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1.
Food Microbiol ; 85: 103280, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500706

RESUMEN

Listeria monocytogenes causes severe diseases in humans, including febrile gastroenteritis and systemic infections that has a high mortality despite antibiotic treatment. This pathogen may cause massive outbreaks associated to the consumption of contaminated food products, which highlight its importance in public health. In the last decade, L. monocytogenes has emerged as a foodborne pathogen of major importance in Chile. A previous work showed that in Chile during 2008 and 2009, L. monocytogenes serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b and 4b were the most frequently identified in food and clinical strains. Here we report the molecular characterization of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from 2008 to 2017 in the country. Our results indicate that serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b and 4b continue to be the most commonly found in food products. In addition, we identify persistent and widespread PFGE subtypes. This study reports ten years of epidemiological surveillance ofL. monocytogenes in Chile.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Microbiología de Alimentos , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/epidemiología , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeriosis/epidemiología , Chile/epidemiología , Recuento de Colonia Microbiana , ADN Bacteriano/genética , Brotes de Enfermedades , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Gastroenteritis/epidemiología , Gastroenteritis/microbiología , Variación Genética , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/patogenicidad , Productos de la Carne/microbiología , Epidemiología Molecular , Salud Pública , Serogrupo , Serotipificación , Factores de Virulencia/genética
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738869

RESUMEN

Aim: To describe the epidemiology of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in New South Wales (NSW) from 2006 to 2015. Methods: LGV notification data between 2006 and 2015 from New South Wales were analysed to describe time trends in counts and rates by gender, age group and area of residence, as well as anatomical sites of infection. A positivity ratio was calculated using the number of LGV notifications per 100 anorectal chlamydia notifications per year. Data linkage was used to ascertain the proportion of LGV cases that were co-infected with HIV. Results: There were 208 notifications of LGV in NSW from 2006 to 2015; all were among men, with a median age of 42 years, and half were residents of inner-city Sydney. Annual notifications peaked at 57 (1.6 per 100,000 males) in 2010, declined to 16 (0.4 per 100,000 males) in 2014, and then increased to 34 (0.9 per 100,000 males) in 2015. Just under half (47.4%) of LGV cases were determined to be co-infected with HIV. Conclusion: The number of LGV notifications each year has not returned to the low levels seen prior to the peak in 2010. Continued public health surveillance is important for the management and control of LGV.


Asunto(s)
Chlamydia trachomatis/aislamiento & purificación , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Linfogranuloma Venéreo/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Notificación de Enfermedades , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Linfogranuloma Venéreo/microbiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nueva Gales del Sur/epidemiología , Enfermedades del Recto , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Adulto Joven
6.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20190202, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596352

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is affected by demographic, virological, clinical, and lifestyle-related factors and varies in different regions in Brazil or worldwide. The present study aimed to clarify the epidemiological patterns of HCV infection in the interior region of Brazil. METHODS: This study was conducted in the Southern Triangle Macro-region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, according to the guidelines of the National Program for the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis. The participants answered a structured questionnaire on social and epidemiological factors. Immunochromatographic rapid tests were used for the qualitative detection of antibodies against HCV in whole blood (Alere HCV® Code 02FK10) in adult subjects by a free-standing method. RESULTS: Of 24,085 tested individuals, 184 (0.76%) were anti-HCV positive. The majority of anti-HCV-positive individuals were born between 1951 and 1980 (n=146 [79.3%]), with 68 women and 116 men. Identified risk factors included syringe and/or needle sharing (p = 0.003), being in prison (p = 0.004), and having tattoos or piercings (p = 0.005) and were significantly associated with the decade of birth. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows the importance of testing populations at risk for HCV infection, including incarcerated individuals, those with tattoos or piercings, those who share or have shared syringes or needles, and those in high-risk birth cohorts (1950s, 1960s, and 1970s) in the Southern Triangle Macro-region.


