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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2566: 53-62, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152242

RESUMEN

Adipocytes and osteoblasts derive from a common mesenchymal progenitor present in a range of connective tissues. Differentiation of the progenitors toward the two cell lineages can be induced in vitro through well-established protocols, and leads to the appearance of lipid-laden adipocytes and osteoblasts embedded in a mineralized matrix. The formation of these two lineages in cell cultures can be monitored using lipophilic dyes such as Oil Red O and substances binding to mineral deposits such as Alizarin Red S, respectively. However, these common staining techniques require cell fixation and are thus incompatible with live analyses. Recently, alternative approaches using vital stains have allowed the dual visualization and fluorescence imaging of adipogenic and osteogenic lineages in live cultures. Here we present the concomitant analysis of cultures containing adipogenic and osteogenic cell types using live staining, combining LipidTox Red and tetracycline with NucRed nuclear counterstain for confocal imaging. This approach can be applied to visualize the kinetics and 3D structure of differentiating mesenchymal cultures over time and highlights the interaction of adipose and mineralized compartments associated with bone marrow stroma.


Asunto(s)
Células Madre Mesenquimatosas , Adipogénesis , Diferenciación Celular , Células Cultivadas , Colorantes/metabolismo , Lípidos , Minerales , Osteogénesis , Células Madre , Tetraciclinas/metabolismo
2.
J R Soc Interface ; 19(194): 20220373, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36128705

RESUMEN

Members of subclass Elasmobranchii possess cartilage skeletons; the centra of many species are mineralized with a bioapatite, but virtually nothing is known about the mineral's organization. This study employed high-energy, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS, i.e. X-ray diffraction) to investigate the bioapatite crystallography within blocks cut from centra of four species (two carcharhiniform families, one lamniform family and 1-ID of the Advanced Photon Source). All species' crystallographic quantities closely matched and indicated a bioapatite closely related to that in bone. The centra's lattice parameters a and c were somewhat smaller and somewhat larger, respectively, than in bone. Nanocrystallite sizes (WAXS peak widths) in shark centra were larger than typical of bone, and little microstrain was observed. Compared with bone, shark centra exhibited SAXS D-period peaks with larger D magnitudes, and D-period arcs with narrower azimuthal widths. The shark mineral phase, therefore, is closely related to that in bone but does possess real differences which probably affect mechanical property and which are worth further study.


Asunto(s)
Tiburones , Animales , Minerales , Dispersión del Ángulo Pequeño , Difracción de Rayos X , Rayos X
3.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 33(9): 2547-2556, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36131672

RESUMEN

We screened and identified an endophytic bacterium that could efficiently degrade PAHs, which would expand the library of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degrading microorganisms and reduce the pollution risk of crops. Its degradation mechanism and colonization performance were preliminarily examined. The results showed that strain PX1 belonged to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The strain had broad spectrum ability to remove PAHs. In PAH mineral salt (MS) media, almost 100% naphthalene was degraded by strain PX1 after 7-d incubation. In a cultivation system solely containing phenanthrene of 50.0 mg·L-1, pyrene of 20.0 mg·L-1, fluoranthene of 20.0 mg·L-1 or benzo[a]pyrene of 10.0 mg·L-1, the degradation efficiency of phenanthrene, pyrene, fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene by strain PX1 reached 72.6%, 50.7%, 31.9%, and 12.9%, respectively. Pyrene was selected as PAHs model to study the degradation characteristics of strain PX1. Enzyme activity tests showed that the activities of phthalate dioxygenase, catechol-1,2-dioxygenase, and catechol-2,3-dioxygenase in strain PX1 were induced by pyrene. Some metabolic intermediates such as 4,5-epoxypyrene, 4,5-dihydroxypyrene, gentilic acid/protocatechuic acid, salicylic acid, cis-hexadienedioic acid/2-hydroxymyxofuroic acid semialdehyde, cis-2'-carboxyphenylpyruvic acid, 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, and salicylaldehyde were detected during the degradation of pyrene by strain PX1. Results of the seed soaking experiment showed that strain PX1 could efficiently colonize in Ipomoea aquatic and Triticum aestivum. After inoculated with strain PX1, the growth of I. aquatic and T. aestivum was significantly increased, and the pyrene concentration in I. aquatic, T. aestivum and MS media was reduced by 29.8%-50.7%, 52.4%-67.1% and 8.0%-15.3%, respectively. Our results suggested that strain PX1 degraded pyrene mainly through 'salicylate pathway' and 'phthalate pathway', and could be colonized into plants and promote plant growth.


