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1.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 47, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491096

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE To use the advantages of a ratio scale with verbal anchors in order to measure the risk perception in the novel coronavirus infection, which causes covid-19, in a health belief model-based questionnaire, as well as its validity and reproducibility. METHOD We used the health belief model, which explores four dimensions: perceived susceptibility (five questions), perceived severity (five questions), perceived benefits (five questions), and perceived barriers (five questions). Additionally, we included a fifth dimension, called pro-health motivation (four questions). The questions composed an electronic questionnaire disseminated by social networks for an one-week period. Answers were quantitative values of subjective representations, obtained by a psychophysically constructed scale with verbal anchors ratio (CentiMax ® ). Mean time for total filling was 12 minutes (standard deviation = 1.6). RESULTS We obtained 277 complete responses to the form. One was excluded because it belonged to a participant under 18 years old. Reproducibility measures were significant for 22 of the 24 questions in our questionnaire (Cronbach's α = 0.883). Convergent validity was attested by Spearman-Brown's split half reliability coefficient (r = 0.882). Significant differences among groups were more intense in perceived susceptibility and severity dimensions, and less in perceived benefits and barriers. CONCLUSION Our health belief model-based questionnaire using quantitative measures enabled the confirmation of popular beliefs about covid-19 infection risks. The advantage in our approach lays in the possibility of quickly, directly and quantitatively identifying individual belief profiles for each dimension in the questionnaire, serving as a great ally for communication processes and public health education.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Cultura , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Psicológicos , Pandemias , Valores de Referencia , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
2.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234232, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530911

RESUMEN

Following the fast spread of Covid-19 across Europe and North America in March 2020, many people started stockpiling commodities like toilet paper. Despite the high relevance for public authorities to adequately address stockpiling behavior, empirical studies on the psychological underpinnings of toilet paper stockpiling are still scarce. In this study, we investigated the relation between personality traits, perceived threat of Covid-19, and stockpiling of toilet paper in an online survey (N = 996) across 22 countries. Results suggest that people who felt more threatened by Covid-19 stockpiled more toilet paper. Further, a predisposition towards Emotionality predicted the perceived threat of Covid-19 and affected stockpiling behavior indirectly. Finally, Conscientiousness was related to toilet paper stockpiling, such that individuals higher in Conscientiousness tended to stockpile more toilet paper. These results emphasize the importance of clear communication by public authorities acknowledging anxiety and, at the same time, transmitting a sense of control.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Acaparamiento , Modelos Psicológicos , Personalidad , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Adulto , Aparatos Sanitarios , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , América del Norte , Pandemias , Papel , Pruebas de Personalidad
3.
Br J Community Nurs ; 25(5): 231-238, 2020 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378460

RESUMEN

It is impossible to predict or comprehend the impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The UK Government's advice for vulnerable people, including older adults, to move towards self-isolation and social distancing is likely to reduce rates of transmission, the risk of severe illness and the impact on the acute health services. Although justified and necessary, this process of isolation is likely to have a negative impact on the mental health of these vulnerable groups, especially older people. It will become increasingly important for community health professionals to assess subtle changes in older persons' mental health, as the duration of this period of isolation remains unclear. The biopsychopharmacosocial model provides one method of assessing mental health and planning health and social care needs. This article hopes to guide community health professionals through the specifics of this assessment model in relation to the growing COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Anciano , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Reino Unido/epidemiología
5.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e120, 2020 05 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460942

RESUMEN

The target article "Thinking Through Other Minds" (TTOM) offered an account of the distinctively human capacity to acquire cultural knowledge, norms, and practices. To this end, we leveraged recent ideas from theoretical neurobiology to understand the human mind in social and cultural contexts. Our aim was both synthetic - building an integrative model adequate to account for key features of cultural learning and adaptation; and prescriptive - showing how the tools developed to explain brain dynamics can be applied to the emergence of social and cultural ecologies of mind. In this reply to commentators, we address key issues, including: (1) refining the concept of culture to show how TTOM and the free-energy principle (FEP) can capture essential elements of human adaptation and functioning; (2) addressing cognition as an embodied, enactive, affective process involving cultural affordances; (3) clarifying the significance of the FEP formalism related to entropy minimization, Bayesian inference, Markov blankets, and enactivist views; (4) developing empirical tests and applications of the TTOM model; (5) incorporating cultural diversity and context at the level of intra-cultural variation, individual differences, and the transition to digital niches; and (6) considering some implications for psychiatry. The commentators' critiques and suggestions point to useful refinements and applications of the model. In ongoing collaborations, we are exploring how to augment the theory with affective valence, take into account individual differences and historicity, and apply the model to specific domains including epistemic bias.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo , Cognición , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Conducta Social
7.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1925): 20192794, 2020 04 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315587

