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1.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(4): 906-921, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617497

RESUMEN

Chitosan/organic rectorite (CTS/OREC) composites were prepared and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was immobilized on CTS/OREC by physical adsorption (APPO) and covalent binding (CPPO). Taguchi method was applied in the optimization of immobilization conditions resulting in the highest enzyme activity of 16.37 × 103 and 8.92 × 103U/g for APPO and CPPO, respectively. APPO enzyme activity was higher than that of CPPO, while CPPO showed the higher enzyme loading capacity than that of APPO. The removal percentage of phenolic compound, including phenol (PH), 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), by immobilized PPO was also explored. The results indicated that APPO was more efficient in phenolic compounds removal than CPPO. APPO contributed to a quick removal in the first hour, and the removal percentage of PH, 4-CP and 2,4-DCP could reach 69.3 ± 4.2%, 89.8 ± 2.5% and 93.8 ± 1.7% within 2 h, respectively. The order of removal percentage of phenolic compounds for both immobilized PPO was 2,4-DCP > 4-CP > PH. After 10 consecutive operations, the removal percentage of 2,4-DCP reached 73.2 ± 2.6% and 60.3 ± 1.5% for APPO and CPPO, respectively. The results introduced a novel support for PPO immobilization, and the immobilized PPO had great potential in wastewater treatment.


Asunto(s)
Quitosano , Silicatos de Aluminio , Catecol Oxidasa , Enzimas Inmovilizadas , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Minerales , Fenoles
2.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445474

RESUMEN

Human skin is continually changing. The condition of the skin largely depends on the individual's overall state of health. A balanced diet plays an important role in the proper functioning of the human body, including the skin. The present study draws attention to bioactive substances, i.e., vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, polyphenols, and carotenoids, with a particular focus on their effects on the condition of the skin. The aim of the study was to review the literature on the effects of bioactive substances on skin parameters such as elasticity, firmness, wrinkles, senile dryness, hydration and color, and to define their role in the process of skin ageing.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/uso terapéutico , Carotenoides/uso terapéutico , Minerales/uso terapéutico , Envejecimiento de la Piel/efectos de los fármacos , Piel/metabolismo , Vitaminas/uso terapéutico , Humanos
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(2): 63, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33447916

RESUMEN

Iron is an essential mineral and one of the most abundant in soils, presenting itself in the environment as ferrous and ferric ions. As each oxidation state of iron has a different role in the environment, its speciation in environmental studies is important. The determination of ferrous iron received great attention from soil chemists because of its important role in agriculture, in redox processes, and as an electron acceptor in the catalysis of organic matter. Methodologies with the use of colorimetric reagents to determine ferrous iron are divergent and not very clear. In this study, we compared two colorimetric reagents (1,10-phenanthroline and ferrozine) to determine the total concentration of iron, ferrous and ferric ions in soil, using simple and low-cost methodologies. The determination of ferrous and total iron with 1,10-phenanthroline colorimetric reagent, following published instructions, did not correlate with ferrozine method, presenting an erroneous quantification. After neutralizing the extract of 1,10-phenanthroline with NaOH, both colorimetric methods allowed to quantify with precision and high yield the amount of ferrous and total iron extracted from the soil. The oxidation states of iron have a different contribution and importance to the environment. In this sense, the improvement of a widely used methodology is crucial for the better study of iron speciation in soil.


Asunto(s)
Hierro , Suelo , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Compuestos Férricos , Compuestos Ferrosos , Hierro/análisis , Minerales , Oxidación-Reducción
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111615, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396135

