Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 46.191
Filtrar
1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11485, 2021 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075094

RESUMEN

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, it has been mandated to keep enlarged distances from others. We interviewed 136 German subjects over five weeks from the end of March to the end of April 2020 during the first wave of infections about their preferred interpersonal distance (IPD) before, during, and after the COVID-19 pandemic. In response to the pandemic, subjects adapted to distance requirements and preferred a larger IPD. This enlarged IPD was judged to partially persist after the pandemic crisis. People anticipated keeping more IPD to others even if there was no longer any risk of a SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also sampled two follow-up measurements, one in August, after the first wave of infections had been flattened, and one in October 2020, at the beginning of the second wave. Here, we observed that IPD varied with the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 within Germany. Overall, our data indicated that adaptation to distance requirements might happen asymmetrically. Preferred IPD rapidly adapted in response to distance requirements, but an enlargement of IPD may partially linger after the COVID-19 pandemic-crisis. We discuss our findings in light of proxemic theory and as an indicator for socio-cultural adaptation beyond the course of the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , 59585/psicología , 59487 , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , 59585/epidemiología , 59585/prevención & control , 59585/transmisión , Miedo , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Estigma Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2605, 2021 05 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972521

RESUMEN

Brain-body interactions are thought to be essential in emotions but their physiological basis remains poorly understood. In mice, regular 4 Hz breathing appears during freezing after cue-fear conditioning. Here we show that the olfactory bulb (OB) transmits this rhythm to the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) where it organizes neural activity. Reduction of the respiratory-related 4 Hz oscillation, via bulbectomy or optogenetic perturbation of the OB, reduces freezing. Behavioural modelling shows that this is due to a specific reduction in freezing maintenance without impacting its initiation, thus dissociating these two phenomena. dmPFC LFP and firing patterns support the region's specific function in freezing maintenance. In particular, population analysis reveals that network activity tracks 4 Hz power dynamics during freezing and reaches a stable state at 4 Hz peak that lasts until freezing termination. These results provide a potential mechanism and a functional role for bodily feedback in emotions and therefore shed light on the historical James-Cannon debate.


Asunto(s)
Miedo/fisiología , Bulbo Olfatorio/fisiología , Corteza Prefrontal/fisiología , Respiración , Potenciales de Acción/fisiología , Animales , Antitiroideos/administración & dosificación , Antitiroideos/farmacología , Electrofisiología , Interneuronas/citología , Interneuronas/fisiología , Masculino , Cadenas de Markov , Metimazol/administración & dosificación , Metimazol/farmacología , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Modelos Psicológicos , Optogenética , Periodicidad , Células Piramidales/citología , Células Piramidales/fisiología , Respiración/efectos de los fármacos
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2595, 2021 05 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972536

RESUMEN

Tissue regeneration is a process that recapitulates and restores organ structure and function. Although previous studies have demonstrated wound-induced hair neogenesis (WIHN) in laboratory mice (Mus), the regeneration is limited to the center of the wound unlike those observed in African spiny (Acomys) mice. Tissue mechanics have been implicated as an integral part of tissue morphogenesis. Here, we use the WIHN model to investigate the mechanical and molecular responses of laboratory and African spiny mice, and report these models demonstrate opposing trends in spatiotemporal morphogenetic field formation with association to wound stiffness landscapes. Transcriptome analysis and K14-Cre-Twist1 transgenic mice show the Twist1 pathway acts as a mediator for both epidermal-dermal interactions and a competence factor for periodic patterning, differing from those used in development. We propose a Turing model based on tissue stiffness that supports a two-scale tissue mechanics process: (1) establishing a morphogenetic field within the wound bed (mm scale) and (2) symmetry breaking of the epidermis and forming periodically arranged hair primordia within the morphogenetic field (µm scale). Thus, we delineate distinct chemo-mechanical events in building a Turing morphogenesis-competent field during WIHN of laboratory and African spiny mice and identify its evo-devo advantages with perspectives for regenerative medicine.