RESUMEN

Human cooperation is probably supported by our tendency to punish selfishness in others. Social norms play an important role in motivating third-party punishment (TPP), and also in explaining societal differences in prosocial behaviour. However, there has been little work directly linking social norms to the development of TPP across societies. In this study, we explored the impact of normative information on the development of TPP in 603 children aged 4-14, across six diverse societies. Children began to perform TPP during middle childhood, and the developmental trajectories of this behaviour were similar across societies. We also found that social norms began to influence the likelihood of performing TPP during middle childhood in some of these societies. Norms specifying the punishment of selfishness were generally more influential than norms specifying the punishment of prosocial behaviour. These findings support the view that TPP of selfishness is important in all societies, and its development is shaped by a shared psychology for responding to normative information. Yet, the results also highlight the important role that children's prior knowledge of local norms may play in explaining societal variation in the development of both TPP and prosociality.


Asunto(s)
Diversidad Cultural , Normas Sociales , Adolescente , Altruismo , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Motivación , Probabilidad , Castigo/psicología
8.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230389, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251439

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Predicting which children will go on to develop mental health symptoms as adolescents is critical for early intervention and preventing future, severe negative outcomes. Although many aspects of a child's life, personality, and symptoms have been flagged as indicators, there is currently no model created to screen the general population for the risk of developing mental health problems. Additionally, the advent of machine learning techniques represents an exciting way to potentially improve upon the standard prediction modelling technique, logistic regression. Therefore, we aimed to I.) develop a model that can predict mental health problems in mid-adolescence II.) investigate if machine learning techniques (random forest, support vector machines, neural network, and XGBoost) will outperform logistic regression. METHODS: In 7,638 twins from the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden we used 474 predictors derived from parental report and register data. The outcome, mental health problems, was determined by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Model performance was determined by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: Although model performance varied somewhat, the confidence interval overlapped for each model indicating non-significant superiority for the random forest model (AUC = 0.739, 95% CI 0.708-0.769), followed closely by support vector machines (AUC = 0.735, 95% CI 0.707-0.764). CONCLUSION: Ultimately, our top performing model would not be suitable for clinical use, however it lays important groundwork for future models seeking to predict general mental health outcomes. Future studies should make use of parent-rated assessments when possible. Additionally, it may not be necessary for similar studies to forgo logistic regression in favor of other more complex methods.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Salud Mental , Modelos Psicológicos , Máquina de Vectores de Soporte , Gemelos , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Suecia
9.
Nat Protoc ; 15(4): 1542-1559, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203485

RESUMEN

It is difficult to translate results from animal research on addiction to an understanding of the behavior of human drug users. Despite decades of basic research on neurobiological mechanisms of drug addiction, treatment options remain largely unchanged. A potential reason for this is that mechanistic studies using rodent models do not incorporate a critical facet of human addiction: volitional choices between drug use and non-drug social rewards (e.g., employment and family). Recently, we developed an operant model in which rats press a lever for rewarding social interaction with a peer and then choose between an addictive drug (heroin or methamphetamine) and social interaction. Using this model, we showed that rewarding social interaction suppresses drug self-administration, relapse to drug seeking, and brain responses to drug-associated cues. Here, we describe a protocol for operant social interaction using a discrete-trial choice between drugs and social interaction that causes voluntary abstinence from the drug and tests for incubation of drug craving (the time-dependent increase in drug seeking during abstinence). This protocol is flexible but generally requires 8-9 weeks for completion. We also provide a detailed description of the technical requirements and procedures for building the social self-administration and choice apparatus. Our protocol provides a reliable way to study the role of operant social reward in addiction and addiction vulnerability in the context of choices. We propose that this protocol can be used to study brain mechanisms of operant social reward and potentially impairments in social reward in animal models of psychiatric disorders and pain.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Elección/fisiología , Condicionamiento Operante/fisiología , Comportamiento de Búsqueda de Drogas/fisiología , Modelos Psicológicos , Autoadministración/métodos , Animales , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Femenino , Heroína/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Metanfetamina/administración & dosificación , Ratas , Ratas Long-Evans , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Remifentanilo/administración & dosificación , Conducta Social , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología
10.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229337, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126088