RESUMEN

Thyroid tumor and thyroid goiter are prevalent disease around the world. In this case-control study, we investigated the association between exposure to a total of twelve mineral elements and thyroid disease as well as thyroid functions. Participants with thyroid tumor or goiter (N = 197) were matched with a healthy population (N = 197) by age (± 2 years old) and same sex. Questionnaires were used to collect data about the demographic characteristics and information of subjects. Serum and urine samples were collected simultaneously for each of the subjects. Mineral elements, iodine level of urine and levels of the total seven thyroid function indexes in serum were detected respectively. Conditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the associations between mineral elements and the risk of thyroid tumor and goiter through single-element models and multiple-element models. Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate relationships between mineral elements and percentage changes of thyroid functions. Higher concentrations of mineral elements in the recruited population were found in this study than other comparable studies, and the levels of chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), antimony (Sb), thallium (Tl) and lead (Pb) in the case group were lower than the control group. According to the single-element models, Cr, Mn, Ni, Sb and Tl showed significant negative associations with the risk of thyroid tumor and goiter, and, Cd showed nonmonotonic dose response. Cd and mercury (Hg) showed a nonmonotonic percentage change with T4, while Tl was associated with the increased FT4 in the control group. Therefore, Cd, Hg and Tl may disturb the balance of thyroid function to some extent, and Cr, Mn, Ni, Cd, Sb, and Tl may become potential influencing factors for the risk of thyroid tumor and goiter.


Asunto(s)
Bocio/metabolismo , Metales Pesados/metabolismo , Minerales/metabolismo , Glándula Tiroides/metabolismo , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Preescolar , Femenino , Bocio/epidemiología , Bocio/orina , Humanos , Yodo/orina , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Metales Pesados/orina , Minerales/orina , Análisis Multivariante , Pruebas de Función de la Tiroides , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Tiroides/orina , Oligoelementos/orina , Adulto Joven
5.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 80(1): 31-40, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388839

RESUMEN

In this study, the quality of groundwater was assessed in a semi-arid region of India by using an entropy weighted water quality index (EWQI) and a pollution index of groundwater (PIG). The EWQI and PIG methods were used to evaluate data on physicochemical parameters in relation to drinking water quality standards. Groundwater samples were collected from the Dubbak region, Telangana state, India, and were analyzed for pH, total hardness, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, bicarbonate (HCO3-), chloride (Cl-), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), fluoride (F-), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), and potassium (K+). The groundwater of the study region is alkaline in nature. The abundance of cations and anions based on their mean values is in the following order: Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ and Cl- > HCO3- > NO3- > SO42- > F-, respectively. The calculated EWQI values ranged from 49.0 to 174.6, with an average of 93.3. Overall, EWQI data showed that only 60% of groundwater samples were of suitable quality for drinking, although only marginally, whereas the remaining 40% of samples were unsuitable for drinking purposes and would therefore require treatment. The values of PIG varied from 0.5 to 1.8, with an average of 1.0, which showed that only 63% of groundwater samples from the study area were suitable for drinking purposes.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable/normas , Entropía , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Agua Subterránea/química , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Calidad del Agua/normas , Cloruros/análisis , Fluoruros/análisis , India , Magnesio/análisis , Minerales/análisis , Nitratos/análisis , Salud Rural , Sulfatos/análisis
6.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 80(1): 248-258, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398394

RESUMEN

Arsenic contamination in drinking water is a great concern in different regions of the world as well as in India. Several technologies have been investigated to remove arsenic from water, such as coagulation and co-precipitation, ion exchange, adsorption, and reverse osmosis. In the present research, electrocoagulation with iron electrodes has been assessed as a treatment technology for arsenic removal from groundwater to reach concentrations below 0.01 mg/L (WHO limit) and which is technically effective, affordable for the local area, and easy to operate and maintain. Electrochemically generated iron is converted to hydrated ferric oxide within the contaminated water, which takes up the arsenic from water. A downstream filtration unit (sand or activated alumina) is applied to remove ferric hydroxide flocs produced during the process. The laboratory experiments were conducted in a batch reactor using iron plates as electrodes with monopolar configuration to study the effects of initial pH and electro-charge loading (ECL) on arsenic removal. The optimum operating condition was observed for an electro-charge loading of 25-30 Coulombs/L at pH 7.0 and an initial arsenic concentration of 0.2 mg/L. Two field trials were implemented in West Bengal after suitably designing the electrocoagulation system. Arsenic removal was significant (75-80%) delivering safe water with arsenic below 0.01 mg/L (acceptable limit). Passivation of the electrodes occurred during the operation and calcium-based (including iron) deposition was observed on the cathodes. Passivation is avoidable after running regular polarity reversal of the electrodes.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico/análisis , Técnicas Electroquímicas/métodos , Agua Subterránea/química , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Purificación del Agua/métodos , Adsorción , Electrodos , Compuestos Férricos/química , India , Hierro/química , Minerales/química
7.
Food Chem ; 346: 128889, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388668

