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1.
Dokl Biol Sci ; 487(1): 108-111, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571077

RESUMEN

Progressive expansion of the most hazardous human parasitoses caused by trematodes, cestodes and nematodes has been found on the south of the Russian Far East. Decelerating expansion of the trematode Clonorchis sinensis, an agent of clonorchiasis towards the southern Primorye Territory from the Amur River basin, that began 10-15 years ago, was revealed. A prognosis was made on the activation of the natural foci of clonorchiasis and paragonimiasis. Circulation possibilities are discussed of the highly pathogenic trematode Pagonimus heterotremusar in the South Asian regional ecosystems. Our experiments showed that the freshwater gastropods of the Parajuga genus from the Amur River basin and those of Stenothyra genus from Primorsky Territory were resistant to this trematode infection. Nevertheless, this does not exclude the possibility of this parasite penetration into the Far East region via infection of the local gastropods of other genera.


Asunto(s)
Reservorios de Enfermedades/parasitología , Helmintiasis/parasitología , Animales , Canidae/parasitología , Cestodos/patogenicidad , Clima , Demografía/estadística & datos numéricos , Felidae/parasitología , Peces/parasitología , Helmintiasis/epidemiología , Helmintiasis/transmisión , Humanos , Moluscos/parasitología , Nematodos/patogenicidad , Siberia , Trematodos/patogenicidad
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1154: 217-254, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297764

RESUMEN

Trematodes of the order Diplostomida are well known as serious pathogens of man, and both farm and wild animals; members of the genus Schistosoma (Schistosomatidae) are responsible for human schistosomosis affecting more than 200 million people in tropical and subtropical countries, infections of mammals and birds by animal schistosomes are of great veterinary importance. The order Diplostomida is also rich in species parasitizing other major taxa of vertebrates. The Aporocotylidae are pathogenic in fish, Spirorchiidae in reptiles. All these flukes have two-host life cycles, with asexually reproducing larvae usually in molluscs and occasionally in annelids, and adults usually live in the blood vessels of their vertebrate hosts. Pathology is frequently associated with inflammatory reactions to eggs trapped in various tissues/organs. On the other hand, the representatives of Diplostomidae and Strigeidae have three- or four-host life cycles in which vertebrates often serve not only as definitive, but also as intermediate or paratenic hosts. Pathology is usually associated with migration of metacercariae and mesocercariae within the host tissues. The impact of these trematode infections on both farm and wild animals may be significant.


Asunto(s)
Trematodos , Infecciones por Trematodos , Animales , Enfermedades de los Peces/parasitología , Peces/parasitología , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos , Humanos , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida , Moluscos/parasitología , Trematodos/fisiología , Infecciones por Trematodos/parasitología , Infecciones por Trematodos/transmisión
3.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 8(1): 2, 2019 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621776

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The invasive alien species may lead to great environmental and economic crisis due to its strong capability of occupying the biological niche of native species and altering the ecosystem of the invaded area. However, its potential to serve as the vectors of some specific zoonotic pathogens, especially parasites, has been neglected. Thus, the damage that it may cause has been hugely underestimated in this aspect, which is actually an important public health problem. This paper aims to discuss the current status of zoonotic parasites carried by invasive alien species in China. MAIN BODY: This review summarizes the reported zoonotic parasites carried by invasive alien species in China based on the Database of Invasive Alien Species in China. We summarize their prevalence, threat to human health, related reported cases, and the roles of invasive alien species in the life cycle of these parasites, and the invasion history of some invasive alien species. Furthermore, we sum up the current state of prevention and control of invasive alien species in China, and discuss about the urgency and several feasible strategies for the prevention and control of these zoonoses under the background of booming international communications and inevitable globalization. CONCLUSIONS: Information of the zoonotic parasites carried by invasive alien species neither in China or worldwide, especially related case reports, is limited due to a long-time neglection and lack of monitoring. The underestimation of their damage requires more attention to the monitoring and control and compulsory measures should be taken to control the invasive alien species carrying zoonotic parasites.