Asunto(s)
Epidermis/anatomía & histología , Epidermis/metabolismo , Folículo Piloso/metabolismo , Morfogénesis/fisiología , Regeneración/fisiología , Proteína 1 Relacionada con Twist/metabolismo , Cicatrización de Heridas/fisiología , Animales , Epidermis/fisiología , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Folículo Piloso/anatomía & histología , Folículo Piloso/fisiología , Inmunohistoquímica , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Transgénicos , Análisis por Micromatrices , Microscopía de Fuerza Atómica , Modelos Psicológicos , Morfogénesis/genética , Murinae , RNA-Seq , Regeneración/genética , Medicina Regenerativa , Transducción de Señal/genética , Transducción de Señal/fisiología , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Proteína 1 Relacionada con Twist/genética , Cicatrización de Heridas/genética
4.
Psychosom Med ; 83(4): 363-367, 2021 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790198

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended behavioral measures to slow the spread of COVID-19, such as social distancing and wearing masks. Although many individuals comply with these recommendations, compliance has been far from universal. Identifying predictors of compliance is crucial for improving health behavior messaging and thereby reducing disease spread and fatalities. METHODS: We report preregistered analyses from a longitudinal study that investigated personality predictors of compliance with behavioral recommendations in diverse US adults across five waves from March to August 2020 (n = 596) and cross-sectionally in August 2020 (n = 405). RESULTS: Agreeableness-characterized by compassion-was the most consistent predictor of compliance, above and beyond other traits, and sociodemographic predictors (sample A, ß = 0.25; sample B, ß = 0.12). The effect of agreeableness was robust across two diverse samples and sensitivity analyses. In addition, openness, conscientiousness, and extraversion were also associated with greater compliance, but effects were less consistent across sensitivity analyses and were smaller in sample A. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who are less agreeable are at higher risk for noncompliance with behavioral mandates, suggesting that health messaging can be meaningfully improved with approaches that address these individuals in particular. These findings highlight the strong theoretical and practical utility of testing long-standing psychological theories during real-world crises.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Modelos Psicológicos , Personalidad , Adulto , Empatía , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Máscaras/estadística & datos numéricos , Pruebas de Personalidad , Estados Unidos
6.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 103, 2021 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741049

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Field interventions employed to improve preventive health behaviors and outcomes generally use well-established approaches; however, recent studies have reported that health education and promotional interventions have little to no impact on health behaviors, especially in low- and middle-income countries. We aimed to develop a conceptual framework to improve intervention designs that would internalize these concerns and limitations. RESULTS: We identified three major experimental design- and implementation-related concerns associated with mental models, including the balance between the treatment and control groups, the treatment group's willingness to adopt suggested behaviors, and the type, length, frequency, intensity, and sequence of treatments. To minimize the influence of these aspects of an experimental design, we proposed a mental model-based repeated multifaceted (MRM) intervention design framework, which represents a supportive intervention design for the improvement of health education and promotional programs. The framework offers a step-by-step method that can be used for experimental and treatment design and outcome analysis, and that addresses potential implementation challenges.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Servicios Preventivos de Salud , Modelos Psicológicos
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e23218, 2021 03 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651707

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing, self-quarantining, wearing masks, and washing hands have become part of the new norm for many, but not all. It appears that such preventive measures are critical to "flattening the curve" of the spread of COVID-19. The public's adoption of such behaviors is an essential component in the battle against what has been referred to as the "invisible enemy." OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to develop a model for predicting COVID-19 preventive behaviors among US college students. The Health Belief Model has a long history of use and empirical support in predicting preventive health behaviors, but it is not without its purported shortcomings. This study identifies a more optimal and defensible combination of variables to explain preventive behaviors among college students. This segment of the US population is critical in helping slow the spread of COVID-19 because of the relative reluctance of college students to perform the needed behaviors given they do not feel susceptible to or fearful of COVID-19. METHODS: For this study, 415 US college students were surveyed via Qualtrics and asked to answer questions regarding their fear of COVID-19, information receptivity (seeking relevant information), perceived knowledge of the disease, self-efficacy, and performance of preventive behaviors. The PROCESS macro (Model 6) was used to test our conceptual model, including predictions involving sequential mediation. RESULTS: Sequential mediation results show that fear of COVID-19 leads individuals to seek out information regarding the disease, which increases their perceived knowledge and fosters self-efficacy; this is key to driving preventive behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Self-imposed preventive measures can drastically impact the rate of infection among populations. Based on this study's newly created sequential mediation model, communication strategies for encouraging COVID-19 preventive behaviors are offered. It is clear that college students, and very possibly adults of all ages, must have a healthy fear of COVID-19 to set in motion a process where concerned individuals seek out COVID-19-related information, increasing their store of knowledge concerning the disease, their self-efficacy, and ultimately their likelihood of performing the needed preventive behaviors.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Modelos Psicológicos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Adulto Joven
9.
Law Hum Behav ; 45(1): 1-23, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734746