RESUMEN

The present study aimed to prepare blue colored powders from an aqueous extract of cornflower petals. Low temperature (4 °C) aqueous extraction (1:20) and microencapsulation by freeze-drying were performed. A mixture of stabilizers (maltodextrin, guar gum, and lecithin) in a proportion of 10% to the amount of extract was used. The results indicated that the addition of 2% and 4% guar gum to maltodextrin (8-6%) significantly increased the efficiency of the process, but 4% guar gum caused the formation of amorphous particles; therefore, 2% guar gum addition was found to be the most optimal. The FT-IR and FT-Raman band characteristics for guar gum, lecithin, and maltodextrin dominated over those for anthocyanins contained in the powders made from cornflower petals. The blue powders had total phenolic content of 19.5-26.6 mg GAE/g DW. The antioxidant activity of the prepared powders measured by ABTS, CHEL, OH, and RED was high.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/química , Centaurea/química , Minerales/química , Extractos Vegetales/química , Polvos/química , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Centaurea/metabolismo , Color , Galactanos/química , Mananos/química , Fenoles/química , Gomas de Plantas/química , Polisacáridos/química , Agua/química
8.
Chemosphere ; 269: 129413, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388569

RESUMEN

Mineral processing, pyro- and hydrometallurgical processes of auriferous sulfide ores and porphyry copper deposits (PCDs) generate arsenopyrite-rich wastes. These wastes are disposed of into the tailings storage facilities (TSF) in which toxic arsenic (As) is leached out and acid mine drainage (AMD) is generated due to the oxidation of arsenopyrite (FeAsS). To suppress arsenopyrite oxidation, this study investigated the passivation of arsenopyrite by forming ferric phosphate (FePO4) coating on its surface using ferric-catecholate complexes and phosphate simultaneously. Ferric iron (Fe3+) and catechol form three types of complexes (mono-, bis-, and triscatecholate complexes) depending on the pH, but mono-catecholate complex (i.e.,[Fe(cat)]+) became unstable in the presence of phosphate because the chemical affinity of Fe3+-PO43- is most probably stronger than that of Fe3+-catechol in [Fe(cat)]+. When two or more catechol molecules were coordinated with Fe3+ (i.e., [Fe(cat)2]- and [Fe(cat)3]3-), however, these complexes were stable irrespective of the presence of phosphate. The treatment of arsenopyrite with [Fe(cat)2]- and phosphate could suppress its oxidation due to the formation of FePO4 coating, evidenced by SEM-EDX and XPS analyses. The mechanism of FePO4 coating formation by [Fe(cat)2]- and phosphate was confirmed by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV): (1) [Fe(cat)2]- was oxidatively decomposed and (2) the resultant product (i.e., [Fe(cat)]+) reacts with phosphate, resulting in the formation of FePO4.


Asunto(s)
Minerales , Fosfatos , Arsenicales , Hierro , Compuestos de Hierro , Sulfuros
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 570, 2021 01 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495440

RESUMEN

Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet is a leading cause of land-ice mass loss and cryosphere-attributed sea level rise. Blooms of pigmented glacier ice algae lower ice albedo and accelerate surface melting in the ice sheet's southwest sector. Although glacier ice algae cause up to 13% of the surface melting in this region, the controls on bloom development remain poorly understood. Here we show a direct link between mineral phosphorus in surface ice and glacier ice algae biomass through the quantification of solid and fluid phase phosphorus reservoirs in surface habitats across the southwest ablation zone of the ice sheet. We demonstrate that nutrients from mineral dust likely drive glacier ice algal growth, and thereby identify mineral dust as a secondary control on ice sheet melting.