Asunto(s)
Artrópodos/parasitología , Especies Introducidas , Moluscos/parasitología , Vertebrados/parasitología , Zoonosis/parasitología , Distribución Animal , Animales , China , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30231165

RESUMEN

Human neural angiostrongyliasis is an emerging infectious disease caused by nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The present study investigated the presence of Angiostrongylus spp. in terrestrial molluscs collected from the following areas in the Metropolitan Region of Aracaju, Sergipe State, Brazil: Barra dos Coqueiros, Nossa Senhora do Socorro, Sao Cristovao and Aracaju. In total, 703 specimens representing 13 mollusc species were screened for Angiostrongylus spp. Larvae of Angiostrongylus spp. were found in three species. Larvae recovered from Achatina fulica were used for experimental infection in Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus). For specific identification of nematodes, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) was sequenced from both larvae and adults recovered from molluscs and rats, respectively. Infection with A. cantonensis was detected in all municipalities and in the following three host species: Bulimulus tenuissimus, Cyclodontina fasciata (Barra dos Coqueiros), and A. fulica (Aracaju, Nossa Senhora do Socorro and Sao Cristovao). Co-infections were also found with Caenorhabditis sp. and Strongyluris sp. larvae. This is the first study of the helminth fauna associated with the terrestrial malacofauna in Sergipe State, and confirms that these three snail species are involved in the transmission of A. cantonensis in the state. In addition, B. tenuissimus and C. fasciata are newly reported natural hosts of the parasite.


Asunto(s)
Angiostrongylus cantonensis/aislamiento & purificación , Moluscos/parasitología , Animales , Complejo IV de Transporte de Electrones , Femenino , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos , Masculino , Moluscos/clasificación , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Ratas Wistar , Población Urbana
5.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 154: 65-73, 2018 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29634922

RESUMEN

The terrestrial gastropod Bulimulus tenuissimus is widespread in South America. It is an intermediate host of many parasites, but there are no records of infection of this snail by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, despite the occurrence of this parasite and angiostrongyliasis cases in the same areas in which B. tenuissimus occurs. For this reason, it is important investigate the susceptibility of B. tenuissimus to A. cantonensis-infection, since it can be used as intermediate host of A. cantonensis, increasing the list of terrestrial gastropods that infect wild and domestic animals and humans with this parasite. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of B. tenuissimus to experimental infection with L1 larvae of A. cantonensis. The snails were exposed to 1200 L1 larvae and it was possible observe many developing larvae in the cephalopedal mass and mantle tissues, with intense hemocyte infiltration and collagen deposition, but no typical granuloma structures were formed. The glucose content and lactate dehydrogenase activity in the hemolymph varied, indicating an increase of anaerobic energy metabolism in the middle of infection, but with a tendency to return to normal values at the end of pre-patent period. This was corroborated by the marked reduction in the glycogen content in the cephalopedal mass and digestive gland in the first and second week after exposure, followed by a slight increase in the third week. The content of pyruvic acid in the hemolymph was 14.84% lower at the end of pre-patent period, and oxalic acid content was 41.14% higher. These results indicate an aerobic to anaerobic transition process. The PAS reaction showed a large amount of glycogen inside the developing larvae and muscular tissues of the cephalopedal mass, indicating that despite the high consumption of this polysaccharide by the parasite, the snail is able to maintain its energy metabolism based on carbohydrates. The results reveal that B. tenuissimus is a robust host, which can live with the developing larvae of A. cantonensis and overcome the metabolic damages resulting from parasitism.


Asunto(s)
Moluscos/parasitología , Nematodos/fisiología , Animales , Metabolismo de los Hidratos de Carbono , Susceptibilidad a Enfermedades , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos , Infecciones por Nematodos/transmisión
6.
Int J Parasitol ; 48(2): 135-144, 2018 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29108906

