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1.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 147: 13-23, 2021 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734570

RESUMEN

Perkinsus sp. protozoans are parasites of a wide variety of molluscs around the world and are responsible for episodes of mass mortalities and large economic losses for aquaculture industries and fisheries. The first step towards the management of infectious episodes is the reliable detection of Perkinsus species. While historic methods for diagnosis of Perkinsus sp. infections in mollusc hosts include histological, in vitro, molecular-genetic, and immunoassays, antibody-based diagnostic assays may prove most practical with development of improved reagents and techniques. This paper reviews historic developments of antibodies against Perkinsus species, and of diagnostic immunoassays. Thirteen research papers reported the development of antibodies against Perkinsus sp. or their extracellular products, mainly P. olseni and P. marinus. Nine of those tested the cross-reactivity of their antibodies against different life stages or species than the one used as immunogen. While all antibodies raised against trophozoites labelled hypnospores, several antibodies raised against hypnospores did not label trophozoites, suggesting antigenic differences between those cell types. Antibody specificity studies showed that there is antigenic heterogeneity between Perkinsus species and Perkinsus-like organisms, and also that common epitopes occur among Perkinsus species, as well as some dinoflagellates. This review summarizes the current knowledge and aims at helping the future development of Perkinsus species-specific antibodies and immunoassays.


Asunto(s)
Apicomplexa , Bivalvos , Dinoflagelados , Animales , Acuicultura , Inmunoensayo/veterinaria , Moluscos
2.
Zootaxa ; 5004(1): 131-150, 2021 Jul 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811315

RESUMEN

Reviewing historical and recently collected material of family Aciculidae from Albania and the neighbouring region, we synonymized two species and one subspecies, namely Platyla corpulenta Subai, 2009 under Platyla procax Boeters, E. Gittenberger Subai, 1989; Platyla ceraunorum A. Reischtz, N. Steiner-Reischtz P. L. Reischtz, 2016 under Platyla similis (Reinhardt, 1880) and Renea kobelti albanica Boeters, E. Gittenberger Subai, 1989 under Renea kobelti (A. J. Wagner,1910). Four aciculid species are first mentioned for Albania: Platyla similis and Platyla procax that replace their junior synonyms; and Platyla feheri Subai, 2009 and Platyla gracilis (Clessin, 1877) that are new to the country. Furthermore, new distribution data are provided for Platyla albanica Subai, 2012, Platyla banatica (Rossmssler, 1842), Platyla wilhelmi (A. J. Wagner, 1910) and Renea kobelti (A. J. Wagner, 1910). In the light of new distribution data, their conservation statuses according to IUCN criteria are assessed at the national level and, when necessary, are re-assessed at global level.


Asunto(s)
Gastrópodos , Albania , Animales , Moluscos
3.
Analyst ; 146(20): 6288-6296, 2021 Oct 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549732

RESUMEN

Increased acidification of aquatic habitats due to climate change is damaging mollusks. Non-destructive methods for analysis are necessary to study these endangered species. We analyzed five Unionidae gastropods using Raman spectroscopy. Shells were primarily composed of aragonite, a polymorph of calcium carbonate found in shell microstructure. Lattice mode Raman peaks from vaterite, a thought to be rare polymorph of calcium carbonate, were identified in each mollusk. Vaterite is present in mollusks at instances of shell damage and subsequent repair. We demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy is sensitive to vaterite, and it may not be as rare as previously thought. We also collected Raman spectra across the interior of Lampsillis fasciola. This data was analyzed through multivariate analysis, combining Principal Component Analysis with Linear Discriminant Analysis (PCA-LDA). Results of PCA-LDA correlate with growth of the mollusks, demonstrating that Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis could be used to monitor shell growth.