Asunto(s)
Fenantrenos , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia , Benzo(a)pireno/metabolismo , Biodegradación Ambiental , Catecol 2,3-Dioxigenasa/metabolismo , Catecoles/metabolismo , Fluorenos , Minerales , Naftalenos/metabolismo , Fenantrenos/metabolismo , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Pirenos/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/metabolismo
4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5221, 2022 09 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064719

RESUMEN

Methane-oxidizing bacteria play a central role in greenhouse gas mitigation and have potential applications in biomanufacturing. Their primary metabolic enzyme, particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO), is housed in copper-induced intracytoplasmic membranes (ICMs), of which the function and biogenesis are not known. We show by serial cryo-focused ion beam (cryoFIB) milling/scanning electron microscope (SEM) volume imaging and lamellae-based cellular cryo-electron tomography (cryoET) that these ICMs are derived from the inner cell membrane. The pMMO trimer, resolved by cryoET and subtomogram averaging to 4.8 Å in the ICM, forms higher-order hexagonal arrays in intact cells. Array formation correlates with increased enzymatic activity, highlighting the importance of studying the enzyme in its native environment. These findings also demonstrate the power of cryoET to structurally characterize native membrane enzymes in the cellular context.


Asunto(s)
Methylococcaceae , Oxigenasas , Cobre/química , Metano/metabolismo , Methylococcaceae/metabolismo , Minerales , Oxidación-Reducción , Oxigenasas/metabolismo
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078751

RESUMEN

The rising popularity of dietary supplements as a part of self-care practice increases interest in monitoring their usage in the general and specific population groups. This study investigated the prevalence and patterns of dietary supplement use among Belgrade University undergraduate students and its variations across different academic study fields. Of the 914 online survey students, 55.7% used dietary supplements during the past year. Female gender, eating behavior, and academic field were significant predictors of dietary supplement use. For all students, the most commonly used dietary supplements were vitamins and minerals, alone or in combination. Magnesium, vitamin C, and B vitamins were the most frequently supplemented micronutrients. The reasons for using, place of purchase, and source of information regarding dietary supplements significantly varied among students of different fields of study. Adverse effects related to dietary supplement use, including gastrointestinal symptoms, skin flushing, dizziness, and heart palpitation, were reported in 4.5% of students. Insufficient knowledge about these products was self-reported by 16.5% of users, more common among non-medical students. Thus, public health interventions are needed to improve students' knowledge regarding rational and safe dietary supplement use.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos , Vitaminas , Femenino , Humanos , Minerales , Serbia , Estudiantes
7.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274412, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36129901

RESUMEN

Dietary supplements are products containing dietary elements including vitamins, minerals, amino acids, herbs, or botanicals. They can aid consumers with low dietary intake and quality, as well as those with high demands, by boosting nutritious value. A cross-sectional study was conducted among adults living in Saudi Arabia aged between 18-60 years old using online self-administered questionnaire. Information regarding sociodemographic characteristics, use and type of dietary supplements, and attitude toward and patterns of dietary supplement use was collected. The chi-square test, Pearson correlations, and the independent t-test were used. In total, 531 participants (115 men and 416 women) were included. Approximately half of the participants (51.8%, n = 275) used dietary supplements. Participants who were using dietary supplements were significantly younger (29.16 ± 9.32 years), more highly educated (85.5%, n = 235), and worked in the health sector (63.7%, n = 100). Herbal supplement use was associated with older age and female sex. Single mineral supplements were used more frequently by married, female, pregnant, or breastfeeding participants and those not working in the health sector. Fatty supplements were used more frequently by participants with a higher level of education. Regarding the attitude toward dietary supplement use, women, single participants, and health care workers showed a significant positive attitude. In-depth investigation into the amount of and reasons for dietary supplement use in the health sector is required. Additionally, educating pregnant and breastfeeding women on the importance of dietary supplements is necessary.