RESUMEN

Panama is a major hub for commercial shipping between two oceans, making it an ideal location to examine parasite biogeography, potential invasions, and the spread of infectious agents. Our goals were to (i) characterise the diversity and genetic connectivity of Perkinsus spp. haplotypes across the Panamanian Isthmus and (ii) combine these data with sequences from around the world to evaluate the current phylogeography and genetic connectivity of these widespread molluscan parasites. We collected 752 bivalves from 12 locations along the coast of Panama including locations around the Bocas del Toro archipelago and the Caribbean and Pacific entrances to the Panama Canal, from December 2012 to February 2013. We used molecular genetic methods to screen for Perkinsus spp. and obtained internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences for all positive samples. Our sequence data were used to evaluate regional haplotype diversity and distribution across both coasts of Panama, and were then combined with publicly available sequences to create global haplotype networks. We found 26 ITS haplotypes from four Perkinsus spp. (1-12 haplotypes per species) in Panama. Perkinsus beihaiensis haplotypes had the highest genetic diversity, were the most regionally widespread, and were associated with the greatest number of hosts. On a global scale, network analyses demonstrated that some haplotypes found in Panama were cosmopolitan (Perkinsus chesapeaki, Perkinsus marinus), while others were more geographically restricted (Perkinsus olseni, P. beihaiensis), indicating different levels of genetic connectivity and dispersal. We found some Perkinsus haplotypes were shared across the Isthmus of Panama and several regions around the world, including across ocean basins. We also found that haplotype diversity is currently underestimated and directly related to the number of sequences. Nevertheless, our results demonstrate long-range dispersal and global connectivity for many haplotypes, suggesting that dispersal through shipping probably contributes to these biogeographical patterns.


Asunto(s)
Apicomplexa/genética , Variación Genética , Moluscos/parasitología , Animales , ADN Espaciador Ribosómico , Haplotipos , Zona del Canal de Panamá
7.
Parasitol Res ; 116(11): 3007-3018, 2017 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28905265

RESUMEN

We report digeneans (Diplostomidae, Crassiphialinae) in the endangered freshwater fishes Valencia letourneuxi and Valencia robertae, endemics of Western Greece. Digenean metacercariae occurred in two forms in the abdominal cavity, excysted and encysted, the latter attached to the gonads, liver and alimentary tract. Parasites were, using morphological and molecular techniques, identified as two representatives of Crassiphialinae, specifically part of the Posthodiplostomum-Ornithodiplostomum clade. The spatial, seasonal, and age class variation in parasite prevalence was examined. Autumn parasite prevalence varied between the six populations sampled (18.2 to 100%). Seasonal prevalence at the two sites sampled quadannually peaked in autumn and reached its lowest value in spring; prevalence increased with size to 100% in young adult fish. We did not find a correlation between prevalence and host sex. Overall parasites' weight averaged 0.64% of the host's, while parasite weight increased with host weight. A comparison of relative condition and hepatosomatic and gonadosomatic indices of infected and metacercariae-free specimens showed that infection did not have a significant effect on host body condition and reproduction. Regarding the parasite's life cycle, planorbid gastropods are proposed as potential first intermediate hosts in view of the host's diet and occurrence data of molluscs in the ecosystem. This is the first record of a diplostomid digenean in valenciid fishes and of representatives of the Posthodiplostomum-Ornithodiplostomum clade in a native Greek freshwater fish. Our findings are discussed in conjunction to fish conservation interventions, since parasites may contribute to the decline of endangered species.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Peces/parasitología , Killifishes/parasitología , Metacercarias , Infecciones por Trematodos/veterinaria , Animales , Ecosistema , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Femenino , Agua Dulce , Grecia , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida , Masculino , Moluscos/parasitología , Trematodos/clasificación , Infecciones por Trematodos/parasitología
8.
PLoS One ; 12(9): e0184745, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28902894