Asunto(s)
Moluscos , Espectrometría Raman , Animales , Carbonato de Calcio , Análisis Discriminante , Agua Dulce , Análisis de Componente Principal
4.
Mar Environ Res ; 171: 105477, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520892

RESUMEN

We investigated stratigraphic changes in mollusk death assemblages and geochemistry in sediment cores from four seagrass beds and one unvegetated site in the Gulf of Guanahacabibes (GG), NW Cuba. There was a transition from mangrove to seagrass beds, associated with sea level rise ∼6000 years ago. Sediment accumulation rates during the last century showed a general rise, but increased sharply after ∼1980, likely because of human activities. The GG displayed overall high mollusk γ-diversity, and our estimate of 189 species is biased toward the low end. High ß-diversity was driven by inter-site differences in grain size, vegetation cover, and nutrient input. Spatial heterogeneity within the basin influenced downcore abundance and diversity metrics, highlighting the influence of local drivers. Herbivorous gastropods dominated in seagrass beds and suspension feeder bivalves were dominant on sandy bottom. In the top parts of cores, species richness declined at two sites that were subject to high, human-mediated bulk sedimentation rates and eutrophication. Conservation measures are needed to preserve this hotspot of marine diversity.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Plomo , Animales , Cuba , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Moluscos
5.
J R Soc Interface ; 18(182): 20210377, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520692

RESUMEN

The radula is the structure used for food processing in Mollusca. It can consist of a membrane with stiffer teeth, which is, together with alary processus, muscles and odontophoral cartilages, part of the buccal mass. In malacology, it is common practice to infer potential tooth functions from morphology. Thus, past approaches to explain functional principles are mainly hypothesis driven. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a workflow testing hypotheses on the function of teeth and buccal mass components and interaction of structures, which can contribute to understanding the structure as a whole. Here, in a non-conventional approach, we introduce a physical and dynamic radular model, based on morphological data of Spekia zonata (Gastropoda, Paludomidae). Structures were documented, computer-modelled, three-dimensional-printed and assembled to gather a simplistic but realistic physical and dynamic radular model. Such a bioinspired design enabled studying of radular kinematics and interaction of parts when underlain supporting structures were manipulated in a similar manner as could result from muscle contractions. The presented work is a first step to provide a constructional manual, paving the way for even more realistic physical radular models, which could be used for understanding radular functional morphology and for the development of novel gripping devices.


Asunto(s)
Gastrópodos , Hepatophyta , Diente , Animales , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Moluscos
6.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 7(10): 4819-4827, 2021 10 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34541853

RESUMEN

Mollusk shells generally consist of several macro-layers with different microstructures. To explore the specific role that different macro-layers play in the overall mechanical properties of shells, the microstructures, hardness distribution, and three-point bending behavior in the deep-sea Nautilus shell were investigated. It is found that the shell presents a hierarchical structure comprising three layers in thickness, that is, the outer, middle, and inner layers, which exhibit homogeneous, prismatic, and nacreous structures, respectively. Among them, the homogeneous structure in the outer layer is harder, which is beneficial for the shell to enhance resistance to wear and perforation. Furthermore, both the bending strength and fracture energy for group Up (loading from outer to inner surfaces) are far higher than those for group Down (loading from inner to outer surfaces), indicating that the inner nacreous layer is not only stronger but also tougher. Cracks tend to deflect at the interfaces in nacreous structure, and nacreous structure is thereby more resistant to breakage. Hence, the nacreous structure in the inner layer could protect the shell from breaking catastrophically in the deep sea with high pressure. In brief, the combination of a harder outside layer and a tougher inside layer provides an effective protective structure for the deep-sea shell, and the excellent environment adaptability of Nautilus shell can thus be interpreted in terms of its ingenious microstructure arrangement.


Asunto(s)
Nácar , Nautilus , Exoesqueleto , Animales , Resistencia Flexional , Moluscos
7.
Nature ; 597(7876): 360-365, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526707

RESUMEN

Fish and other aquatic foods (blue foods) present an opportunity for more sustainable diets1,2. Yet comprehensive comparison has been limited due to sparse inclusion of blue foods in environmental impact studies3,4 relative to the vast diversity of production5. Here we provide standardized estimates of greenhouse gas, nitrogen, phosphorus, freshwater and land stressors for species groups covering nearly three quarters of global production. We find that across all blue foods, farmed bivalves and seaweeds generate the lowest stressors. Capture fisheries predominantly generate greenhouse gas emissions, with small pelagic fishes generating lower emissions than all fed aquaculture, but flatfish and crustaceans generating the highest. Among farmed finfish and crustaceans, silver and bighead carps have the lowest greenhouse gas, nitrogen and phosphorus emissions, but highest water use, while farmed salmon and trout use the least land and water. Finally, we model intervention scenarios and find improving feed conversion ratios reduces stressors across all fed groups, increasing fish yield reduces land and water use by up to half, and optimizing gears reduces capture fishery emissions by more than half for some groups. Collectively, our analysis identifies high-performing blue foods, highlights opportunities to improve environmental performance, advances data-poor environmental assessments, and informs sustainable diets.