RESUMEN

Objective: We conducted a meta-analysis to examine whether numeric decision-making in law is susceptible to the effect of (possibly arbitrary) values present in the decision contexts (anchoring effect) and to investigate which factors might moderate this effect. Hypotheses: We predicted that the presence of numeric anchors would bias legal decision-makers' judgment in the direction of the anchor value. We hypothesized that the effect size of anchoring would be moderated by several variables, which we grouped into three categories: methodological (type of stimuli; type of sample), psychological (standard vs. basic paradigm; anchor value; type of scale on which the participants assessed the target value), and legal (relevance of the anchor; type of the anchor; area of law to which the presented case belonged; presence of any salient numeric values other than the main anchor). Method: Twenty-nine studies (93 effect sizes; N = 8,549) met the inclusion criteria. We divided them into two groups, depending on whether they included a control group, and calculated the overall effect size using a random-effects Model with robust variance estimation. We assessed the influence of moderators using random effects metaregression. Results: The overall effect sizes of anchoring for studies with a control group (z = .27, 95% CI [.21, .33], d = .58, 95% CI [.44, .73]) and without a control group (z = .39, 95% CI [.31, .47], d = .91, 95% CI [.69, 1.12]) were both significant, although we provide some evidence of possible publication bias. We found preliminary evidence of a potential moderating effect of some legally relevant factors, such as legal expertise or the anchor relevance. Conclusions: Existing research indicates anchoring effects exist in legal contexts. The influence of anchors seems to depend on some situational factors, which paves the way for future research on countering the problematic effect in legal settings. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Toma de Decisiones , Juicio , Rol Judicial , Responsabilidad Legal , Modelos Psicológicos , Modificador del Efecto Epidemiológico , Humanos
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(3): e21892, 2021 03 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709940

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although the COVID-19 pandemic will have a negative effect on China's economy in the short term, it also represents a major opportunity for internet-based medical treatment in the medium and long term. Compared with normal times, internet-based medical platforms including the Haodf website were visited by 1.11 billion people, the number of new registered users of all platforms increased by 10, and the number of new users' daily consultations increased by 9 during the pandemic. The continuous participation of physicians is a major factor in the success of the platform, and economic return is an important reason for physicians to provide internet-based services. However, no study has provided the effectiveness of interactive tools in online health care communities to influence physicians' returns. OBJECTIVE: The effect of internet-based effort on the benefits and effectiveness of interactive effort tools in internet-based health care areas remains unclear. Thus, the goals of this study are to examine the effect of doctors' internet-based service quality on their economic returns during COVID-19 social restrictions, to examine the effect of mutual help groups on doctors' economic returns during COVID-19 social restrictions, and to explore the moderating effect of disease privacy on doctors' efforts and economic returns during COVID-19 social restrictions. METHODS: On the basis of the social exchange theory, this study establishes an internet-based effort exchange model for doctors. We used a crawler to download information automatically from Haodf website. From March 5 to 7, 2020, which occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic in China, cross-sectional information of 2530 doctors were collected. RESULTS: Hierarchical linear regression showed that disease privacy (ß=.481; P<.001), reputation (ß=.584; P<.001), and service quality (ß=.560; P<.001) had a significant positive effect on the economic returns of the physicians. The influence of mutual help groups on earnings increases with an increase in the degree of disease privacy (ß=.189; P<.001), indicating that mutual help groups have a stronger effect on earnings when patients ask questions about diseases regarding which they desire privacy. CONCLUSIONS: For platform operators, the results of this study can help the platform understand how to improve doctors' economic returns, especially regarding helping a specific doctor group improve its income to retain good doctors. For physicians on the platform, this study will help doctors spend their limited energy and time on tools that can improve internet-based consultation incomes. Patients who receive internet-based health care services extract information about a doctor based on the doctor's internet-based efforts to understand the doctor's level of professionalism and personality to choose the doctor they like the most. The data used in this study may be biased or not representative of all medical platforms, as they were collected from a single website.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria/métodos , Prestación de Atención de Salud/métodos , Internet , Telemedicina , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Pandemias , /aislamiento & purificación
11.
J Marital Fam Ther ; 47(2): 440-454, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749898

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has transformed so many aspects of our lives. For psychotherapists, telehealth is likely a permanent part of the future mental health landscape. For family therapists using a manualized treatment, this brings unique challenges and creative opportunities. In this article, we describe the adaptation of attachment-based family therapy (ABFT) in the context of telehealth and COVID-19. ABFT is an empirically supported treatment model designed for adolescents and young adults struggling with depression, anxiety, trauma, and suicide. ABFT is a semi-structured, process-oriented, and trauma-informed family therapy model which presents its own unique challenges and benefits in telehealth environments. We present our adaptations based on years of telehealth clinical experience and address how this model supports the impact of COVID-19 on families.


