on the urban identity of new-generation migrant workers using data from the 2017 China Migrants Dynamic Survey. The results show the following: (1) The left-behind experience is an important factor undermining the urban identity of new-generation migrant workers, and the conclusion remains consistent after robustness checks, such as propensity score matching. (2) Left-behind experiences of both parents away from home had the most significant negative impact on urban identity. (3) The results of the mechanism tests indicate that the left-behind experience exerts an adverse impact on urban identity through the pathways of poorer physical health, more frequent migration, more challenging job search, and stronger dependence on preexisting social networks. The findings of this study also offer policy suggestions for promoting the urban identity of new-generation migrant workers.


Asunto(s)
Migrantes , Población Urbana , Humanos , Migrantes/psicología , Masculino , China , Adulto , Femenino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven , Persona de Mediana Edad
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