Asunto(s)
Acuicultura , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Alimentos Marinos , Desarrollo Sostenible , Animales , Acuicultura/tendencias , Cambio Climático , Dieta , Ecología , Política Ambiental , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Abastecimiento de Alimentos/métodos , Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Humanos , Moluscos , Nitrógeno , Fósforo , Alimentos Marinos/provisión & distribución , Algas Marinas , Desarrollo Sostenible/tendencias
8.
Database (Oxford) ; 20212021 09 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510194

RESUMEN

Mollusca is the largest marine phylum, comprising about 23% of all named marine organisms, Mollusca systematics are still in flux, and an increase in human activities has affected Molluscan reproduction and development, strongly impacting diversity and classification. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the mitochondrial genome of Mollusca. The Mollusca mitochondrial database (MODB) was established for the Life and Health Big Data Center of Yantai University. This database is dedicated to collecting, sorting and sharing basic information regarding mollusks, especially their mitochondrial genome information. We also integrated a series of analysis and visualization tools, such as BLAST, MUSCLE, GENEWISE and LASTZ. In particular, a phylogenetic tree was implemented in this database to visualize the evolutionary relationships between species. The original version contains 616 species whose mitochondrial genomes have been sequenced. The database provides comprehensive information and analysis platform for researchers interested in understanding the biological characteristics of mollusks. Database URL: http://modb.ytu.edu.cn/.


Asunto(s)
Genoma Mitocondrial , Animales , Evolución Biológica , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Humanos , Moluscos/genética , Filogenia
9.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255110, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339426

RESUMEN

The present study aims to apply a DNA barcoding tool through amplifying two mitochondrial candidate genes i.e., COI and 16S rRNA for accurate identification of fish, aquatic molluscs and crustaceans of Sundarbans mangrove wetland, to build a reference library of fish and shellfishes of this unique ecosystems. A total of 185 mitochondrial COI barcode sequences and 59 partial sequences of the 16S rRNA gene were obtained from 120 genera, 65 families and 21 orders of fish, crustaceans and molluscs. The collected samples were first identified by examining morphometric characteristics and then assessed by DNA barcoding. The COI and 16S rRNA sequences of fishes and crustaceans were clearly discriminated among genera in their phylogenies. The average Kimura two-parameter (K2P) distances of COI barcode sequences within species, genera, and families of fishes are 1.57±0.06%, 15.16±0.23%, and 17.79±0.02%, respectively, and for 16S rRNA sequences, these values are 1.74±.8%, 0.97±.8%, and 4.29±1.3%, respectively. The minimum and maximum K2P distance based divergences in COI sequences of fishes are 0.19% and 36.27%, respectively. In crustaceans, the K2P distances within genera, families, and orders are 1.4±0.03%, 17.73±0.15%, and 22.81±0.02%, respectively and the minimum and maximum divergences are 0.2% and 33.93%, respectively. Additionally, the present study resolves the misidentification of the mud crab species of the Sundarbans as Scylla olivacea which was previously stated as Scylla serrata. In case of molluscs, values of interspecific divergence ranges from 17.43% to 66.3% in the barcoded species. The present study describes the development of a molecular and morphometric cross-referenced inventory of fish and shellfish of the Sundarbans. This inventory will be useful in future biodiversity studies and in forming future conservation plan.