Asunto(s)
Suplementos Dietéticos , Vitaminas , Adolescente , Adulto , Aminoácidos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Minerales , Embarazo , Prevalencia , Arabia Saudita , Adulto Joven
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15823, 2022 Sep 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36138112

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to explore the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on biomineralization of enamel. Sixty C57Bl6 male mice were used, which were assigned into three groups: celecoxib (n = 20) or indomethacin (n = 20) treatment for a period of 28 days or received no medication (control group, n = 20). Visual inspection and microcomputed tomography were used to analyze enamel morphology. Scanning electron microscopy-Energy dispersive X-ray and Knoop microhardness test were used to quantify chemical element content (Ca, P, C, O) and enamel microhardness, respectively. Tissues were collected to investigate the synthesis, activity or nuclear translocation of metalloproteinase-20, transcription factor Runx2, dentin sialoprotein and cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme by means of immunohistochemistry, in situ zymography and indirect immunofluorescence. Treatment with indomethacin and celecoxib reduced the Ca and P content, microhardness and mineral density in enamel. Treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs caused an accumulation of metalloproteinase-20 and overall increased enzymatic activity in enamel matrix, while the synthesis of the transcription factor Runx2 was inhibited by these drugs. Interestingly, indomethacin inhibited Runx2 translocation to the nucleus whereas celecoxib did not. Those findings show that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs impact the enamel biomineralization and could be involved in the etiology tooth enamel defects if used during the period of tooth formation and mineralization.


Asunto(s)
Subunidad alfa 1 del Factor de Unión al Sitio Principal , Indometacina , Animales , Antiinflamatorios no Esteroideos/farmacología , Biomineralización , Celecoxib/farmacología , Ciclooxigenasa 2 , Indometacina/farmacología , Masculino , Ratones , Minerales , Microtomografía por Rayos X
9.
Biomed Eng Online ; 21(1): 70, 2022 Sep 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36138480

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by low bone mineral density, which typically leads to fractures and reduced quality of life. Currently, diagnostic devices used to assess this condition (e.g., dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) are very costly, making it infeasible to meet the demand for testing in most countries. Therefore, we proposed a preclinical validation of a prototype called Osseus in an attempt to enhance osteoporosis screening tests and alleviate their costs. Osseus is a device developed to assist bone mineral density classification. It integrates a microcontroller into other peripheral devices to measure the attenuation at the middle phalanx of the middle finger, with two antennas operating at the 2.45 GHz frequency. RESULTS: We conducted tests with plaster, poultry, and porcine bones. A comparison of the measurements of the original and mechanically altered samples demonstrated that the device can handle the complexity of the tissues within the bone structure and characterize its microarchitecture. CONCLUSIONS: Osseus is a device that has been preliminarily validated. Ionising radiation needed for DXA tests is replaced by non-ionising microwave electromagnetic radiation. Osseus enables early detection of osteoporosis, reduces costs, and optimizes high-complexity testing referrals. There is a lack of validation studies with the reference/gold standard that are currently under development.


Asunto(s)
Microondas , Osteoporosis , Absorciometría de Fotón/métodos , Densidad Ósea , Humanos , Minerales , Osteoporosis/diagnóstico por imagen , Proyectos Piloto , Calidad de Vida
10.
Cells ; 11(18)2022 Sep 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36139439

RESUMEN

In craniofacial bone defects, the promotion of bone volume augmentation remains a challenge. Finding strategies for bone regeneration such as combining resorbable minerals with organic polymers would contribute to solving the bone volume roadblock. Here, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, chitosan and hyaluronic acid were used to functionalize a bone-side collagen membrane. Despite an increase in the release of inflammatory mediators by human circulating monocytes, the in vivo implantation of the functionalized membrane allowed the repair of a critical-sized defect in a calvaria rat model with de novo bone exhibiting physiological matrix composition and structural organization. Microtomography, histological and Raman analysis combined with nanoindentation testing revealed an increase in bone volume in the presence of the functionalized membrane and the formation of woven bone after eight weeks of implantation; these data showed the potential of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, chitosan and hyaluronic acid to induce an efficient repair of critical-sized bone defects and establish the importance of thorough multi-scale characterization in assessing biomaterial outcomes in animal models.