Asunto(s)
Hepacivirus/inmunología , Anticuerpos contra la Hepatitis C/sangre , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Femenino , Hepatitis C/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618373

RESUMEN

Santa Catarina is a Brazilian State that has reported the lowest prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV-1/2) in blood donors (0.04%). Although it presents ports, airports and roads that facilitate the entrance and dissemination of new infectious agents, no information exists concerning the HTLV-1/2 infections in HIV/AIDS patients. This study searched for HTLV-1/2 antibodies in plasma samples of 625 HIV/AIDS patients from the municipality of Tubarao (Southern Santa Catarina), and disclosed 1.1% of positivity (0.48% HTLV-1, 0.48% HTLV-2 and 0.16% untypeable HTLV), and a positive correlation with the male sex (OR 4.16) and intravenous drug use (OR 35.18). Although the percentage of 1.1% appears to be low, it is 27.5 times higher than the percentage detected in blood donors. Since HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are circulating in HIV-infected individuals in Southern Santa Catarina, and these retroviruses could cause a differently impact on the HIV/AIDS outcomes, the surveillance of HTLV-1/2 is necessary, and it could support public health policies in preventing the transmission and dissemination of these viruses in this State.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por HTLV-I/epidemiología , Infecciones por HTLV-II/epidemiología , Virus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/inmunología , Virus Linfotrópico T Tipo 2 Humano/inmunología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por HTLV-I/complicaciones , Infecciones por HTLV-I/diagnóstico , Infecciones por HTLV-II/complicaciones , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Adulto Joven
8.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 11(5): 1333-1339, out.-dez. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1022140

RESUMEN

Objective: The study's purpose has been to identify the actions to fight the dengue fever vector, and also the way that patients bearing the symptoms have being handled. Methods: This research describes the semiological and pathophysiological aspects of dengue fever through the perception of health professionals, who assisted the patients bearing the symptoms of this disease. Furthermore, this study addresses the perception of endemic diseases combat agents and community health agents regarding the efficiency of vector control measures. Results: The health professionals are working according to the World Health Organization recommendations. The majority of the population contributes to the mosquito breeding sites elimination. The elevated number of closed properties and houses with difficult access has been the greatest obstacle to control the vector. Conclusion: These services need to be aware of the disease trends in order to quickly detect changes in its profile and guide control actions


Objetivo: Identificar as ações adotadas de combate ao vetor e as formas de manejo dos pacientes com sinais e sintomas de alarme para dengue grave. Métodos: Estudo que descreve, na percepção dos profissionais de saúde que atenderam pacientes com suspeita de dengue, os aspectos semiológicos e fisiopatológicos da doença. Apresenta a percepção dos Agentes de Combate a Endemias e Agentes Comunitários de Saúde sobre a eficiência das medidas de controle do vetor. Resultados: Os profissionais de saúde procedem o cuidado conforme orientações da Organização Mundial da Saúde. A maior parte da população contribui com a eliminação dos criadouros do mosquito. Imóveis fechados e o difícil acesso têm sido os principais desafios para o controle do vetor. Conclusão: Esses serviços precisam estar atentos às tendências dessa doença para rapidamente conseguir detectar mudanças em seu perfil e orientar ações de controle


Objetivo: Identificar la satisfacción de los pacientes seguidos en un ambulatorio de Educación para la Salud y evaluar el efecto de las variables antecedentes sobre el nivel de satisfacción de los pacientes. Método: Se trata de un estudio transversal realizado en un ambulatorio la Educación para la Salud. La muestra estuvo constituida por todos los pacientes cardíacos en el ambulatorio (17 pacientes). La satisfacción del paciente se evaluó a través del Instrumento de Satisfacción del Paciente (ISP). Resultados: Todos los pacientes informaron un alto nivel de satisfacción. Los dominios con los puntajes más altos y más bajos fueron el profesional y el educacional, respectivamente. No hubo correlación significativa entre los niveles de satisfacción con cualquiera de las variables antecedentes. Conclusión: Pacientes informaron un alto nivel de satisfacción y no hubo correlación significativa entre variables y los niveles de satisfacción