Asunto(s)
Eutrofización/fisiología , Cubierta de Hielo , Microalgas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Minerales/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Biomasa , Ecosistema , Congelación , Geografía , Calentamiento Global , Groenlandia , Hielo , Microalgas/citología , Microalgas/ultraestructura , Microscopía Electrónica de Rastreo , Estaciones del Año
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 667, 2021 01 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510173

RESUMEN

Biological organic-inorganic materials remain a popular source of inspiration for bioinspired materials design and engineering. Inspired by the self-assembling metal-reinforced mussel holdfast threads, we tested if metal-coordinate polymer networks can be utilized as simple composite scaffolds for direct in situ crosslink mineralization. Starting with aqueous solutions of polymers end-functionalized with metal-coordinating ligands of catechol or histidine, here we show that inter-molecular metal-ion coordination complexes can serve as mineral nucleation sites, whereby significant mechanical reinforcement is achieved upon nanoscale particle growth directly at the metal-coordinate network crosslink sites.


Asunto(s)
Bivalvos/química , Reactivos de Enlaces Cruzados/química , Hidrogeles/química , Metales/química , Minerales/química , Polímeros/química , Animales , Catecoles/química , Hierro/química , Microscopía Electrónica de Transmisión , Nanocompuestos/química , Nanocompuestos/ultraestructura , Dispersión del Ángulo Pequeño , Espectrometría Raman , Difracción de Rayos X
11.
J Anim Sci ; 99(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493276

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding vitamin and mineral (VTM) supplement and (or) rate of gain (GAIN) during early gestation on amino acid (AA) concentrations in allantoic fluid (ALF) and amniotic fluid (AMF) and maternal serum. Seventy-two crossbred Angus heifers (initial BW = 359.5 ± 7.1 kg) were randomly assigned to one of four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with main effects of VTM supplement (VTM or NoVTM) and rate of gain (GAIN; low gain [LG], 0.28 kg/d, vs. moderate gain [MG], 0.79 kg/d). The VTM treatment (113 g•heifer-1•d-1, provided macro and trace minerals and vitamins A, D, and E to meet 110% of the requirements specified by the NASEM in Nutrient requirements of beef cattle. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi:10.17226/19014, 2016) was initiated 71 to 148 d before artificial insemination (AI). To complete the factorial arrangement of treatments, at breeding heifers were either maintained on the basal diet (LG), or received MG diet which was implemented by adding a protein/energy supplement to the LG diet. Thirty-five gestating heifers with female fetuses were ovariohysterectomized on d 83 of gestation and maternal serum, ALF, and AMF were collected. Samples were analyzed for concentrations of neutral AA: Ala, Asn, Cys, Gln, Gly, Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Pro, Ser, Thr, Trp, Tyr, and Val; cationic AA: Arg, His, and Lys; and anionic AA: Asp and Glu. In serum, a VTM × GAIN interaction (P = 0.02) was observed for Glu, with greater concentrations for VTM-LG than VTM-MG. Concentrations of serum Cys, Met, and Trp were greater (P ≤ 0.03) for MG than LG. In ALF, concentrations of Glu were affected by a VTM × GAIN interaction, where VTM-MG was greater (P < 0.01) than all other treatments. Further, ALF from VTM had increased (P ≤ 0.05) concentrations of His, Asp, and 12 of the 14 neutral AA; whereas GAIN affected concentrations of Arg, Cys, and Asp, with greater concentrations (P ≤ 0.05) in MG heifers. In AMF, AA concentrations were not affected (P ≥ 0.10) by VTM, GAIN, or their interaction. In conclusion, increased concentrations of AA in maternal serum and ALF of beef heifers were observed at d 83 of gestation in response to VTM supplementation and rate of gain of 0.79 kg/d, which raises important questions regarding the mechanisms responsible for AA uptake and balance between the maternal circulation and fetal fluid compartments.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos , Vitaminas , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , Bovinos , Suplementos Dietéticos , Femenino , Minerales , Fragmentos de Péptidos , Embarazo , Tripsina
12.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(1): 152-161, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460414