Asunto(s)
Terapia de Parejas/métodos , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Apego a Objetos , Telerrehabilitación/métodos , Adolescente , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Relaciones Profesional-Familia , Adulto Joven
12.
Appl Psychol Health Well Being ; 13(2): 469-484, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634930

RESUMEN

With the COVID-19 pandemic recognized as a major threat to human health is of paramount importance to improve the vaccination uptake of the future COVID-19 vaccine. The study extended the health belief model (HBM) using insights from trait theory and events systems theory, to examine the role of beliefs in predicting intentions to be vaccinated against COVID-19, when a vaccine becomes available. Employees from Greece (N = 1006) participated from October 1 to November 5, 2020, in an anonymous online factorial survey experiment. Measures of dispositional optimism, faith in intuition, risk-taking propensity, and acquiring resources mindset were included as individual difference variables. Multilevel modeling techniques were used for data analyses. Components of HBM had significant effects on intentions to vaccinate. Two-way interactions between severity and susceptibility beliefs and three-way interaction among perceived severity, susceptibility, and perceived benefits were detected. In line with the events systems theory, a critical event moderated beliefs' effects on intention to vaccinate. Acquiring resources mindset emerged as important individual difference that positively related to intentions. The model explained 59 per cent of the variance in vaccination intentions. The study highlighted interaction effects among the HBM components and how critical events may moderate belief effects.


Asunto(s)
/uso terapéutico , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Intención , Modelos Psicológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Grecia , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
13.
Br J Clin Psychol ; 60(2): 133-148, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624294

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 epidemic is affecting the entire world and hence provides an opportunity examine how people from different countries engage in hopeful thinking. The aim of this study was to examine the potentially facilitating role of perceived social support vis-à-vis hope as well as the mediating role of loneliness between perceived social support and hope. This mediating model was tested concurrently in the UK, the USA, and Israel. METHODS: In April 2020, as the first wave of the virus struck the three aforementioned countries, we assessed perceived social support, loneliness, and hope in 400 adults per country (N = 1,200). Assessments in the UK/USA were conducted via the Prolific platform, whereas in Israel they were conducted via Facebook/WhatsApp. RESULTS: In all three countries, perceived social support predicted elevated hope, although the effect was smallest in the UK. Loneliness mediated this effect in all three countries, although full mediation was attained only in the UK. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived social support may facilitate hope in dire times, possibly through the reduction of loneliness. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Findings are consistent with respect to the potentially protective role of perceived social support vis-à-vis hope. Perceived social support may increase hope through decreasing loneliness. In the UK, the above-noted mediating effect of loneliness appears to be stronger than in Israel and the USA. Elevated levels of perceived social support should serve as a desired outcome in individual and group psychotherapy, as well as in community based interventions.


Asunto(s)
Esperanza , Soledad , Modelos Psicológicos , Apoyo Social , Adulto , Comparación Transcultural , Femenino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
14.
J Vis ; 21(2): 5, 2021 02 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560290

RESUMEN

Defining target textures by increased bandwidths in spatial frequency and orientation, we observed strong cue combination effects in a combined texture figure detection and discrimination task. Performance for double-cue targets was better than predicted by independent processing of either cue and even better than predicted from linear cue integration. Application of a texture-processing model revealed that the oversummative cue combination effect is captured by calculating a low-level summary statistic (\(\Delta CE_m\)), which describes the differential contrast energy to target and reference textures, from multiple scales and orientations, and integrating this statistic across channels with a winner-take-all rule. Modeling detection performance using a signal detection theory framework showed that the observers' sensitivity to single-cue and double-cue texture targets, measured in \(d^{\prime }\) units, could be reproduced with plausible settings for filter and noise parameters. These results challenge models assuming separate channeling of elementary features and their later integration, since oversummative cue combination effects appear as an inherent property of local energy mechanisms, at least for spatial frequency and orientation bandwidth-modulated textures.