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Satisfacción del Paciente , Agentes Comunitarios de Salud , Enfermedades Endémicas/prevención & control , Dengue/prevención & control , Aedes/patogenicidad , Monitoreo Epidemiológico
9.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 904-910, 2019 Aug 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484252

RESUMEN

Objective: To analyze the etiologic and epidemiological characteristics of adult acute respiratory infections in Shanghai during 2015-2017. Methods: Data was collected from outpatients with acute respiratory infections who visited the Fever Clinics in three hospitals of different levels in three administrative regions of Shanghai, from 2015 to 2017. Basic information and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from cases in line with the inclusion criteria. Multiplex RT-PCR and bacterial cultures were performed to detect the respiratory pathogens. Results: A total of 806 individuals were enrolled from 2015 to 2017. Respiratory pathogens were identified in 73.45% (592/806) of the cases, with the virus detection rate as 66.75% (538/806). It was found that the major respiratory pathogens for virus detection were influenza A in 326 (40.45%), influenza B in 116 (14.39%), rhinovirus/enterovirus in 39 (4.84%) of the cases. The overall detection rate of bacteria was 16.13% (130/806), including Klebsiella pneumoniae in 90 (11.17%) cases, Staphylococcus Aureus in 46 (5.71%) cases. Other kind of bacteria were not detected in our study. The detection rates on Mycoplasma pneumoniae was 5.33% (43/806) and on Chlamydia pneumonia was 0.37% (3/806). Co-infection with multiple pathogens was detected in 18.61% (150/806) of the cases, including 135 with double infection (accounting for 90.00%), 14 with triple infection and 1 with quadruple infection (accounted for 9.33% and 0.67%, respectively). Among the 150 cases with co-infections, the main identified pathogens were influenza A, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Pathogens of acute respiratory infections that identified among the outpatients from the Fever Clinics at different time, region or population, the characteristics were different (P<0.001). Conclusions: In 2015-2017, outpatients with acute respiratory infections in Shanghai were mainly caused by influenza virus or other viruses, however dynamically with its composition, time, region and characteristics of the population. It is necessary to strengthen and combine related medical and preventive services and to develop the appropriate strategies regarding clinical diagnosis and treatment.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Gripe Humana/diagnóstico , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa Multiplex/métodos , Nasofaringe , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/epidemiología , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/etiología , Virosis/diagnóstico , Virus/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedad Aguda , Adulto , Bacterias/genética , Infecciones Bacterianas/epidemiología , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , China/epidemiología , Coinfección/diagnóstico , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/aislamiento & purificación , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Humanos , Incidencia , Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Virus de la Influenza A/aislamiento & purificación , Virus de la Influenza B/genética , Virus de la Influenza B/aislamiento & purificación , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/virología , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/aislamiento & purificación , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Nasofaringe/microbiología , Nasofaringe/virología , Vigilancia de la Población , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio/diagnóstico , Rhinovirus/genética , Rhinovirus/aislamiento & purificación , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/aislamiento & purificación , Virosis/epidemiología , Virosis/virología , Virus/genética
10.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 947-952, 2019 Aug 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484259

RESUMEN

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological and spatial-temporal distribution of Brucellosis, epidemic encephalitis B and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Gansu province during 2014-2018 so as to provide evidence for the prevention and control of those diseases. Methods: A database was established in Gansu province from 2014 to 2018, using the geographical information system. A spatial distribution map was drawn, with trend analysis and space-time clustering used to study the 3-dimention of the diseases, by using both ArcGIS 10.5 and SaTScan 9.6 softwares. Results: Results from the trend surface analysis showed that the incidence of Brucellosis decreased gradually from north to south parts while the U type curve could reflect the distribution from the east to the west areas. Incidence of epidemic encephalitis B decreased significantly from south to north areas in the province, with incidence higher in the eastern than in the mid-west region. Difference on the incidence of HFRS was not significantly visible in the eastern and western regions, while the incidence was slightly higher in the southern than the northern parts of the province. Spatial and space-time clustering did exist among the 3 diseases in Gansu from 2014 to 2018. The areas with clusters of Brucellosis appeared in the eastern parts during 2014-2015, including 19 counties. The areas with secondary clusters of Brucellosis were seen in the Hexi district, including 4 counties, during 2017-2018. The areas with high incidence of epidemic encephalitis B were clustered in the middle and southeast areas, including 32 counties, during 2017-2018. Areas with most clusters of HFRS appeared in Min county of Dingxi city in 2018, with the areas of secondary clusters in 8 counties of the eastern areas in 2018. Conclusions: The overall incidence rates of the 3 natural focus diseases were in a upward trend and showing obvious characteristics on spatial clustering. According to the distributive characteristics, effective measures should be developed accordingly.