RESUMEN

Empty mollusk shells may act as colonization surfaces for sclerobionts depending on the physical, chemical, and biological attributes of the shells. However, the main factors that can affect the establishment of an organism on hard substrates and the colonization patterns on modern and time-averaged shells remain unclear. Using experimental and field approaches, we compared sclerobiont (i.e., bacteria and invertebrate) colonization patterns on the exposed shells (internal and external sides) of three bivalve species (Anadara brasiliana, Mactra isabelleana, and Amarilladesma mactroides) with different external shell textures. In addition, we evaluated the influence of the host characteristics (mode of life, body size, color alteration, external and internal ornamentation and mineralogy) of sclerobionts on dead mollusk shells (bivalve and gastropod) collected from the Southern Brazilian coast. Finally, we compared field observations with experiments to evaluate how the biological signs of the present-day invertebrate settlements are preserved in molluscan death assemblages (incipient fossil record) in a subtropical shallow coastal setting. The results enhance our understanding of sclerobiont colonization over modern and paleoecology perspectives. The data suggest that sclerobiont settlement is enhanced by (i) high(er) biofilm bacteria density, which is more attracted to surfaces with high ornamentation; (ii) heterogeneous internal and external shell surface; (iii) shallow infaunal or attached epifaunal life modes; (iv) colorful or post-mortem oxidized shell surfaces; (v) shell size (<50 mm2 or >1,351 mm2); and (vi) calcitic mineralogy. Although the biofilm bacteria density, shell size, and texture are considered the most important factors, the effects of other covarying attributes should also be considered. We observed a similar pattern of sclerobiont colonization frequency over modern and paleoecology perspectives, with an increase of invertebrates occurring on textured bivalve shells. This study demonstrates how bacterial biofilms may influence sclerobiont colonization on biological hosts (mollusks), and shows how ecological relationships in marine organisms may be relevant for interpreting the fossil record of sclerobionts.


Asunto(s)
Exoesqueleto/parasitología , Moluscos/parasitología , Exoesqueleto/anatomía & histología , Exoesqueleto/microbiología , Animales , Incrustaciones Biológicas , Tamaño Corporal , Color , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos , Moluscos/anatomía & histología , Moluscos/microbiología , Propiedades de Superficie
9.
J Helminthol ; 91(5): 517-527, 2017 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28774354

RESUMEN

Terrestrial molluscs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) are important economic pests worldwide, causing extensive damage to a variety of crop types, and posing a health risk to both humans and wildlife. Current knowledge indicates that there are eight nematode families that associate with molluscs as definitive hosts, including Agfidae, Alaninematidae, Alloionematidae, Angiostomatidae, Cosmocercidae, Diplogastridae, Mermithidae and Rhabditidae. To date, Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita (Schneider, 1859) Andrássy, 1983 (Rhabditida: Rhabditidae) is the only nematode that has been developed as a biological molluscicide. The nematode, which was commercially released in 1994 by MicroBio Ltd, Littlehampton, UK (formally Becker Underwood, now BASF) under the tradename Nemaslug®, is now sold in 15 different European countries. This paper reviews nematodes isolated from molluscs, with specially detailed information on the life cycle, host range, commercialization, natural distribution, mass production and field application of P. hermaphrodita.


Asunto(s)
Moluscos/parasitología , Control Biológico de Vectores/métodos , Rhabditoidea/fisiología , Rhabditoidea/patogenicidad , Animales , Europa (Continente) , Especificidad del Huésped , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida , Rhabditoidea/aislamiento & purificación
10.
Int J Parasitol ; 47(6): 327-345, 2017 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28315362

RESUMEN

To identify trematode diversity and life-cycles in the sub-Arctic Lake Takvatn, Norway, we characterised 120 trematode isolates from mollusc first intermediate hosts, metacercariae from second intermediate host fishes and invertebrates, and adults from fish and invertebrate definitive hosts, using molecular techniques. Phylogenies based on nuclear and/or mtDNA revealed high species richness (24 species or species-level genetic lineages) and uncovered trematode diversity (16 putative new species) from five families typical in lake ecosystems (Allocreadiidae, Diplostomidae, Plagiorchiidae, Schistosomatidae and Strigeidae). Sampling potential invertebrate hosts allowed matching of sequence data for different stages, thus achieving molecular elucidation of trematode life-cycles and exploration of host-parasite interactions. Phylogenetic analyses also helped identify three major mollusc intermediate hosts (Radix balthica, Pisidium casertanum and Sphaerium sp.) in the lake. Our findings increase the known trematode diversity at the sub-Arctic Lake Takvatn, showing that digenean diversity is high in this otherwise depauperate sub-Arctic freshwater ecosystem and indicating that sub-Arctic and Arctic ecosystems may be characterised by unique trematode assemblages.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Peces/parasitología , Variación Genética , Invertebrados/parasitología , Lagos/parasitología , Trematodos/genética , Infecciones por Trematodos/veterinaria , Anfípodos/parasitología , Animales , Regiones Árticas , Teorema de Bayes , Bivalvos/parasitología , Ecosistema , Peces , Haplotipos , Insectos/parasitología , Moluscos/clasificación , Moluscos/parasitología , Noruega , Filogenia , Alineación de Secuencia , Caracoles/parasitología , Trematodos/clasificación , Infecciones por Trematodos/parasitología
11.
Med Parazitol (Mosk) ; 1(1): 20-24, 2017 Jan.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721610