Asunto(s)
Orientación Espacial/fisiología , Reconocimiento Visual de Modelos/fisiología , Adulto , Sensibilidad de Contraste , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Adulto Joven
15.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 33(1): 16-27, feb. 2021. ilus, tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-199549

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Empirical evidence suggests that schizotypy is a useful construct for analyzing and understanding psychotic disorders. However, several issues remain to be resolved. METHOD: This selective, critical review, addresses some questions and limitations, and discusses future directions of work. RESULTS: First, we present a conceptual outline and discuss the evidence from translational and interdisciplinary studies on schizotypy. Next, we examine and discuss newer analytical and methodological approaches, including network and machine learning approaches. We also discuss newer psychometric identification approaches, such as those using biobehavioral and ambulatory assessment. Next, we review recent cross-cultural studies in schizotypy research. Finally, we identify new challenges and directions and draw conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: This selective, critical review suggests that new methods can contribute to the construction of a solid scientific model of schizotypy as a risk construct


ANTECEDENTES: la evidencia empírica ha demostrado que la esquizotipia es un constructo útil para analizar y comprender los trastornos psicóticos. Sin embargo, todavía quedan por resolver varias cuestiones. MÉTODO: en esta revisión selectiva y crítica se abordan algunas limitaciones, se discuten interrogantes y se comentan direcciones futuras de trabajo. RESULTADOS: en primer lugar, se presenta una delimitación conceptual y se comenta la evidencia acumulada en diferentes estudios y niveles de análisis en el campo de la esquizotipia. A continuación, se examinan nuevos modelos psicopatológicos, como el modelo de red, y se presentan las diferentes herramientas desarrolladas y validadas para su evaluación. Seguidamente, se abordan algunas inquietudes metodológicas de fondo y se presentan nuevas técnicas y procedimientos psicométricos, como la evaluación ambulatoria y bioconductual. También se analizan algunos de los problemas inherentes en la investigación entre países y culturas. Finalmente, se establecen las conclusiones y se abordan nuevos desafíos y direcciones futuras de investigación. CONCLUSIONES: esta revisión selectiva y crítica plantea que es necesario continuar trabajando en la construcción de un modelo científico sólido y refutable e incorporar nuevas pruebas científicas en el campo de la esquizotipia


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Trastornos Psicóticos/etiología , Modelos Psicológicos , Esquizofrenia/etiología , Trastorno de la Personalidad Esquizotípica/etiología , Interacción Gen-Ambiente , Psicometría , Psicología del Esquizofrénico
16.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0246339, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503049

RESUMEN

The over-purchasing and hoarding of necessities is a common response to crises, especially in developed economies where there is normally an expectation of plentiful supply. This behaviour was observed internationally during the early stages of the Covid-19 pandemic. In the absence of actual scarcity, this behaviour can be described as 'panic buying' and can lead to temporary shortages. However, there have been few psychological studies of this phenomenon. Here we propose a psychological model of over-purchasing informed by animal foraging theory and make predictions about variables that predict over-purchasing by either exacerbating or mitigating the anticipation of future scarcity. These variables include additional scarcity cues (e.g. loss of income), distress (e.g. depression), psychological factors that draw attention to these cues (e.g. neuroticism) or to reassuring messages (eg. analytical reasoning) or which facilitate over-purchasing (e.g. income). We tested our model in parallel nationally representative internet surveys of the adult general population conducted in the United Kingdom (UK: N = 2025) and the Republic of Ireland (RoI: N = 1041) 52 and 31 days after the first confirmed cases of COVID-19 were detected in the UK and RoI, respectively. About three quarters of participants reported minimal over-purchasing. There was more over-purchasing in RoI vs UK and in urban vs rural areas. When over-purchasing occurred, in both countries it was observed across a wide range of product categories and was accounted for by a single latent factor. It was positively predicted by household income, the presence of children at home, psychological distress (depression, death anxiety), threat sensitivity (right wing authoritarianism) and mistrust of others (paranoia). Analytic reasoning ability had an inhibitory effect. Predictor variables accounted for 36% and 34% of the variance in over-purchasing in the UK and RoI respectively. With some caveats, the data supported our model and points to strategies to mitigate over-purchasing in future crises.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Comportamiento del Consumidor/economía , Pandemias/economía , Pánico/fisiología , Adulto , Anciano , Ansiedad/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Acaparamiento/psicología , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Modelos Psicológicos , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Reino Unido
17.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(1): e1008552, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411724