RESUMEN

The flotation separation and mechanism of dextrin on chalcopyrite and arsenopyrite surface were investigated using micro-flotation tests, zeta potential measurements, infrared spectroscopy, contact angle measurement and surface adsorption experiments. The micro-flotation test showed that dextrin had obvious inhibitory effect on arsenopyrite flotation, but had no inhibitory effect on chalcopyrite flotation. After treating the surface of arsenopyrite with dextrin, the infrared spectra showed that new characteristic peaks, indicating that chemical adsorption and significant interaction between dextrin and arsenopyrite particles. Zeta potential measurements, contact angle measurement and surface adsorption experiments showed that the selective adsorption of dextrin added a large number of hydrophilic groups to the surface of arsenopyrite, but had little effect on chalcopyrite. In addition, the macromolecular chain structure of dextrin may hinder the attachment of collector molecules to arsenopyrite. The combined effect of these two aspects makes the arsenopyrite treated with dextrin lose its hydrophobicity and enables the separation of chalcopyrite and arsenopyrite.


Asunto(s)
Dextrinas , Minerales , Arsenicales , Cobre , Compuestos de Hierro , Sulfuros , Propiedades de Superficie
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111727, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396058

RESUMEN

Continuous depletion in tin productions has led to a newly emerging industry that is a tin by-product (amang) processing industry to harness mega tons of tin by-products produced in the past. Amang composed of profitable multi-heavy minerals and rare-earth elements. With poorly established safety and health practices in operating plant, amang poses extremely high radioactivity problem associated with high occupational ionizing radiation exposures to workers and continuously impacting the local environment with radioactive contamination from industrial effluent and solid waste into lithosphere and water bodies. The radioactivity level of 238U and 232Th series in the mineral varies from few hundreds up to ~200,000 and ~400,000 Bq kg-1 respectively and are potential to yield more than ~ 30,000 nGy h-1 of gamma (γ) radiation exposure to plant workers. The study found out that for 8 h of work time, a worker is estimated to receive an average effective dose of 0.1 mSv per day from external γ radiation source with a maximum up to 2 mSv per day for extreme exposure situation. Interferences of different exposure routes for examples inhalation of equivalent equilibrium concentration (ECC) of 222Rn and 220Rn progenies and airborne long-lived α particles from the dusty working environment could pose a higher total effective dose as much as 5 mSv per day and 115 mSv per year. The value is 5 times higher than the annual dose limit for designated radiation worker (20 mSv) in Peninsular Malaysia. The study found that 41% of the total received an effective dose received by a worker is contributed by 222Rn, 32% of airborne particulates and dust, 23% from external γ exposure and 4% from 220Rn. Based on radioecological risk assessment, the study found out that the aquatic environment is the highly exposed group to ionizing radiation from industrial effluent discharge and sand residues. With the impotent establishment of radiation protection in the industry, plus the country newly introduced long-term plan to revive tin mining as well as its accessory amang mineral, it is necessary for the government to harmonize current regulation to improve the worker safety and health as well as sustaining local environment.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Radiactivos del Aire/análisis , Exposición Profesional , Dosis de Radiación , Monitoreo de Radiación , Polvo , Ambiente , Rayos gamma , Humanos , Malasia , Minerales , Minería
14.
Science ; 371(6525): 125, 2021 01 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414209
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111704, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396035

RESUMEN

Clay minerals can adsorb both microorganisms and heavy metals. In this study, typical soil bacterium, Enterobacter sp. was applied to investigate the potential protection of the bacterial cells from Pb2+ stress by clay minerals. The sorption by two representative types of montmorillonite (Mt) were contrasted, i.e., Mts/Mtw with strong/weak CEC. There was no significant difference between the two clay minerals regarding their adsorption of Pb2+ cations in water (i.e., ~55 mg L-1). However, the sorption of bacterial cells on the two clay minerals showed evident contrasts, which resulted in the different capacity of Pb sorption. Mts with high CEC preferentially adsorbed abundant bacterial cells (rather than Pb2+) on its surface. The residual Pb2+ concentration in solution actually raised by 7.5% after the addition of Enterobacter sp. In addition, both the Pb-contaminated cells and "healthy" cells (with low Pb contamination) could be adsorbed onto Mt surface, whereas the latter dominated the adsorbents on Mts. This was due to that the Mts with high CEC could provide more exchangeable cations, building more cation bridging ligands between the microbial cells (whatever the types of cells) and clay surface. Furthermore, the adsorbed "healthy" bacterial cells might escape from clay surface via "self-liberating" mechanism, i.e., increasing electrostatic repulsion between the bacteria and clay during microbial decomposition of the medium. This study hence elucidated the protection of microorganisms from Pb2+ stress by Mt.