RESUMEN

In the ecosystem of the Belaya River, fishes of the family Cyprinidae were infected with three epidemically important species oftrematodes of the family Opisthorchidae: Opisthorchisfelineus, Metorchis bilis, and Pseudamphistomum truncatumn. No biotopes of mollusks of the genus Codiella were detected. The contamination of underyearlings with-Ofelineus and M.bilis metacercariae indicates that there are cores of opisthorchiasis and metorchiasis (M.bifis) foci in the ecosystem of the lower course of the river. The presence of biotopes of the genus Bithynia mollusks, the first intermediate host.for P. truncatum, in the waters, but the absence of fishes infected with P.truncatum metacercariae among the examined under- yearlings may lead to the conclusion that there are no cores of pseudamphistomiasis foci. Infestation of onein 97 older individual muvarica (Albumus alburnus) with trematode metacercariae is evidence of its infection outside the floodplain river ecosystems of the Belaya River and subsequent migration of the fish into the lowerreaches of the river, where a barren zone of a pseudamphistomiass focus is formed. In this ecosystem there is a risk of human infection with epidemically important species of trematodes of the family Opisthorchidae (O.felineus, M.bifis, and P.truncatum)-when eating the fish caught in the river, its tributaries, and floodplain waterbodies. When identifying the metacercariae and detecting the natural foci of trematodes, it is necessary to take into account the fact that the fishes of the family Cyprinidae in the river ecosystem have four types of Opisthorchis metacercariae (after D.A.Razmashkin).


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Enfermedades de los Peces/parasitología , Infecciones por Trematodos/epidemiología , Animales , Baskiria/epidemiología , Cyprinidae/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Peces/epidemiología , Caballos/parasitología , Humanos , Moluscos/parasitología , Ríos , Trematodos/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Trematodos/parasitología
12.
Int J Parasitol ; 46(11): 745-53, 2016 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27492874

RESUMEN

Overlapping distributions of hosts and parasites are critical for successful completion of multi-host parasite life cycles and even small environmental changes can impact on the parasite's presence in a host or habitat. The generalist Cardiocephaloides longicollis was used as a model for multi-host trematode life cycles in marine habitats. This parasite was studied to quantify parasite dispersion and transmission dynamics, effects of biological changes and anthropogenic impacts on life cycle completion. We compiled the largest host dataset to date, by analysing 3351 molluscs (24 species), 2108 fish (25 species) and 154 birds (17 species) and analysed the resultant data based on a number of statistical models. We uncovered extremely low host specificity at the second intermediate host level and a preference of the free-swimming larvae for predominantly demersal but also benthic fish. The accumulation of encysted larvae in the brain with increasing fish size demonstrates that parasite numbers level off in fish larger than 140mm, consistent with parasite-induced mortality at these levels. The highest infection rates were detected in host species and sizes representing the largest fraction of Mediterranean fishery discards (up to 67% of the total catch), which are frequently consumed by seabirds. Significantly higher parasite densities were found in areas with extensive fishing activity than in those with medium and low activity, and in fish from shallow lagoons than in fish from other coastal areas. For the first time, C. longicollis was also detected in farmed fish in netpens. Fishing generally drives declines in parasite abundance, however, our study suggests an enhanced transmission of generalist parasites such as C. longicollis, an effect that is further amplified by the parasite's efficient host-finding mechanisms and its alteration of fish host behaviour by larvae encysted in the brain. The anthropogenic impact on the distribution of trophically-transmitted, highly prevalent parasites likely results in a strong effect on food web structure, thus making C. longicollis an ideal bioindicator to compare food webs in natural communities versus those impacted by fisheries and aquaculture.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de las Aves/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Peces/parasitología , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida , Trematodos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Infecciones por Trematodos/veterinaria , Animales , Enfermedades de las Aves/transmisión , Aves , Mar Negro , Tamaño Corporal , ADN Ribosómico/química , Ecosistema , Enfermedades de los Peces/transmisión , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Peces/anatomía & histología , Peces/clasificación , Cadena Alimentaria , Especificidad del Huésped , Actividades Humanas , Mar Mediterráneo , Moluscos/clasificación , Moluscos/parasitología , ARN Ribosómico 28S/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN/veterinaria , Caracoles/parasitología , Trematodos/clasificación , Trematodos/genética , Infecciones por Trematodos/parasitología , Infecciones por Trematodos/transmisión
13.
Int J Parasitol ; 46(10): 605-19, 2016 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27354180