Asunto(s)
Quitosano , Animales , Materiales Biocompatibles , Fosfatos de Calcio , Quitosano/farmacología , Colágeno , Humanos , Ácido Hialurónico/farmacología , Mediadores de Inflamación , Minerales , Ratas
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36141646

RESUMEN

Macronutrients and toxic elements may play an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis of the spine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the concentrations of Ca, Mg, Pb, Cd and Hg in blood with the results of hydrogen magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the severity of pain. Patients with osteoarthritis of the spine (n = 90) and control subjects (n = 40) were studied. The concentrations of mineral components in blood were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (ASA). Spinal pain severity was assessed using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Hydrogen magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was used to determine the fat/water ratio in the bodies of L1, L5 and the L4/5 intervertebral disc. The median concentration of Mg in the serum of subjects with spinal degenerative disease was significantly lower (p < 0.001) than that in healthy subjects. The median concentration of Cd in the blood of subjects with osteoarthritis of the spine was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in the control group. Significantly lower (p < 0.05) median molar ratios of Ca to Cd and Pb as well as Mg to Pb and Cd were observed among patients with osteoarthritis of the spine. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in the value of the fat/water ratio in selected spinal structures, depending on normal or abnormal serum Ca and Mg concentrations. The study showed some abnormal macronutrient concentrations, as well as disturbed ratios of beneficial elements to toxic elements in the blood of people with osteoarthritis of the spine.


Asunto(s)
Disco Intervertebral , Mercurio , Osteoartritis de la Columna Vertebral , Osteoartritis , Cadmio , Humanos , Hidrógeno , Plomo , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Minerales , Nutrientes , Osteoartritis/diagnóstico por imagen , Osteoartritis/patología , Osteoartritis de la Columna Vertebral/patología , Dimensión del Dolor , Agua
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142427

RESUMEN

(1) Aim: To investigate the effect of synthetic bone substitutes, α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) or bi-layered biphasic calcium-phosphate (BBCP) combined with deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM), on bone formation. (2) Methods: Thirty critical size defects were randomly treated with the following five different treatment modalities: (1) negative control (NC, empty), (2) DBBM, (3) α-TCP + DBBM (1:1), (4) BBCP 3%HA/97%α-TCP + DBBM (1:1), and (5) BBCP 6%HA/94%α-TCP + DBBM (1:1). The samples, at four weeks post-surgery, were investigated by micro-CT and histological analysis. (3) Results: A similar level of new bone formation was demonstrated in the DBBM with α-TCP bone substitute groups when compared to the negative control by histomorphometry. DBBM alone showed significantly lower new bone area than the negative control (p = 0.0252). In contrast to DBBM, the micro-CT analysis revealed resorption of the α-TCP + DBBM, BBCP 3%HA/97%α-TCP + DBBM and BBCP 6%HA/94%α-TCP + DBBM, as evidenced by a decrease of material density (p = 0.0083, p = 0.0050 and p = 0.0191, respectively), without changing their volume. (4) Conclusions: New bone formation was evident in all defects augmented with biomaterials, proving the osteoconductive properties of the tested material combinations. There was little impact of the HA coating degree on α-TCP in bone augmentation potential and material resorption for four weeks when mixed with DBBM.