Asunto(s)
Avicennia , Código de Barras del ADN Taxonómico , Ecosistema , Peces/clasificación , Peces/genética , Agua de Mar , Mariscos/clasificación , Animales , Secuencia de Bases , Complejo IV de Transporte de Electrones/genética , Variación Genética , Geografía , Moluscos/genética , Filogenia , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206018

RESUMEN

In the mid-1950s, Bert Lester Vallee and his colleague Marvin Margoshes discovered a molecule referred to today as metallothionein (MT). Meanwhile, MTs have been shown to be common in many biological organisms. Despite their prevalence, however, it remains unclear to date what exactly MTs do and how they contribute to the biological function of an organism or organ. We investigate why biochemical research has not yet been able to pinpoint the function(s) of MTs. We shall systematically examine both the discovery of and recent research on Dr. Vallee's beloved family of MT proteins utilizing tools from philosophy of science. Our analysis highlights that Vallee's initial work exhibited features prototypical of a developing research tradition: it was upward-looking, exploratory, and utilized mere interactions. Since the 1960s, MT research has increasingly become intervention- and hypothesis-based while it remained largely upward-looking in character. Whilst there is no reason to think that upward-looking research cannot successfully yield structure-function mappings, it has not yet been successful in the case of MTs. Thus, we suggest it might be time to change track and consider other research strategies looking into the evolution of MTs. Recent studies in mollusks render research in this direction worthy of pursuit.


Asunto(s)
Metalotioneína/genética , Moluscos/genética , Relación Estructura-Actividad , Animales , Metalotioneína/aislamiento & purificación , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Metalotioneína/ultraestructura , Moluscos/metabolismo
11.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 77: 105670, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304120

RESUMEN

This study aims to investigate effects of ultrasound assisted extraction on the abalone viscera protein extraction rate and iron-chelating activity of peptides. The optimal conditions for ultrasound assisted extraction by response surface methodology was at sodium hydroxide concentration 14 g/kg, ultrasonic power 428 W and extraction time 52 min. Under the optimal conditions, protein extraction rate was 64.89%, compared with alkaline extraction of 55.67%. The iron-chelating activity of peptides affected by ultrasound technology was further evaluated by iron-chelating rate, FTIR spectroscopy and LC-HRMS/MS. Alcalase was the suitable enzyme for the preparation of iron-chelating peptides from two abalone viscera proteins, showing no significant difference between their iron-chelating rate of 16.24% (ultrasound assisted extraction) and 16.60% (alkaline extraction). Iron binding sites from the two hydrolysates include amino and carboxylate terminal groups and peptide bond of the peptide backbone as well as amino, imine and carboxylate from side chain groups. Moreover, 24 iron-chelating peptides were identified from hydrolysate (alcalase, ultrasound assisted extraction), which were different from the 27 iron-chelating peptides from hydrolysate (alcalase, alkaline extraction). This study suggests the application of ultrasound technology in the generation of abalone viscera-derived iron-chelating peptides which have the ability to combat iron deficiency.


Asunto(s)
Fraccionamiento Químico/métodos , Quelantes del Hierro/aislamiento & purificación , Quelantes del Hierro/farmacología , Moluscos , Proteínas/aislamiento & purificación , Proteínas/farmacología , Ondas Ultrasónicas , Vísceras , Animales
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 374, 2021 Jul 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294132

RESUMEN

Angiostrongylus costaricensis is a zoonotic parasitic nematode described for the first time in 1971 by Pedro Morera and Rodolfo Céspedes in Costa Rica. This parasite causes an infection known as abdominal angiostrongyliasis, affecting mainly school-aged children and young adults. Infection with A. costaricensis has been associated with a myriad of rodent and mollusk species in the Americas and the Caribbean, as its natural hosts and reservoirs. In this commemorative review, we highlight the extensive research collected through a 50-year journey, which includes ecological, pathological, and molecular studies on A. costaricensis and its implicated disease. We also identify major knowledge gaps in its evolutionary history, the ecological role of imported and invasive mollusk species, and immune response. We propose that the advent of -omics analyses will allow us to gather novel information regarding A. costaricensis biology and infection dynamics, as well as to promote the design of much-needed sensitive and specific diagnostic tools.