RESUMEN

Paramyxida is an order of rhizarian protists that parasitise marine molluscs, annelids and crustaceans. They include notifiable pathogens (Marteilia spp.) of bivalves and other taxa of economic significance for shellfish production. The diversity of paramyxids is poorly known, particularly outside of commercially important hosts, and their phylogenetic position is unclear due to their extremely divergent 18S rDNA sequences. However, novel paramyxean lineages are increasingly being detected in a wide range of invertebrate hosts, and interest in the group is growing, marked by the first 'Paramyxean Working Group' Meeting held in Spain in February 2015. We review the diversity, host affiliations, and geographical ranges of all known paramyxids, present a comprehensive phylogeny of the order and clarify its taxonomy. Our phylogenetic analyses confirm the separate status of four genera: Paramarteilia, Marteilioides, Paramyxa and Marteilia. Further, as including M. granula in Marteilia would make the genus paraphyletic we suggest transferring this species to a new genus, Eomarteilia. We present sequence data for Paramyxa nephtys comb. n., a parasite of polychaete worms, providing morphological data for a clade of otherwise environmental sequences, sister to Marteilioides. Light and electron microscopy analyses show strong similarities with both Paramyxa and Paramyxoides, and we further discuss the validity of those two genera. We provide histological and electron microscopic data for Paramarteilia orchestiae, the type species of that genus originally described from the amphipod Orchestia; in situ hybridisation shows that Paramarteilia also infects crab species. We present, to our knowledge, the first known results of a paramyxid-specific environmental DNA survey of environmental (filtered water, sediment, etc.) and organismally-derived samples, revealing new lineages and showing that paramyxids are associated with a wider range of hosts and habitat types than previously known. On the basis of our new phylogeny we propose phylogenetic hypotheses for evolution of lifecycle and infectivity traits observed in different paramyxid genera.


Asunto(s)
Anélidos/parasitología , Cercozoos/clasificación , Crustáceos/parasitología , ADN Protozoario/química , Moluscos/parasitología , Filogenia , Animales , Cercozoos/genética , Cercozoos/ultraestructura , ADN Ribosómico/química , Microscopía Electrónica de Transmisión , ARN Ribosómico 18S/genética
14.
PLoS One ; 11(5): e0155015, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27149378

RESUMEN

The genus Perkinsus includes protozoan parasites of mollusks responsible for losses in the aquaculture industry and hampering the recovery of natural shellfish beds worldwide, and they are a key taxon for understanding intracellular parasitism adaptations. The ability to propagate the parasite in liquid media, in the absence of the host, has been crucial for improving understanding of its biology; however, alternative techniques to grow the parasite are needed to explore other basic aspects of the Perkinsus spp. biology. We optimized a DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- containing solid agar medium for plating Perkinsus marinus. This solid medium supported trophozoite propagation both by binary fission and schizogony. Colonies were visible to the naked eye 17 days after plating. We tested the suitability of this method for several applications, including the following: 1) Subcloning P. marinus isolates: single discrete P. marinus colonies were obtained from DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- 0.75% agar plates, which could be further propagated in liquid medium; 2) Subcloning engineered Perkinsus mediterraneus MOE[MOE]: GFP by streaking cultures on plates; 3) Chemical susceptibility: Infusing the DME: Ham's F12-5% FBS- 0.75% agar plates with triclosan resulted in inhibition of the parasite propagation in a dose-dependent manner. Altogether, our plating method has the potential for becoming a key tool for investigating diverse aspects of Perkinsus spp. biology, developing new molecular tools, and for biotechnological applications.