RESUMEN

Susceptibility to social influence (SSI) has been reported as a key factor for social influence in online social networks (OSNs) such as Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter. In four online studies, we show that the personality trait of SSI, namely the susceptibility to normative influence (SNI), predicts the extent to which Facebook users comply with the behavior of others on Facebook (e.g., buying, voting, or visiting what other OSN users post). In Studies 1a and 1b, we find that SSI correlates with diverse OSN behaviors, which are the typical results of being affected by social influence. In Study 1b, we find that the perceived importance of the topic of OSN behaviors (e.g., fashion or politics) moderates the effect of SNI on OSN behavior, with a higher importance resulting in a stronger effect of SNI on OSN behavior. In Studies 2 and 3, we find that SNI predicts the extent Facebook users hypothetically "like" diverse topics on Facebook. We also find partial support for the idea that there are interactions between SNI and the Big Five personality traits (i.e., openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism) on OSN behavior. Specifically, the extent to which the Big Five personality traits of openness, agreeableness, and neuroticism predict OSN behavior depends on Facebook users' SNI. Our studies contribute to research on the personality-based prediction of OSN behavior and help in better understanding the dynamics of social influence in OSNs, underlining the vulnerability of susceptible OSN users.


Asunto(s)
Influencia de los Compañeros , Personalidad , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Redes Sociales en Línea , Conducta Social , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Adulto Joven
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1230, 2020 03 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144259

RESUMEN

Experiencing events as controllable is essential for human well-being. Based on classic psychological theory, we test how internal control beliefs impact the affective valuation of task outcomes, neural dynamics and ensuing behavioral preferences. In three consecutive studies we show that dynamics in positive affect increase, with a qualitative shift towards self-evaluative pride, when agents believe they caused a given outcome. We demonstrate that these outcomes engage brain networks processing self-referential information in the cortical midline. Here, activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex tracks outcome valence regarding both success as well as internal control, and covaries with positive affect in response to outcomes. These affective dynamics also relate to increased functional coupling between the ventral striatum and cortical midline structures. Finally, we show that pride predicts preferences for control, even at monetary costs. Our investigations extend recent models of positive affect and well-being, and emphasize that control beliefs drive intrinsic motivation.


Asunto(s)
Modelos Psicológicos , Motivación/fisiología , Corteza Prefrontal/fisiología , Recompensa , Estriado Ventral/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Afecto/fisiología , Mapeo Encefálico , Toma de Decisiones/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Corteza Prefrontal/diagnóstico por imagen , Estriado Ventral/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto Joven
12.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0227750, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130221

RESUMEN

We utilize a contest-theoretic model to demonstrate a version of the alliance formation puzzle that aligns with reception-coverage contests in American football. Namely, secondary defenders can opt for single-coverage-1 v 1 contest. Alternatively, they can choose to ally-form double-coverage or 2 v 1 contest with exogenous intra-alliance prize division-when defending a given receiver. In our theoretical treatment, we find that defenses have a lower equilibrium success rate in preventing the receiver from "getting open" under double-coverage than under single-coverage in the absence of capacity constraints. We also find that this success rate paradox is a necessary condition for the alliance formation puzzle. We then test the theoretical treatment by analyzing 8,508 plays of NCAA and NFL game data within a set of fixed effects, logistic regression models that control for receiver, level-of-play, and season-of-play. We find that equilibrium level of defensive success rises significantly and substantially (p-value < 0.01 and marginal effect of between 13 and 17 percentage points) when moving from single-coverage to double-coverage, ceteris paribus. There is strong evidence that the necessary condition for the alliance formation puzzle does not hold in this setting. We conclude that sufficiently-binding physiological and training-based capacity constraints eliminate the alliance formation puzzle in this setting, as was shown theoretically by Konrad and Kovenock (2009). This empirical result suggests that other contest settings that regularly feature alliance, such as liquidity-constrained conflict, may not be puzzling.