Asunto(s)
Angiostrongylus/clasificación , Reservorios de Enfermedades/parasitología , Moluscos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Roedores/parasitología , Infecciones por Strongylida/parasitología , Américas/epidemiología , Angiostrongylus/genética , Angiostrongylus/inmunología , Angiostrongylus/fisiología , Animales , Región del Caribe/epidemiología , Especificidad del Huésped , Humanos , Inmunidad , Especies Introducidas , Larva , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida , Roedores , Infecciones por Strongylida/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Strongylida/epidemiología , Infecciones por Strongylida/patología , Zoonosis
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 171: 112703, 2021 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330002

RESUMEN

The Eastern Mediterranean Sea hosts more non-indigenous species than any other marine region, yet their impacts on the native biota remain poorly understood. Focusing on mollusks from the Israeli rocky intertidal, we explored the hypothesis that this abiotically harsh habitat supports a limited trait diversity, and thus may promote niche overlap and competition between native and non-indigenous species. Indeed, native and non-indigenous assemblage components often had a highly similar trait composition, caused by functionally similar native (Patella caerulea) and non-indigenous (Cellana rota) limpets. Body size of P. caerulea decreased with increasing C. rota prevalence, but not vice versa, indicating potential asymmetric competition. Although both species have coexisted in Israel for >15 years, a rapid 'replacement' of native limpets by C. rota has been reported for a thermally polluted site, suggesting that competition and regionally rapid climate-related seawater warming might interact to progressively erode native limpet performance along the Israeli coast.


Asunto(s)
Gastrópodos , Animales , Ecosistema , Mar Mediterráneo , Moluscos , Agua de Mar
14.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 133, 2021 06 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174830

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Expression of sexual dimorphism is recognised in various fossil groups of molluscs such as the Ammonoidea, an extinct group of shelled cephalopods. During the Mesozoic, the best-documented sexual dimorphic examples are seen in the Jurassic superfamily Perisphinctoidea. It is usually expressed by distinct adult size and apertural modifications between the antidimorphs. Putative males (otherwise referred to as microconch) are small in size and develop lappets at the end of the shell while the females (macroconch) are larger and bear a simple peristome. Dubious cases are, however, known in that superfamily, which often relate to taxonomic biases or lack of diagnostic characters, and some others expose ontogenetic anomalies illustrated by 'sex reversals' in the shell morphology and ornamentation. RESULTS: The discovery of two specimens of the Callovian Aspidoceratidae Peltoceras athleta (Phillips), having both female and male features, questions the significance and causes of 'sex reversals' in the Ammonoidea. The two specimens have started with the macroconch ontogeny of Peltoceras athleta and show an apparent change toward maleness in the adult, as illustrated by their rounded whorl section, ribs retroversion, fading of the tubercles and lappets typical of the microconchs. Few other cases of female-to-male, as well as male-to-female 'sex reversal', are known in the fossil record, all belonging to the Jurassic Perisphinctoidea (families Perisphinctidae or Aspidoceratidae). Since all Jurassic Perisphinctoidea are strictly gonochoristic, these 'sex reversals' are pathological in nature and are herein referred to as a new forma-type pathology: namely "forma hermaphrodita". CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of any clear evidence of injury or parasitism, we hypothesize that such "forma hermaphrodita" individuals illustrate pathologic cases of intersexuality. Little is known about the ammonoid soft parts, and it is not possible to determine which internal sexual organs occur in specimens having both male and female external shell features. Abnormal feminisation and/or masculinisation also occur in modern cephalopods, the latter also grouping only gonochoric species. This phenomenon is similarly illustrated by a change in the adult body size and a mixing of both female and male structures. In that case, intersexuality is either advantageous in the population or caused sterility. The causes of intersexuality are not clearly established but environmental pollutants are evoked in modern cephalopods because they act as endocrine disrupters. 'Sex reversals' and/or non-functional reproductive abnormalities have also been caused by endocrine disrupters in various gonochoric gastropods species, but infestation, genetic abnormalities, temperature fluctuations or viruses are multiple causes, which can stimulate or inhibit neural-endocrinal activity by direct gonadal influence, and ultimately lead to feminisation or masculinisation in fishes, isopods, crustaceans, and gastropods as well. Regardless of whether "forma hermaphrodita" is due to an exogenic or endogenic cause, the record of intersex Perisphinctoidea in the Jurassic can be explained by the ready recognition of dimorphic pairs, and the easy collection of large and sufficiently preserved fossil palaeopopulations in which intersex specimens have statistically more chance to be found.