Asunto(s)
Arcilla/química , Enterobacter/efectos de los fármacos , Plomo/toxicidad , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Adsorción , Bentonita/química , Cationes/química , Enterobacter/metabolismo , Plomo/química , Metales Pesados/química , Minerales/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/química
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 763: 142937, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498124

RESUMEN

The properties and composition of soil dissolved organic matter (DOM) are highly affected by the adsorption and desorption of organic matter (OM) on soil minerals and heterotrophic microbial respiration. Organic acids (e.g., oxalic acid), components of root exudates, have been revealed to liberate organic matter (OM) by the dissolution of protective mineral phases and stimulate microbial degradation of OM. However, the effects of organic acids on the properties and composition of soil DOM molecules and the related mechanisms are still poorly understood. In this study, we conducted microcosm incubation experiments with and without oxalic acid addition, and aimed to elucidate the variations of DOM properties and composition, employing a combination of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, optical spectroscopy, and bacterial community composition analysis. Our results indicated that the released OM from the direct dissolution of protective mineral phases by oxalic acid further stimulated the microbial reductive release of Fe mineral-associated OM under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, the addition of oxalic acid enhanced the degradation of aliphatic compounds and lignins with low O/C ratios, and increased the accumulation of lignins with high O/C ratios, tannins, and condensed aromatics. Linking the bacterial community composition to DOM molecular properties and composition further suggested that the enhanced reductive release of Fe mineral-associated OM was highly related to the increased abundances of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. Overall, oxalic acid induced long-lasting impacts on soil DOM properties and composition under anoxic soil conditions in our study. We expect that our results will contribute to understanding the dynamics of soil DOM molecules in the environment.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Oxálico , Suelo , Adsorción , Minerales , Compuestos Orgánicos
17.
J Environ Manage ; 281: 111837, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418387

RESUMEN

The metal mineral has a complex influence on the thermal decomposition of biomass due to the sophisticated structure of biomass and parallel reactions. Therefore, the influencing mechanisms of metal minerals on biomass decomposition kinetic expressions needed to be thoroughly investigated. In this study, the decomposition of the three major components of biomass was considered separately. The iso-conversional method and integral master-plots method based on thermogravimetry were firstly introduced to explore the kinetic model changes after the introduction of zinc mineral. The thermogravimetric results showed that the presence of zinc mineral had discrepant influences on different biomass components, demoting the fragmentation of hemicellulose while promoting cellulose degradation. In the kinetic analysis, the presence of zinc mineral, the activation energy of three pseudo-components (91.90, 184.64 and 210.91 kJ mol-1) increased to 178.84, 299.05, and 359.45 kJ mol-1, respectively. The kinetic models were altered from 2.0-order reaction (F2.0) for hemicellulose, random nucleation (A1.8) for cellulose, and 2.3-order reaction (F2.3) for lignin to F2.8, F3.0, and F3.2, respectively. This indicated that the zinc mineral was beneficial to the occurrence of multimolecular repolymerization of the primary degradation products. In products analysis, the increment of biochar yields and the C4-C5 products of cellulose (especially furfural) in metal-polluted biomass pyrolysis were detected, which confirmed the simulated reaction mechanisms. The obtained results are expected to provide a mechanism reference to practical applications of metal-contaminated biomass.