Asunto(s)
Sustitutos de Huesos , Animales , Materiales Biocompatibles/farmacología , Productos Biológicos , Regeneración Ósea , Sustitutos de Huesos/farmacología , Sustitutos de Huesos/uso terapéutico , Calcio/farmacología , Fosfatos de Calcio/farmacología , Bovinos , Hidroxiapatitas , Minerales/farmacología
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15959, 2022 Sep 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36153396

RESUMEN

Calcium oxalate (CaOx) is one of the most common bio-mineral in extant plants and is believed to serve a variety of functions such as calcium storage and herbivore defense. However, traces of CaOx crystals have rarely been identified in fossil plants, and they are primarily known from fossil gymnosperms, where empty cavities of former CaOx crystals or ghost crystals have been reported from leaf cuticles of some Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic conifers. Here we investigate fossil angiosperm leaves from the late Oligocene Rott Fossil Lagerstätte and report ghost crystals of various shapes, sizes and topology (distribution patterns), and cavities. These micromorphological structures of fossil leaves are compared to CaOx deposits in leaves of extant plants: globular structures in fossil leaves resemble CaOx druses (crystal aggregates) in fresh leaves in size and distribution; and angular or brick-shaped structures in the vascular system of fossil leaves closely resemble prismatic CaOx crystals in the vascular system of extant leaves in both size and topology. Chemically, CaOx druses have survived fossilization as cavities only, and were replaced by organic matter and ghost minerals containing Ca, Si, Al, S, and Fe. The identification of former CaOx remains in leaf fossils provides novel insights on the fate of plant bio-minerals during fossilization. More importantly, it provides an additional aspect of the ecophysiology of fossil plants thus improving the accuracy of palaeoecological reconstructions and can provide a broader perspective on the evolution of CaOx and their rule in plant ecology across geological timescales. Alternative interpretations of the fossil microstructures are discussed but ruled out.


Asunto(s)
Oxalato de Calcio , Fósiles , Biomineralización , Calcio , Oxalato de Calcio/química , Cristalización , Minerales , Hojas de la Planta , Plantas
14.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 30(10): 1973-1982, 2022 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050801

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This trial evaluated a smartphone application's effectiveness in improving adherence to vitamin and mineral supplementation postoperatively. METHODS: This study was a randomized controlled trial comprising 140 patients undergoing bariatric surgery (gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy). Participants were randomized 1:1 to the 12-week intervention, using the smartphone application PromMera, or to standard care. The primary end point was adherence to vitamin and mineral supplementation. RESULTS: Initiation rate and overall adherence to supplementation were high in both groups. Change in objectively measured adherence rate from before the intervention to 1 year post surgery, measured with pharmacy refill data, did not differ between groups for vitamin B12 (-9.6% [SD = 27%] vs. -9.3% [SD = 30%]; p = 0.48) or calcium/vitamin D (-12.3% [SD = 29%] vs. -11.5% [SD = 32%]; p = 0.44). A modest effect on the secondary end point (subjectively measured adherence, using the Medication Adherence Report Scale-5) was seen immediately after the intervention (intervention group 0.00 [SD = 1.3] vs. control group -1.2 [SD = 3.5]; p = 0.021), but this effect did not persist 1 year post surgery. No differences were detected in the prevalence of biochemical deficiencies. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the smartphone application PromMera did not obtain a lasting improvement in adherence to vitamin and mineral supplementation 1 year post bariatric surgery.


Asunto(s)
Cirugía Bariátrica , Derivación Gástrica , Obesidad Mórbida , Calcio , Suplementos Dietéticos , Gastrectomía , Humanos , Minerales , Obesidad Mórbida/cirugía , Teléfono Inteligente , Vitamina D , Vitaminas/uso terapéutico
15.
Environ Pollut ; 312: 120072, 2022 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064056