Asunto(s)
Cefalópodos , Trastornos del Desarrollo Sexual , Animales , Crustáceos , Femenino , Fósiles , Humanos , Masculino , Moluscos
15.
J Proteomics ; 245: 104294, 2021 08 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091091

RESUMEN

In this compilation we collect information about the main protein components in hemolymph and stress the continued interest in their study. The reasons for such an attention span several areas of biological, veterinarian and medical applications: from the notions for better dealing with the species - belonging to phylum Arthropoda, subphylum Crustacea, and to phylum Mollusca - of economic interest, to the development of 'marine drugs' from the peptides that, in invertebrates, act as antimicrobial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, and/or antiviral agents. Overall, the topic most often on focus is that of innate immunity operated by classes of pattern-recognition proteins. SIGNIFICANCE: The immune response in invertebrates relies on innate rather than on adaptive/acquired effectors. At a difference from the soluble and membrane-bound immunoglobulins and receptors in vertebrates, the antimicrobial, antifungal, antiprotozoal and/or antiviral agents in invertebrates interact with non-self material by targeting some common (rather than some highly specific) structural motifs. Developing this paradigm into (semi) synthetic pharmaceuticals, possibly optimized through the modeling opportunities offered by computational biochemistry, is one of the lessons today's science may learn from the study of marine invertebrates, and specifically of the proteins and peptides in their hemolymph.


Asunto(s)
Artrópodos , Hemolinfa , Animales , Organismos Acuáticos , Invertebrados , Moluscos
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11411, 2021 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075110

RESUMEN

Plastic pollution is one of the leading environmental problems. Phthalates are widely used plastic additives released into the environment. Although the effects of phthalates on vertebrates have been extensively studied, there is a knowledge gap regarding their effects on invertebrates. This work analyzes the impact of three phthalates, diethyl phthalate (DEP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), on the gastropod Physella acuta at the molecular level to establish the putative pathways involved in its response to them. By real-time PCR, we obtained the expression profile of 30 genes in animals exposed for 1 week to 0.1, 10, and 1000 µg/L of each phthalate. The genes cover DNA repair, detoxification, apoptosis, oxidative and stress responses, immunity, energy reserves, and lipid transport. The results show that while DEP and DEHP did not alter the mRNA levels, BBP modulated almost all the analyzed genes. It can be concluded that the impact of BBP is extensive at the molecular level. However, it cannot be dismissed that the increase in transcriptional activity is a general response due to this compound's well-known role as an endocrine disruptor. Additional research is needed to elucidate the differences observed in the impact of these compounds on the gastropod P. acuta.


Asunto(s)
Disruptores Endocrinos/toxicidad , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Moluscos , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidad , Transcriptoma/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Moluscos/efectos de los fármacos , Moluscos/metabolismo
17.
Parasitology ; 148(11): 1383-1391, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103107

RESUMEN

Typhlocoelum cucumerinum is a tracheal parasite of birds widely distributed across the globe. Nevertheless, aspects of the biology of this cyclocoelid are still poorly understood. Herein, we report the finding of T. cucumerinum in definitive and intermediate hosts from an urban waterbody of Brazil. The parasite was initially detected during the necropsy of domestic Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) found dead in the locality. Coproparasitological tests in live animals revealed that 12/47 (25.53%) Muscovy ducks and 2/8 (25%) mallards (Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos) were infected with T. cucumerinum. Moreover, rediae and metacercariae morphologically similar to T. cucumerinum were found in 3/248 (1.33%) Biomphalaria straminea collected in the same waterbody frequented by the birds. The conspecificity between the adult and the larval stages was confirmed molecularly (100% similarity in Cox-1). Moreover, the phylogenetic position of T. cucumerinum was determined for the first time based on partial fragments of the 28S, Cox-1 and Nad-1 genes. The species grouped with other members of the subfamily Typhlocoelinae with sequences available, but the data obtained do not support the distinctiveness of the genera Typhlocoelum and Tracheophilus. Further studies involving a broader range of species can result in taxonomic rearrangements in Typhlocoelinae.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de las Aves/parasitología , Patos/parasitología , Tráquea/parasitología , Enfermedades de la Tráquea/veterinaria , Trematodos/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Trematodos/veterinaria , Animales , Enfermedades de las Aves/diagnóstico , Aves , Brasil/epidemiología , Ambiente , Heces/parasitología , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos , Larva , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida , Moluscos/parasitología , Filogenia , Alineación de Secuencia , Enfermedades de la Tráquea/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de la Tráquea/parasitología , Trematodos/clasificación , Trematodos/genética , Trematodos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Infecciones por Trematodos/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Trematodos/parasitología
18.
J Environ Manage ; 291: 112671, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964622