Asunto(s)
Alveolados/crecimiento & desarrollo , Organismos Acuáticos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Parásitos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Agar , Animales , Medios de Cultivo , Eucariontes/crecimiento & desarrollo , Moluscos/parasitología , Mariscos/parasitología , Trofozoítos/crecimiento & desarrollo
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 13(4): 381, 2016 Mar 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27043590

RESUMEN

Bivalves have been shown to be carriers of the human intestinal parasites Cryptosporidium parvum and Toxoplasma gondii. The goal of this study is to determine the prevalence of protozoan parasites in mollusks of New York City using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay. Four species of mollusks, Mya arenaria, Geukensia demissa, Crassostrea virginica, and Mytilis edulis, were collected from Orchard Beach, NY in the fall of 2014, totaling 159 specimens. Each individual mollusk was dissected to harvest the digestive gland, the mantle, the gills, the foot and the siphon. The tissues were assayed for the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii DNA by using primers that target parasite-specific genes. C. parvum was found at a prevalence of 50%, 11.3%, and 1%, respectively, in Mya arenaria, G. demissa, and Mytilis edulis. C. parvum DNA was detected in all the tissues of these bivalve species, except the gills. Furthermore, G. lamblia was detected in Mya arenaria, G. demissa, Crassostrea virginica and Mytilis edulis at a prevalence of 37.5%, 4.5%, 60%, and 20.6%, respectively, while T. gondii DNA was not detected.


Asunto(s)
Cryptosporidium parvum/aislamiento & purificación , Giardia lamblia/aislamiento & purificación , Moluscos/parasitología , Toxoplasma/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Cryptosporidium parvum/genética , ADN/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Tracto Gastrointestinal/parasitología , Giardia lamblia/genética , Branquias/parasitología , Humanos , Ciudad de Nueva York , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Toxoplasma/genética
16.
Syst Parasitol ; 93(3): 283-93, 2016 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26898591

RESUMEN

We analysed two novel databases containing 2,380 and 8,202 host-parasite-locality records for trematode parasites of molluscs and fishes, respectively, to assess the biodiversity of trematodes in their intermediate mollusc and fish hosts in the freshwater environment in Europe. The "mollusc" dataset covers large numbers of pulmonate (29 spp.), "prosobranch" (15 spp.) and bivalve (11 spp.) molluscs acting as first intermediate hosts for 171 trematode species of 89 genera and 35 families. Of these, 23 and 40 species utilise freshwater fishes as definitive and second intermediate hosts, respectively. The most frequently recorded families are the Echinostomatidae Looss, 1899, Diplostomidae Poirier, 1886 and Schistosomatidae Stilles & Hassal, 1898, and the most frequently recorded species are Diplostomum spathaceum (Rudolphi, 1819), D. pseudospathaceum Niewiadomska, 1984 and Echinoparyphium recurvatum (von Linstow, 1873). Four snail species harbour extremely rich trematode faunas: Lymnaea stagnalis (L.) (41 spp.); Planorbis planorbis (L.) (39 spp.); Radix peregra (O.F. Müller) (33 spp.); and R. ovata (Draparnaud) (31 spp.). The "fish" dataset covers 99 fish species of 63 genera and 19 families acting as second intermediate hosts for 66 species of 33 genera and nine families. The most frequently recorded families are the Diplostomidae Poirier, 1886, Strigeidae Railliet, 1919 and Bucephalidae Poche, 1907, and the most frequently recorded species are Diplostomum spathaceum (Rudolphi, 1819), Tylodelphys clavata (von Nordmann, 1832) and Posthodiplostomum cuticola (von Nordmann, 1832). Four cyprinid fishes exhibit the highest species richness of larval trematodes: Rutilus rutilus (L.) (41 spp.); Abramis brama (L.) (34 spp.); Blicca bjoerkna (L.) (33 spp.); and Scardinius erythrophthalmus (L.) (33 spp.). Larval stages of 50 species reported in fish are also reported in freshwater molluscs, thus indicating a relatively good knowledge of the life-cycles of fish trematodes in Europe. We provide host-parasite lists for 55 species of molluscs with a European distribution comprising 413 host-parasite associations.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Ecosistema , Peces/parasitología , Moluscos/parasitología , Trematodos/clasificación , Trematodos/fisiología , Animales , Europa (Continente) , Larva
17.
Parazitologiia ; 50(3): 169-84, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29115107

RESUMEN

Two new species of virgulous cercariae are described. Morphological descriptions and differential diagnoses are given. Each description is supplemented with a detailed picture.