Asunto(s)
Pirólisis , Zea mays , Biomasa , Cinética , Minerales , Termogravimetría , Zinc
18.
J Environ Manage ; 282: 111879, 2021 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465712

RESUMEN

As the construction sector is shifting towards circular economy models, the role of mineral construction materials as main waste fraction in terms of volumes is crucial. A characterization of this mineral stock, as well as the waste derived from it is decisive in ensuring the application of the best practices of circular economy. This paper describes a methodology for assessing the mineral building stock through a combination of geospatial and image analysis. By analysing old topographic maps, buildings are grouped according to their building age into different typologies and based on these maps the construction and demolition activity is evaluated. The mineral stock is assessed and estimations of the mineral construction and demolition waste (CDW) is generated for different stochastic scenarios. This methodology is applied exemplarily on the country of Luxembourg. It was found that the total mineral construction stock for Luxembourg is 276.75 Mt and has been growing at a rate of 20.81%-24.39% in the last 30 years. Furthermore, the study identified a mean age of the urban building stock of about 60 years and a typical maximum building lifetime of 122 years. Based on the stochastic projections the mineral CDW generated from the existing building stock is expected to be up to 226.9 Mt by 2100, while if future building scenarios are considered, it can be as high as 885.3 Mt. The annual CDW production is expected to be sufficient for a viable concrete recycling activity if regulations on the waste volume flows are made available.


Asunto(s)
Industria de la Construcción , Administración de Residuos , Materiales de Construcción , Residuos Industriales/análisis , Minerales , Reciclaje
19.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 23(1): 28-47, 2021 Feb 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404564

RESUMEN

The most massive waste stream generated by conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon exploration is the produced water (PW). The costs and environmental issues associated with the management and disposal of PW, which contains high concentrations of inorganic and organic pollutants, is one of the most challenging problems faced by the oil and gas industry. Many of the current strategies for the reuse and recycling of PW are inefficient because of varying water demand and the spatial and temporal variations in the chemical composition of PW. The chemical composition of PW is controlled by a multitude of factors and can vary significantly over time. This study aims to understand different parameters and processes that control the quality of PW generated from hydrocarbon-bearing formations by analyzing relationships between their major ion concentrations, O, H, and Sr isotopic composition. We selected PW data sets from three conventional (Trenton, Edwards, and Wilcox Formations) and four unconventional (Lance, Marcellus, Bakken, and Mesaverde Formations) oil and gas formations with varying lithology and depositional environment. Using comparative geochemical data analysis, we determined that the geochemical signature of PW is controlled by a complex interplay of several factors, including the original source of water (connate marine vs. non-marine), migration of the basinal fluids, the nature and degree of water-mineral-hydrocarbon interactions, water recharge, processes such as evaporation and ultrafiltration, and production techniques (conventional vs. unconventional). The development of efficient PW recycle and reuse strategies requires a holistic understanding of the geological and hydrological history of each formation to account for the temporal and spatial heterogeneities.


Asunto(s)
Yacimiento de Petróleo y Gas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Hidrocarburos , Minerales , Aguas Residuales , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
20.
Food Chem ; 346: 128892, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385920

RESUMEN

Brazilian cacti have the high potential to be used as a source of mucilages with different technological functions that can be widely explored. The physicochemical, structural and technological properties of mucilages extracted from seven cladodes of cacti native from the semi-arid region of the Brazil were investigated. The mucilages exhibited high yields (8.9 to 21.54%), high contents of carbohydrates (39.77 to 87.68%), proteins (4.27 to 14.76%), and minerals, specifically Ca (2.90 to 15.65%). All species evaluated presented a diverse monosaccharide composition, mainly constituted of galactose and arabinose, suggesting the presence of arabinogalactans as the main polysaccharides. Both showed peaks and bands characteristic of polysaccharides with semi-crystalline structure (14.50-38.60%), due to the high concentration of calcium. From the results, mucilages functional properties showed good water and oil retention capacities and a high emulsification capacity (100%) with stability above 83%. Foaming capacity was above 58% with stability greater than 95%. This study highlights the potential of using cacti as a source of functional mucilages for use in food applications.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Cactaceae/química , Fenómenos Químicos , Mucílago de Planta/química , Brasil , Cactaceae/clasificación , Industria de Alimentos , Minerales/análisis , Proteínas de Plantas/análisis , Polisacáridos/análisis
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