Asunto(s)
Brucelosis/epidemiología , Notificación de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Encefalitis por Arbovirus/epidemiología , Fiebre Hemorrágica con Síndrome Renal/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Ciudades , Análisis por Conglomerados , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Humanos , Incidencia , Agrupamiento Espacio-Temporal , Análisis Espacial , Análisis Espacio-Temporal
11.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(8): 1010-1017, 2019 Aug 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484271

RESUMEN

In recent years, with the improvement of various surveillance network, surveillance system has become an important data source for ecological study. Different data types, including cross-sectional data, time series data and panel data, containing abundant information involving exposure, outcome and confoundings. Gradually, some new statistical methods have been developed or improved for the special structural characteristics of surveillance data. In this paper, we summarized the principles of these models, preconditions, as well as their advantages and limitations.


Asunto(s)
Ecología , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Modelos Estadísticos , Vigilancia de la Población , Estudios Transversales , Salud Ambiental , Humanos , Proyectos de Investigación
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(37): e17157, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517862

RESUMEN

Antimicrobial resistance, a major threat to human health, is mainly driven by the overuse of antimicrobials. The purpose of this study was to further investigate the relationship between antimicrobial use and resistance with a 15-year record in Southwest hospital, one of the largest hospitals in Southwest China and a university affiliated hospital, thus to further predict the antimicrobial resistance in an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) manner. Kirby-Bauer tests were carried out to figure out the drug sensitivity of Gram-negative bacterial. Antimicrobials (ß-lactamase inhibitor complex, aminoglycosides, quinolones, third and fourth-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, cephamycins, oxacephems, and sulfonamides) consumption were calculated according to World Health Organization (WHO) anatomical therapeutic chemical classification index and expressed as annual defined daily dose (DDD) or DDD per 1000 out patients. Resistance rates of levofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli, ceftazidime-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, amikacin-resistant Bacterium levans, imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is positively correlated with the usage of aminoglycosides and quinolones; resistance rates of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumanii is positively correlated with the usage of carbapenemes (P-value between the drug resistance of levofloxacin-resistant E. coli, ceftazidime-resistant K. pneumoniae and the usage of aminoglycosides is under .05, the other P-value are under .01); resistance rates of the drug resistance of levofloxacin-resistant E. coli is positively correlated with the usage of oxacephems (P < .01); resistance rates of imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa is positively correlated with the usage of oxacephems and sulfonamides (P < .01).The present study presents one of the largest and longest retrospective analyses in China between antimicrobial consumption and antimicrobial resistance. Change of the usage of several antibacterial drugs has great influence on the drug resistance of Gram-negative bacterial. Of particular, ARIMA forecasting revealed that carbapenem related bacterial resistance should be closely watched.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Utilización de Medicamentos , Bacterias Gramnegativas/efectos de los fármacos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Hospitales Universitarios , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos
13.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20190205, 2019 Sep 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508783