RESUMEN

Dual-reinforcement learning theory proposes behaviour is under the tutelage of a retrospective, value-caching, model-free (MF) system and a prospective-planning, model-based (MB), system. This architecture raises a question as to the degree to which, when devising a plan, a MB controller takes account of influences from its MF counterpart. We present evidence that such a sophisticated self-reflective MB planner incorporates an anticipation of the influences its own MF-proclivities exerts on the execution of its planned future actions. Using a novel bandit task, wherein subjects were periodically allowed to design their environment, we show that reward-assignments were constructed in a manner consistent with a MB system taking account of its MF propensities. Thus, in the task participants assigned higher rewards to bandits that were momentarily associated with stronger MF tendencies. Our findings have implications for a range of decision making domains that includes drug abuse, pre-commitment, and the tension between short and long-term decision horizons in economics.


Asunto(s)
Toma de Decisiones/fisiología , Modelos Psicológicos , Refuerzo en Psicología , Recompensa , Biología Computacional , Humanos , Intención
18.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(1): e1008555, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417595

RESUMEN

Links between affective states and risk-taking are often characterised using summary statistics from serial decision-making tasks. However, our understanding of these links, and the utility of decision-making as a marker of affect, needs to accommodate the fact that ongoing (e.g., within-task) experience of rewarding and punishing decision outcomes may alter future decisions and affective states. To date, the interplay between affect, ongoing reward and punisher experience, and decision-making has received little detailed investigation. Here, we examined the relationships between reward and loss experience, affect, and decision-making in humans using a novel judgement bias task analysed with a novel computational model. We demonstrated the influence of within-task favourability on decision-making, with more risk-averse/'pessimistic' decisions following more positive previous outcomes and a greater current average earning rate. Additionally, individuals reporting more negative affect tended to exhibit greater risk-seeking decision-making, and, based on our model, estimated time more poorly. We also found that individuals reported more positive affective valence during periods of the task when prediction errors and offered decision outcomes were more positive. Our results thus provide new evidence that (short-term) within-task rewarding and punishing experiences determine both future decision-making and subjectively experienced affective states.


Asunto(s)
Toma de Decisiones/fisiología , Emociones/fisiología , Modelos Psicológicos , Recompensa , Biología Computacional , Humanos , Juicio/fisiología , Autoinforme
19.
Percept Mot Skills ; 128(2): 831-850, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504284

RESUMEN

Shared mental models (SMMs) can exert a positive influence on team sports performance because team members with SMMs share similar tasks and team-related knowledge. There is currently insufficient sports research on SMMs because the underlying theory has not been adapted adequately to the sports context, and different SMMs measurement instruments have been used in past studies. In the present study we aimed to externally validate and determine the construct validity of the "Shared Mental Models in Team Sports Questionnaire" (SMMTSQ). Moreover, we critically examined the theoretical foundation for this instrument. Participants were 476 active team athletes from various sports. While confirmatory factor analysis did not support the SMMTSQ's hierarchical model, its 13 subfactors showed a good model fit in an explorative correlative approach, and the model showed good internal consistency and item-total correlations. Thus, the instrument's subfactors can be applied individually, even while there are remaining questions as to whether other questionnaires of this kind are an appropriate means of measuring SMMs in sport.


Asunto(s)
Modelos Psicológicos , Atletas , Análisis Factorial , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
20.
J Psychol ; 155(2): 140-164, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395562

RESUMEN

Recent theoretical and empirical work has developed the concept of authenticity, both as it relates to leader authenticity and as it relates to authenticity in followers. The present study examines perceptions of employee authenticity and perceived leader authenticity and highlights the utility of jointly examining the congruence between the two to predict individual-level outcomes. The present study utilized Qualtrics Panels to recruit three waves of survey participants. A total of 420 participants responded to all three time points. Polynomial regression, response surface modeling, and a block variable approach with indirect effects were used to test our hypotheses. Results supported the effect of authenticity congruence on individual-level work-related outcomes. Leader-member exchange was found to be a mediating variable between leader-follower authenticity congruence and outcomes in the work and non-work domains.


Asunto(s)
Relaciones Interpersonales , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Liderazgo , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Trabajo
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...