RESUMEN

Elucidating the mechanisms of heavy metal (HM) adsorption on clay minerals is key to solving HM pollution in soil. In this study, the adsorption of four HM atoms (As, Cd, Cr, and Hg) on the illite(001) surface was investigated using density functional theory calculations. Different adsorption configurations were investigated and the electronic properties (i.e., adsorption energy (Ead) and electron transfer) were analyzed. The Ead values of the four HM atoms on the illite(001) surface were found to be As > Cr > Cd > Hg. The Ead values for the most stable adsorption configurations of As, Cr, Cd, and Hg were -1.8554, -0.7982, -0.3358, and -0.2678 eV, respectively. The As atoms show effective chemisorption at all six adsorption sites, while Cd, Cr, and Hg atoms mainly exhibited physisorption. The hollow and top (O) sites were more favorable than the top (K) sites for the adsorption of HM atoms. The Gibbs free energy results show that the illite(001) surface was energetically favorable for the adsorption of As and Cr atoms under the influence of 298 K and 1 atm. After adsorption, there was a redistribution of positions and reconfiguration of the chemical bonding of the surface atoms, with a non-negligible influence around the upper surface atoms. Bader charge analysis shows electrons were transferred from the surface to the HM atoms, and a strong correlation between the valence electron variations and the adsorption energy was observed. HM atoms had a high electronic state overlap with the surface O atoms near the Fermi energy level, indicating that the surface O atoms, though not the topmost atoms around the surface, significantly influence HM adsorption. The above results show illite(001) preferentially adsorbed As among all four investigated HM atoms, indicating that soils containing a high proportion of illite might be more prone to As pollution.


Asunto(s)
Mercurio , Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , Adsorción , Cadmio/análisis , Arcilla , Contaminación Ambiental/análisis , Mercurio/análisis , Metales Pesados/análisis , Minerales/química , Suelo/química , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 244: 114059, 2022 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087469

RESUMEN

Flue gas lead emission during sludge incineration damages to human health and ecological environment seriously. Therefore, a denitrifying bio-trickling filter (DNBTF) for lead removal in flue gas from sludge incineration was investigated. Lead removal efficiency was up to 90.7% in 60 days' operation. Lead speciation in biofilms of DNBTF consists of 84.27% residue lead, 15.18% organic bound lead, and less than 1% exchangeable and reducible lead. Lead resistant bacteria and lead resistant-denitrifying bacteria accounted for 85.04% and 58.25%, respectively. Lead resistant microorganisms(Pseudomonas, Azoarcus, Stappia, Pararhodobacter, Paracoccus, Azospirillum, Hyphomonas, Rhodobacter, Polymorphum, Brevunimonas, Stenotrophomonas) could resist the toxicity of Pb2+ in flue gas by transport protein and binding protein, and detoxify Pb2+ in flue gas by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) adsorption, protein binding and precipitation under the action of resistance genes, such as pbrAB, golT, troABCD, znuABC, czcABCD, pcoB, copA, as shown by integrated metagenomic and metaproteomic analyses. The biofilm was characterized by FTIR, XRD, 3D-EEM, and SEM-EDS. XRD and SEM-EDS spectra indicated the formation of pyromorphite from bioconversion of lead in flue gas. Lead-containing flue gas was bio-stabilized in the form of pyromorphite and HA-Pb via complexation of humic acids in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), biosorption and biodeposition. This provides a new way of sludge incineration flue gas lead removal using a denitrifying biotricking filter.


Asunto(s)
Incineración , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Proteínas Portadoras , Desnitrificación , Humanos , Sustancias Húmicas , Plomo , Metagenómica , Minerales , Fosfatos , Aguas del Alcantarillado/química
17.
Adv Colloid Interface Sci ; 308: 102772, 2022 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087561

RESUMEN

Advances in animal husbandry and better performance of livestock results in growing demands for feed and its nutrients, bioactive compounds (bioactives), such as vitamins, minerals, proteins, and phenolics, along with drugs/vaccines. To protect the feed bioactives in unintended circumstances, they can be encapsulated to achieve desired efficacy in animal feeding and nanoencapsulation gives more potential for better protection, absorption and targeted delivery of bioactives. This study reviews structures, properties, and methods of nanoencapsulation for animal feedings and relevant drugs. Essential oil (EOs) and plant extracts are mostly encapsulated bioactives and phytochemicals for poultry diets and chitosan is found as most effective nanocarrier to load EOs and plant extracts. Nanoparticles (NPs) and nanocapsules are frequently studied nanocarriers, which are mostly processed by using the ionotropic/ionic gelation. Nanofibers, nanohydrogels and nanoemulsions are not found yet for their application in feed bioactives. These nanocarriers can have an improved protection, stability, and controlled release of feed bioactives which benefits to additional nutrition for the growth of livestock regardless of the low stability and water solubility of bioactives. For ruminants' feeds, nano-minerals, vitamins, phytochemicals, essential fatty acids, and drugs are encapsulated by NPs to facilitate the delivery to target organs through direct penetration, to improve their bioavailability, to generate more efficient absorption in cells and tissues, and protect them from rapid degradation. Furthermore, safety and regulatory issues, as well as advantages and disadvantages of nanoencapsulation application in animal feeds are also discussed. The review shows an accurate design of NPs can largely mask safety issues with straightforward approaches and awareness of safety concerns is fundamental for better designing of nanoencapsulation systems and commercialization. This review gives an insight of understanding and potential of nanoencapsulation in ruminants and poultry feedings to obtain a better bioavailability of the nutrients and bioactives with improved safety and awareness for better designing of nanoencapsulating systems.