RESUMEN

Initiatives of artisanal fisheries co-management and the construction of differentiated markets for seafood products have been emerging in different parts of the world, as an institutionalized way of coping with a global fishery crisis. This paper analyses some institutionalization processes of artisanal mollusc fisheries, considering the role of co-management in two Brazilian and Italian protected areas (Resex Pirajubaé and Conero Regional Park). Within a theoretical framework aiming at moving beyond the dualism between nature and society, the methodology of multiple-case-study has been used to carry on research about mollusc artisanal fisheries co-management networks in their constitution and development. The paper analyses how these networks are organised in the two contexts and the relations social actors have been developing for a sustainable fishery as a possible way to influence and increase their capacity to address environmental crisis. In the artisanal mollusc fishery co-management experiences, fishers' participation may favour institutional innovations and the co-management networks stability may be generated by the institutions legitimacy. Furthermore, the case studies offer complementary insights to better understand the linkage between artisanal fishery institutionalization processes, common natural resources co-management and value aggregation for traditional seafood. Artisanal mollusc fishery co-management experiences should be stimulated and investigated since they can help in diagnosing early climate and environmental changes in the oceans.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Animales , Brasil , Peces , Italia , Moluscos
19.
Zootaxa ; 4950(1): zootaxa.4950.1.4, 2021 Mar 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903320

RESUMEN

The species composition of the genus Connexochiton is revised. So far, six Recent species of the genus Connexochiton have been known: C. platynomenus, C. kaasi, C. crassus, C. bromleyi, C. moreirai and C. discernibilis After the present revision, the genus consists of Connexochiton platynomenus, C. kaasi, C. crassus, as well as three new species, C. costatus n. sp. from the Philippines, C. kermadeci n. sp. from New Zealand and C. solomonicus n. sp. from the Solomon Islands. Connexochiton discernibilis was assigned to the ischnochitonid genus Stenosemus (now Stenosemus discernibilis). Connexochiton bromleyi and C. moreirai are transferred back to the genus Ischnochiton. Principle features of the genus Connexochiton include: a distinctive shape of the valves with the hind edge of the intermediate valves noticeably turned down, which makes the lateral areas narrow and appearing strongly raised; tegmentum delicately sculptured by quincuncially arranged triangular granules that form an alveolate pattern; each granule has 9 to 11 aesthete pores; apophyses are connected medially by a short jugal plate, dorsal scales of the girdle are strongly bent, with short longitudinal ribs or spherules or both; head of the major lateral teeth of radula is unicuspid and sickle-shaped. An identification key for the species of the genus Connexochiton is provided.


Asunto(s)
Poliplacóforos , Animales , Moluscos , Poliplacóforos/clasificación , Poliplacóforos/fisiología
20.
J Med Chem ; 64(9): 6198-6208, 2021 05 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914531

RESUMEN

In the marine environment, sessile cyanobacteria have developed chemical strategies for protection against grazers. In turn, herbivores have to circumvent these defenses and in certain cases even take advantage of them as shelter from their own predators. This is the case of Stylocheilus striatus, a sea hare that feeds on Anabaena torulosa, a cyanobacterium that produces toxic cyclic lipopeptides of the laxaphycin B family. S. striatus consumes the cyanobacterium without being affected by the toxicity of its compounds and also uses it as an invisibility cloak against predators. In this article, using different substrates analogous to laxaphycin B, we demonstrate the presence of an enzyme in the digestive gland of the mollusk that is able to biotransform laxaphycin B derivatives. The enzyme belongs to the poorly known family of d-peptidases that are suspected to be involved in antibiotic resistance.


Asunto(s)
Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/efectos de los fármacos , Moluscos/metabolismo , Péptido Hidrolasas/metabolismo , Péptidos Cíclicos/metabolismo , Animales , Péptidos Cíclicos/química , Péptidos Cíclicos/toxicidad
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