Asunto(s)
Cercarias/anatomía & histología , Moluscos/parasitología , Trematodos/anatomía & histología , Animales , Cercarias/clasificación , Cercarias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Femenino , Especificidad del Huésped , Masculino , Ríos/parasitología , Federación de Rusia , Especificidad de la Especie , Trematodos/clasificación , Trematodos/crecimiento & desarrollo
19.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(6): 739-44, 2015 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26517652

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to analyse the infection dynamics of Angiostrongylus cantonensisin its possible intermediate hosts over two years in an urban area in the state of Rio de Janeiro where the presence ofA. cantonensis had been previously recorded in molluscs. Four of the seven mollusc species found in the study were exotic.Bradybaena similaris was the most abundant, followed by Achatina fulica, Streptaxis sp., Subulina octona, Bulimulus tenuissimus, Sarasinula linguaeformis and Leptinaria unilamellata. Only A. fulica and B. similaris were parasitised by A. cantonensis and both presented co-infection with other helminths. The prevalence of A. cantonensis in A. fulica was more than 50% throughout the study. There was an inverse correlation between the population size ofA. fulica and the prevalence of A. cantonensis and abundance of the latter was negatively related to rainfall. The overall prevalence of A. cantonensis in B. similaris was 24.6%. A. fulica was the most important intermediary host of A. cantonensis in the studied area and B. similaris was secondary in importance for A. cantonensis transmission dynamics.


Asunto(s)
Angiostrongylus cantonensis/fisiología , Especies Introducidas , Caracoles/parasitología , Infecciones por Strongylida/transmisión , Angiostrongylus cantonensis/patogenicidad , Distribución Animal , Animales , Brasil/epidemiología , Ciudades , Cambio Climático , Vectores de Enfermedades , Modelos Lineales , Moluscos/clasificación , Moluscos/parasitología , Lluvia/parasitología , Caracoles/clasificación , Infecciones por Strongylida/epidemiología
20.
J Invertebr Pathol ; 131: 177-211, 2015 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26341124

RESUMEN

Molluscs are economically and ecologically important components of aquatic ecosystems. In addition to supporting valuable aquaculture and wild-harvest industries, their populations determine the structure of benthic communities, cycling of nutrients, serve as prey resources for higher trophic levels and, in some instances, stabilize shorelines and maintain water quality. This paper reviews existing knowledge of the ecology of host-parasite interactions involving marine molluscs, with a focus on gastropods and bivalves. It considers the ecological and evolutionary impacts of molluscan parasites on their hosts and vice versa, and on the communities and ecosystems in which they are a part, as well as disease management and its ecological impacts. An increasing number of case studies show that disease can have important effects on marine molluscs, their ecological interactions and ecosystem services, at spatial scales from centimeters to thousands of kilometers and timescales ranging from hours to years. In some instances the cascading indirect effects arising from parasitic infection of molluscs extend well beyond the temporal and spatial scales at which molluscs are affected by disease. In addition to the direct effects of molluscan disease, there can be large indirect impacts on marine environments resulting from strategies, such as introduction of non-native species and selective breeding for disease resistance, put in place to manage disease. Much of our understanding of impacts of molluscan diseases on the marine environment has been derived from just a handful of intensively studied marine parasite-host systems, namely gastropod-trematode, cockle-trematode, and oyster-protistan interactions. Understanding molluscan host-parasite dynamics is of growing importance because: (1) expanding aquaculture; (2) current and future climate change; (3) movement of non-native species; and (4) coastal development are modifying molluscan disease dynamics, ultimately leading to complex relationships between diseases and cultivated and natural molluscan populations. Further, in some instances the enhancement or restoration of valued ecosystem services may be contingent on management of molluscan disease. The application of newly emerging molecular tools and remote sensing techniques to the study of molluscan disease will be important in identifying how changes at varying spatial and temporal scales with global change are modifying host-parasite systems.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Biológica , Ecosistema , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos/fisiología , Moluscos/parasitología , Animales , Dinámica Poblacional
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