Asunto(s)
Atletas/psicología , Conducta Cooperativa , Fútbol Americano/psicología , Modelos Psicológicos , Conducta de Elección , Humanos , Estados Unidos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230365, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191741

RESUMEN

The Generic Conspiracist Beliefs Scale (GCBS) is the most widely used measure of general belief in conspiracy theories. The scale comprises five related but distinct factors (Government Malfeasance, Extraterrestrial Cover-up, Malevolent Global Conspiracies, Personal Wellbeing, and Control of Information). Despite this, investigators have typically treated the GCBS as unidimensional by referencing only overall total. Although, the GCBS possesses established psychometric properties, critics question its factorial structure, suggest alternative models, and recommend routine examination of GCBS dimensions as part of analysis. Through two studies, the present paper assessed GCBS factorial structure, internal reliability, convergent validity, and invariance. This involved comparing the original five-factor solution with alternative one, two, and three-factor models. To ensure that the best fitting model was robust, the authors conducted analysis in two independent samples (Study one, N = 794, UK university-based sample; and Study two, N = 418, UK respondents collected via a market research company). Results in both studies indicated superior fit for the correlated five-factor solution. This solution demonstrated invariance across gender, and samples (Study one and two). Furthermore, the total scale and five subfactors evinced good alpha and omega total reliability. Convergent validity testing exhibited associations of an expected strength between conspiracist beliefs, reality testing, and cognitive insight. Large intercorrelations existed among GCBS subfactors, suggesting that the measure reflects a narrow set of interrelated conspiracist assumptions. These findings support the use of overall scale scores as an index of belief in conspiracy theories.


Asunto(s)
Cultura , Psicometría , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos
14.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230487, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210465

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Participation in the arts has well-documented benefits for health. However, participation in the arts is socially patterned, and it remains unclear why this is: what factors act as barriers or enablers of individual arts engagement. Therefore this study explored how individual characteristics predict individuals' capabilities, opportunities and motivations to engage in participatory arts activities. METHODS: We analysed data from 6,867 adults in the UK (61.2% female, average age 46.7 years) who engage infrequently in performing arts, visual arts, design and crafts, literature-related activities, or online, digital and electronic arts. We constructed a structural equation model to explore the relationship between demographic factors (including age, sex, ethnicity or socio-economic status), health factors (including physical and mental health) or social factors (including living alone, urban density, loneliness or socialising) and perceived barriers to arts engagement. RESULTS: Individuals with poorer physical and mental health experienced more barriers affecting their perceived capabilities to engage in the arts, whilst individuals with poorer mental health also described experiencing more barriers affecting their motivations to engage. Individuals of lower SES reported more barriers in terms of opportunities to engage, whilst loneliness was related to more barriers around opportunities and motivations and living alone was associated with more opportunity barriers. Interestingly, adults who were older experienced fewer barriers relating to capabilities or opportunities, as did men, whilst being of white ethnicity was associated with fewer barriers across all three domains. Adults who were more socially engaged or who had poorer physical health experienced fewer barriers relating to motivations. Geographical area of dwelling was not related to any barriers. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown for the first time where the barriers leading to differential patterns of arts engagement lie. The findings could inform future behaviour change interventions designed to encourage arts engagement amongst individuals who are least likely to engage.


Asunto(s)
Arte , Salud Mental , Modelos Psicológicos , Motivación/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
15.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229784, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126119