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Multi-drug-resistant bacteria surveillance (MDR) systems are used to identify the epidemiology of MDR bacteria in neonates and children. This study aimed to describe the patterns by which MDR bacteria colonize and infect neonatal (NICU) and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients in the state of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was performed using electronic data on NICU and PICU patients reported to the Rio de Janeiro State MDR bacteria surveillance system. All healthcare institutions that reported at least one case during the study period were included. RESULTS: Between 2014 and 2017, 10,210 MDR bacteria cases, including 9261 colonizations and 949 infections, were reported. Among the colonizations, 5379 occurred in NICUs and 3882 in PICUs, while 405 infections occurred in NICUs and 544 in PICUs. ESBL producing Klebsiella sp and E. coli were the most reported colonization-causing agents in NICUs (1983/5379, 36.9%) and PICUs (1494/3882; 38.5%). The main causing bacteria reported in catheter-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), ventilator associated pneumonia, and catheter-associated urinary tract infection in NICUs were Klebsiella sp and E.coli (56/156, 35.9%), carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CRGNB) (22/65, 33.9%), and CRGNB (11/36, 30.6%) respectively, while in PICUs, they were MRSA (53/169, 31.4%), CRGNB (50/87, 57.4%), Klebsiella sp and E.coli (18/52, 34.6%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: MDR Gram-negative bacteria (ESBL producers and carbapenem-resistant bacteria) were the most reported agents among MDR bacteria reported to Rio de Janeiro surveillance system. Except for CLABSI in children, they caused all device-associated infections in NICUs and PICUs.


Asunto(s)
Infección Hospitalaria/microbiología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/microbiología , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/microbiología , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Infecciones por Bacterias Gramnegativas/clasificación , Infecciones por Bacterias Grampositivas/clasificación , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal
14.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 21(9): 589-594, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542902

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is a major threat to water supplies worldwide. Various biases and obstacles in case identification are recognized. In Israel, Cryptosporidiosis was included among notifiable diseases in 2001 in order to determine the burden of parasite-inflicted morbidity and to justify budgeting a central drinking water filtration plant. OBJECTIVES: To summarize the epidemiologic features of 14 years of Cryptosporidium surveillance and to assess the effects of advanced water purification treatment on the burden of disease. METHODS: From 2001 to 2014, a passive surveillance system was used. Cases were identified based on microscopic detection in stool samples. Confirmed cases were reported electronically to the Israeli Ministry of Health. Overall rates as well as age, gender, ethnicity and specific annual incidence were calculated per 100,000 population in five age groups: 0-4, 5-14, 15-44, 45-64, > 65 years. RESULTS: A total of 522 Cryptosporidium cases were reported in all six public health districts. More cases were detected among Jews and among males, and mainly in young children, with a seasonal peak during summer. The Haifa sub-district reported 69% of the cases. Most were linked to an outbreak from the summer of 2008, which was attributed to recreational swimming pool activity. Cases decreased after installation of a central filtration plant in 2007. CONCLUSIONS: As drinking water in Israel is treated to maximal international standards, the rationale for further inclusion of Cryptosporidium among mandatory notifiable diseases should be reconsidered. Future surveillance efforts should focus on timely detection of outbreaks using molecular high-throughput testing.


Asunto(s)
Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Cryptosporidium/aislamiento & purificación , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Política de Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Costo de Enfermedad , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Israel/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Estaciones del Año , Factores Sexuales , Purificación del Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
15.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(9): 885-890, 2019 Sep 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474068

RESUMEN

Objective: To describe the epidemiological characteristics of suicide death and self-harm/suicide in China from 2006 to 2016. Methods: Data in this study are from the datasets of National Death Cause Surveillance from 2006 to 2016 and the National Injury Surveillance Dataset 2016. The age-standardized death rate based on the population census in 2000 was used to describe the trend of suicide over years. This study also described the epidemiological characteristics of suicide death and the demographic characteristics, suicide methods and severity of patients who sought medical help after committing suicide or self-inflicted injury in 2016. Results: Age-standardized suicide mortality had been declining from 9.23/100 000 in 2006 to 5.33/100 000 in 2016 by 42.25%. Suicide mortality increased with age. In 2016, the suicide mortality in China was 7.05/100 000, and among people over 85 years old was 49.49/100 000. In 2016, the dominant two suicide methods were poisoning (39.12%) and sharp injury (25.62%). The first leading method of suicide in rural population, urban population and young people aged 10-to 17-year-old was poisoning (65.13%), sharp injury (29.90%) and fall (25.47%), respectively. As age increased, the severity of suicide/self-inflicted injury increased. The proportions of serious cases among young people aged 10-to 17-year-old and older people aged 60 years old and above who sought medical help after committing suicide or self-inflicted injury were 4.88% and 26.86%, respectively. Conclusion: China's suicide mortality has been declining and special attention should be given to the suicide of old people.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales , Conducta Autodestructiva , Suicidio , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Causas de Muerte , Niño , China , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Hospitales/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Conducta Autodestructiva/epidemiología , Conducta Autodestructiva/mortalidad , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos
17.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 64(7): 424-429, 2019.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408595