Asunto(s)
Quitosano , Nanocápsulas , Aceites Volátiles , Animales , Preparaciones de Acción Retardada , Ganado , Minerales , Sistema de Administración de Fármacos con Nanopartículas , Fitoquímicos/química , Extractos Vegetales , Vitaminas , Agua
18.
Elife ; 112022 09 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36164828

RESUMEN

Background: The effect of calcium supplementation on bone mineral accretion in people under 35 years old is inconclusive. To comprehensively summarize the evidence for the effect of calcium supplementation on bone mineral accretion in young populations (≤35 years). Methods: This is a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Pubmed, Embase, ProQuest, CENTRAL, WHO Global Index Medicus, Clinical Trials.gov, WHO ICTRP, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Data databases were systematically searched from database inception to April 25, 2021. Randomized clinical trials assessing the effects of calcium supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) or bone mineral content (BMC) in people under 35 years old. Results: This systematic review and meta-analysis identified 43 studies involving 7,382 subjects. Moderate certainty of evidence showed that calcium supplementation was associated with the accretion of BMD and BMC, especially on femoral neck (standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.627, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.338-0.915; SMD 0.364, 95% CI 0.134-0.595; respectively) and total body (SMD 0.330, 95% CI 0.163-0.496; SMD 0.149, 95% CI 0.006-0.291), also with a slight improvement effect on lumbar spine BMC (SMD 0.163, 95% CI 0.008-0.317), no effects on total hip BMD and BMC and lumbar spine BMD were observed. Very interestingly, subgroup analyses suggested that the improvement of bone at femoral neck was more pronounced in the peripeak bone mass (PBM) population (20-35 years) than the pre-PBM population (<20 years). Conclusions: Our findings provided novel insights and evidence in calcium supplementation, which showed that calcium supplementation significantly improves bone mass, implying that preventive calcium supplementation before or around achieving PBM may be a shift in the window of intervention for osteoporosis. Funding: This work was supported by Wenzhou Medical University grant [89219029].


Osteoporosis and bone fractures are common problems among older people, particularly older women. These conditions cause disability and reduce quality of life. Progressive loss of bone mineral density is usually the culprit. So far, strategies to prevent bone weakening with age have produced disappointing results. For example, taking calcium supplements in later life only slightly reduces the risk of osteoporosis or fracture. New approaches are needed. Bone mass increases gradually early in life and peaks and plateaus around 20-35 years of age. After that period, bone mass slowly declines. Some scientists suspect that increasing calcium intake during this period of peak bone mass may reduce osteoporosis or fracture risk later in life. A meta-analysis by Liu, Le et al. shows that boosting calcium intake in young adulthood strengthens bones. The researchers analyzed data from 43 randomized controlled trials that enrolled 7,382 participants. About half the studies looked at the effects of taking calcium supplements and the other half analyzed the effects of a high calcium diet. Boosting calcium intake in people younger than age 35 improved bone mineral density throughout the body. It also increased bone mineral density at the femoral neck, where most hip fractures occur. Calcium supplementation produced larger effects in individuals between the ages of 20 and 35 than in people younger than 20. Both high calcium diets and calcium supplements with doses less than 1000 mg/d boosted bone strength. Higher dose calcium supplements did not provide any extra benefits. The analysis suggests people should pay more attention to bone health during early adulthood. Large randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm the long-term benefits of boosting calcium intake during early adulthood. But if the results are validated, taking calcium supplements, or eating more calcium-rich foods between the ages of 20 and 35 may help individuals build healthier bones and prevent fractures and osteoporosis later in life.