RESUMEN

Historically, time preferences are modelled by assuming constant discounting, which implies a constant level of impatience. The prevailing empirical finding, however, is decreasing impatience (DI), meaning that levels of impatience decrease over time. Theoretically, such changes in impatience are crucial to understand behavior and self-control problems. Very few methods exist to measure DI without being restricted to or confounded by certain assumptions about the discounting function or utility curve. One such measure is the recently introduced DI-index, which has been applied to both monetary and health outcomes. The DI-index quantifies the deviation from constant impatience and is flexible enough to capture both increasing and decreasing impatience. In this study, we apply the DI-index to measure impatience for health outcomes in a reference-dependent framework. That is, we measure impatience for both health gains and health losses compared to a reference-point, in individual and societal settings, using a within-subjects design (n = 98). We allowed for both positive and negative discounting, since negative discounting has been observed for losses (i.e. preferring to incur losses earlier rather than later) in earlier work. To capture changes in time inconsistency when subjects show negative discounting (i.e. patience), we modify the DI-index to a decreasing (im)patience (DIP)-index, which can be applied without loss of generality. As in earlier work, we observe large heterogeneity in time consistency; i.e., a mix of decreasing, increasing and constant (im)patience. Across all DIP-indices elicited, increasing impatience was the modal preference for those satisfying impatience, and decreasing patience for those satisfying patience. No systematic differences were observed between health gains and losses or between societal and individual outcomes. This suggests that for health outcomes both patient and impatient individuals assign more importance to time differences delayed further in the future.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Elección , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Estilo de Vida Saludable , Modelos Psicológicos , Autocontrol/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Simulación por Computador , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Recompensa , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
16.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229603, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126068

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia is associated with a severe impairment in the communicative-pragmatic domain. Recent research has tried to disentangle the relationship between communicative impairment and other domains usually impaired in schizophrenia, i.e. Theory of Mind (ToM) and cognitive functions. However, the results are inconclusive and this relationship is still unclear. Machine learning (ML) provides novel opportunities for studying complex relationships among phenomena and representing causality among multiple variables. The present research explored the potential of applying ML, specifically Bayesian network (BNs) analysis, to characterize the relationship between cognitive, ToM and pragmatic abilities in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls, and to identify the cognitive and pragmatic abilities that are most informative in discriminating between schizophrenia and controls. METHODS: We provided a comprehensive assessment of different aspects of pragmatic performance, i.e. linguistic, extralinguistic, paralinguistic, contextual and conversational, ToM and cognitive functions, i.e. Executive Functions (EF)-selective attention, planning, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, working memory and speed processing-and general intelligence, in a sample of 32 individuals with schizophrenia and 35 controls. RESULTS: The results showed that the BNs classifier discriminated well between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. The network structure revealed that only pragmatic Linguistic ability directly influenced the classification of patients and controls, while diagnosis determined performance on ToM, Extralinguistic, Paralinguistic, Selective Attention, Planning, Inhibition and Cognitive Flexibility tasks. The model identified pragmatic, ToM and cognitive abilities as three distinct domains independent of one another. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results confirmed the importance of considering pragmatic linguistic impairment as a core dysfunction in schizophrenia, and demonstrated the potential of applying BNs in investigating the relationship between pragmatic ability and cognition.


Asunto(s)
Función Ejecutiva , Aprendizaje Automático , Psicología del Esquizofrénico , Teoría de la Mente , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Cognición , Comunicación , Femenino , Humanos , Lingüística , Masculino , Memoria a Corto Plazo , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Psicológicos , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Trastorno de Comunicación Social/psicología , Adulto Joven
17.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229608, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126075

RESUMEN

Disoriented animals and humans use both the environmental geometry and visual landmarks to guide their spatial behavior. Although there is a broad consensus on the use of environmental geometry across various species of vertebrates, the nature of disoriented landmark-use has been greatly debated in the field. In particular, the discrepancy in performance under spontaneous choice conditions (sometimes called "working memory" task) and training over time ("reference memory" task) has raised questions about the task-dependent dissociability of mechanisms underlying the use of landmarks. Until now, this issue has not been directly addressed, due to the inclusion of environmental geometry in most disoriented navigation paradigms. In the present study, therefore, we placed our focus on landmark-based navigation in fish (Xenotoca eiseni), an animal model that has provided fruitful research in spatial reorientation. We began with a test of spontaneous navigation by geometry and landmarks (Experiment 1), showing a preference for the correct corner, even in the absence of reinforced training. We then proceeded to test landmarks without the influence of informative geometry through the use of square environments (Experiment 2-4), varying the numerosity of present landmarks, the distance of landmarks from the target corner, and the type of task (i.e., spontaneous cued memory or reference memory). We found marked differences in landmark-use in the absence of environmental geometry. In the spontaneous memory task, visual landmarks acquired perceptive salience (and attracted the fish) but without serving as a spatial cue to location when they were distal from the target. Across learning in the reference memory task, the fish overcame these effects and gradually improved in their performance, although they were still biased to learn visual landmarks near the target (i.e., as beacons). We discuss these results in relation to the existing literature on dissociable mechanisms of spatial learning.