RESUMEN

Molecular genetic monitoring of natural focal of tick-borne infections in the epidemic season of 2018 revealed infectiousness of ixodid ticks causative agents of tick-borne encephalitis (0.58% of cases), Lyme disease (31% of cases), human monocytic ehrlichiosis (1.6% of cases) and granulocytic anaplasmosis (3.9% of cases) is registered and also co-infections of ticks by these infections (2.9% of cases) is revealed in natural and anthropourgic foci (B. burgdorferi s.l.+A. phagocytophilum, B. burgdorferi s.l.+E. chaffeensis/E. muris and B. burgdorferi s.l.+tick-borne encephalitis virus). The major epidemiological importance of ticks of the species I. persulcatus is found, their share being 87,6%. The majority of patients being bitten by a tick were from the southern and southeast areas of Primorye. Contamination of ticks with Borrelia was revealed not only in I. persulcatus, but also in ticks of the Haemaphysalis and Dermacentor. The infectiousness of ticks of B. burgdorferi s.l. (42,3%), tick-borne encephalitis virus (7,7%) and A. phagocytophilum (15,4%) was highest on Russky Island.


Asunto(s)
Ixodes/microbiología , Enfermedades por Picaduras de Garrapatas/epidemiología , Animales , Ehrlichiosis/epidemiología , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Humanos , Enfermedad de Lyme/epidemiología , Biología Molecular , Federación de Rusia
18.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 8(1): 66, 2019 Aug 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387644

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) was launched in response to the call proposed at the 50th World Health Assembly. The goal of the GPELF is to ensure that all the countries where the disease is endemic would have been transmission-free or would have entered post-intervention mass drug administration (MDA) surveillance by 2020. However, several countries are still not on track to discontinue MDA as planned. Thus, issues remain regarding the achievement of stated goals and how to effectively monitor the disease in the post-control and post-elimination phases. MAIN TEXT: China was once a lymphatic filariasis (LF) endemic country with heavy disease burden. There were three milestones in the LF control phase of China, including: the proposal that the major focus of the control strategy should be on infectious sources; the three regimens of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) administration according to LF endemic extent; and the establishment of the threshold for LF transmission interruption. It has been ten years since China entered the post-elimination stage (declaration of LF elimination in China was in 2007). Two schemes and a diagnostic criterion were issued to guide all levels of disease control and prevention workers that conduct LF surveillance, as well as those caring for chronic filariasis patients. Regular training courses are held to maintain LF control skills in grass-root institutions. The Notifiable Diseases Reporting System, which included LF in 2004, plays an important role in LF post-elimination surveillance. Until now, no resurgence of LF cases has been detected, except for LF residue foci being found in Fuchuan County of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. To confirm that transmission is no longer achievable after a decade since the declaration of LF elimination in China, it is expected within the next two years a transmission assessment survey, conducted in previous LF-endemic areas. CONCLUSIONS: DEC-fortified salt can help accelerate the progress of GPELF before the sprite phase. Sophisticated diagnostic criteria, systematic surveillance regimes, the Direct Network Report system, and regular trainings can effectively prevent the recrudescence of LF during surveillance phases.