Asunto(s)
Calcio , Suplementos Dietéticos , Adulto , Densidad Ósea , Calcio/farmacología , Humanos , Minerales , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
19.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 73(3): 285-291, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36169333

RESUMEN

Background: Student life is often accompanied by changes in eating behavior. Adopting a balanced and varied diet and healthy eating habits can promote the health, growth and intellectual development of young people at different stages of life. According to the WHO, a healthy diet helps protect against all forms of malnutrition, as well as against noncommunicable diseases. The nutritional and energy intake must follow nutritional norms, for example energy intake must be adapted to expenditure. To avoid excessive weight gain, fat should not exceed 30% of total energy intake. Objective: The goal of this study was to compare energy consumption, macronutrients and selected minerals in food rations consumed by students at university campus and at home. Materials and Method: The subjects were chosen at random from among volunteer students from Hassan II University in Casablanca. A sample of 130 students (54 women and 76 men) aged 18 to 25, participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements were performed to assess general characteristics, and records of one-day food intakes at university and at the parental home were performed by 24-hour food diary, and as well as conducting face-to-face. Variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to check the normality of data. Results: In accordance with the body mass index classifications, 69.5% of male university students and 77.7% of female were in normal weight categories. The overweight classes were 25.1% and 5.6%, respectively, for men and women. Assessment of the energy and nutritional intakes of university and home meals shows that students consume more calories, protein, carbohydrates, sodium, potassium, and iodine at home than at university, but these contributions remain insufficient in relation to the RDAs. Students consume more fat, especially saturated fatty acids, at university than at home. More than half of students exceed the recommended daily recommendations for saturated fatty acids. Conclusion: These results indicate that a university students' diet is influenced by their behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge. Hence the importance of nutrition education, based on what foods to consume rather than what foods to avoid, a societal issue that requires a multidisciplinary, multisectoral and culturally appropriate approach.


Asunto(s)
Ingestión de Energía , Yodo , Adolescente , Carbohidratos , Dieta , Ácidos Grasos , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Comidas , Minerales , Nutrientes , Potasio , Sodio , Estudiantes , Universidades
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36142447

RESUMEN

Simvastatin (SIM) is a lipid-lowering drug that also promotes bone formation, but its high liver specificity may cause muscle damage, and the low solubility of lipophilic drugs limits the systemic administration of SIM, especially in osteoporosis (OP) studies. In this study, we utilized the bone-targeting moiety of dendritic oligopeptides consisting of three aspartic acid moieties (dAsp3) and amphiphilic polymers (poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid); PEG-PLGA) to create dAsp3-PEG-PLGA (APP) nanoparticles (NPs), which can carry SIM to treat OP. An in vivo imaging system showed that gold nanocluster (GNC)-PLGA/APP NPs had a significantly higher accumulation rate in representative bone tissues. In vivo experiments comparing low-dose SIM treatment (0.25 mg/kg per time, 2 times per week) showed that bone-targeting SIM/APP NPs could increase the bone formation effect compared with non-bone-targeting SIM/PP NPs in a local bone loss of hindlimb suspension (disuse) model, but did not demonstrate good bone formation in a postmenopausal (ovariectomized) model of systemic bone loss. The APP NPs could effectively target high mineral levels in bone tissue and were expected to reduce side effects in other organs affected by SIM. However, in vivo OP model testing showed that the same lower dose could not be used to treat different types of OP.


Asunto(s)
Nanopartículas , Osteoporosis , Animales , Ácido Aspártico , Biopolímeros , Huesos , Oro/uso terapéutico , Lípidos/uso terapéutico , Minerales/uso terapéutico , Osteoporosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Poliésteres , Polietilenglicoles/uso terapéutico , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico-Ácido Poliglicólico , Ratas , Simvastatina/farmacología , Simvastatina/uso terapéutico
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