Asunto(s)
Ciprinodontiformes/fisiología , Aprendizaje Espacial/fisiología , Animales , Ambiente , Masculino , Memoria a Corto Plazo/fisiología , Modelos Animales , Modelos Neurológicos , Modelos Psicológicos , Orientación Espacial/fisiología , Estimulación Luminosa , Refuerzo en Psicología , Memoria Espacial/fisiología
18.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(2): 155-159, 2020 Feb 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074702

RESUMEN

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of health belief model-based health education intervention in improving blood pressure control of patients with hypertension in community settings. Methods: From September 2016 to September 2017, 400 newly diagnosed patients with hypertension were recruited from 6 community healthcare centers with comparable population size and health services in the Shunyi District of Beijing. All community healthcare centers were randomly assigned to the intervention group (206 patients) and the control group (194 patients). Patients in the intervention group received 3 lectures (20-30 min for each) of health belief model-based health education. Patients in the control group received usual care. The basic characteristics, health beliefs, and health literacy were collected, and blood pressure was measured before and after the intervention, respectively. The difference-in-difference model was used to analyze the change of blood pressure and the influencing factors between two groups before and after the intervention. Results: A total of 134 patients in the intervention group and 129 patients in the control group completed the study. After adjusting for the age, gender, family income, medical insurance, chronic diseases and family history, the score of perceived barriers was increased by 1.65 (P=0.016), and perceived seriousness was decreased by 0.73 (P=0.018). The systolic blood pressure of patients was decreased by 7.37 mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa, P=0.001) and diastolic blood pressure was decreased by 4.07 mmHg (P=0.014), respectively. The ß (95%CI) values were -7.37 (-11.88,-2.86) and -4.07 (-7.30, -0.84). The perceived susceptibility and self-efficacy had a significant influence on the blood pressure of patients (P<0.05). Conclusion: Health belief model-based health education intervention could significantly improve the blood pressure control of patients with hypertension in the community settings.


Asunto(s)
Hipertensión/prevención & control , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/métodos , Beijing , Presión Sanguínea , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud
19.
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 47(1): 25-29, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088741

RESUMEN

Abstract Background The Emotional and Affective Composite Temperament (AFECT) model describes originally six traits of volition, anger, inhibition (fear and caution subordinate factors), control, sensitivity, and coping. However, fear and caution have shown opposite relatioships with criteria-variables, indicating factor independence. Objective The current investigation aimed to advance in the evaluation of the psychometric properties of the emotional trait section of the Emotional and Affective Composite Temperament Scale (AFECTS) by examining the suitability of a 7-factor structure and the reliability of each scale using data from a population-based sample. Methods AFECTS was administered via face-to-face assessments in a single-session, population-based cross-sectional survey. Samples was composed of teenagers and adults (14 to 35 years). The latent structure and reliability were analyzed via structural equation modeling: confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the a priori correlated 7-factor model (with fear and caution designed as single-factors) and trait-scores reliability was assessed by the estimation of information curves. Results Findings attested the suitability of the 7-factor model presumed to underline the item set of the traits section of AFECTS and information curve interpretation showed adequate levels of reliability for all trait-scores. Discussion The 7-factor model showed robust indicators of construct validity for the AFECTS.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Psicometría/métodos , Temperamento , Emociones , Modelos Psicológicos , Inventario de Personalidad , Volición , Adaptación Psicológica , Estudios Transversales , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Afecto , Precaución , Control de la Conducta , Empatía , Miedo/psicología , Ira
20.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228870, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084161

RESUMEN

Understanding and predicting how individuals perform in high-pressure situations is of importance in designing and managing workplaces. We investigate performance under pressure in professional darts as a near-ideal setting with no direct interaction between players and a high number of observations per subject. Analyzing almost one year of tournament data covering 32,274 dart throws, we find no evidence in favor of either choking or excelling under pressure.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Atlético/psicología , Rendimiento Atlético/fisiología , Rendimiento Atlético/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Modelos Estadísticos , Destreza Motora/fisiología , Deportes/psicología , Deportes/estadística & datos numéricos , Estrés Psicológico
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