Asunto(s)
Erradicación de la Enfermedad/estadística & datos numéricos , Filariasis Linfática/prevención & control , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , China , Dietilcarbamazina/uso terapéutico , Filaricidas/uso terapéutico , Humanos
19.
Malar J ; 18(1): 252, 2019 Jul 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349834

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Large-scale surveillance of molecular markers of anti-malarial drug resistance is an attractive method of resistance monitoring, to complement therapeutic efficacy studies in settings where the latter are logistically challenging. METHODS: Between 2014 and 2017, this study sampled malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), used in routine clinical care, from two health centres in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. In order to obtain epidemiological insights, RDTs were collected together with patient data on age and sex. A subset of positive RDTs from one of the two sites (n = 2184) were tested for Plasmodium DNA content. Those testing positive for Plasmodium DNA by PCR (n = 1390) were used for library preparation, custom designed dual indexing and next generation Miseq targeted sequencing of Plasmodium falciparum genes pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhfr, pfdhps and pfk13. RESULTS: The study found a high frequency of the pfmdr1 codon 86N at 88-97%, a significant decrease of the pfcrt wildtype CVMNK haplotype and elevated levels of the pfdhfr/pfdhps quadruple mutant ranging from 33 to 51% between 2014 and 2017. No polymorphisms indicating artemisinin tolerance were discovered. The demographic data indicate a large proportion of young adults (66%, interquartile range 11-28 years) presenting with P. falciparum infections. While a total of 5532 gene fragments were successfully analysed on a single Illumina Miseq flow cell, PCR-positivity from the library preparation varied considerably from 13 to 87% for different amplicons. Furthermore, pre-screening of samples for Plasmodium DNA content proved necessary prior to library preparation. CONCLUSIONS: This study serves as a proof of concept for using leftover clinical material (used RDTs) for large-scale molecular surveillance, encompassing the inherent complications regarding to methodology and analysis when doing so. Factors such as RDT storage prior to DNA extraction and parasitaemia of the infection are likely to have an effect on whether or not parasite DNA can be successfully analysed, and are considered part of the reason the data yield is suboptimal. However, given the necessity of molecular surveillance of anti-malarial resistance in settings where poor infrastructure, poor economy, lack of educated staff and even surges of political instability remain major obstacles to performing clinical studies, obtaining the necessary data from used RDTs, despite suboptimal output, becomes a feasible, affordable and hence a justifiable method.


Asunto(s)
Pruebas Diagnósticas de Rutina/estadística & datos numéricos , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Malaria Falciparum/diagnóstico , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Prueba de Estudio Conceptual , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Guinea Bissau , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Adulto Joven
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315165

RESUMEN

This report, from the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program and collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, describes the rotavirus genotypes identified in children and adults with acute gastroenteritis during the period 1 January to 31 December 2017. During this period, 2,285 faecal specimens were referred for rotavirus G and P genotype analysis, including 1,103 samples that were confirmed as rotavirus positive. Of these, 1,014/1,103 were wildtype rotavirus strains and 89/1,103 were identified as rotavirus vaccine-like. Genotype analysis of the 1,014 wildtype rotavirus samples from both children and adults demonstrated that G2P[4] was the dominant genotype nationally, identified in 39% of samples, followed by equine-like G3P[8] and G8P[8] (25% and 16% respectively). Multiple outbreaks were recorded across Australia, including G2P[4] (Northern Territory, Western Australia, and South Australia), equine-like G3P[8] (New South Wales), and G8P[8] (New South Wales and Victoria). This year also marks the change in the Australian National Immunisation Program to the use of Rotarix exclusively, on 1 July 2017.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Infecciones por Rotavirus/epidemiología , Rotavirus/patogenicidad , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Australia/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Brotes de Enfermedades , Heces/virología , Gastroenteritis/epidemiología , Gastroenteritis/virología , Genotipo , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Nueva Gales del Sur , Northern Territory , Vigilancia de la Población , Rotavirus/clasificación , Rotavirus/genética , Australia del Sur , Victoria , Australia Occidental , Adulto Joven
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