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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 16, 2021 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387060

RESUMEN

Climate change and the intensification of anthropogenic activities in watersheds have been substantially changing the streamflow regime, which is a problem for water resource managers. This study assesses the influence of the changes in land use and land cover and rainfall on the streamflow regime. This study also models the pattern of these streamflows according to the rainfall and land use and land cover in the Santo Antônio River watershed, located in the transitioning region of the Brazilian Biomes Atlantic Forest and Cerrado. To assess the dynamic relationship between land use and land cover and the streamflow regime, five classes of land use and land cover were used. To characterize the hydrological pattern, data from six streamflow gauges and 24 rainfall gauges that influence the study area were used. Multiple regression models were adjusted to estimate streamflow using the explanatory variables rainfall and land use and land cover. As result, a direct relationship was found, as the decrease in streamflow in some drainage areas was influenced by the decrease in rainfall over the base period. The relationship between land use and land cover and streamflow was not significant. The reductions in the streamflow regimes over the years in the watershed were influenced by reductions in annual rainfall, which reduced about 19% while the water withdrawals from 2003 to 2014 increased 2350%. The results found in this study are useful to the water managers since they can estimate streamflow in any part of the studied river through rainfall and land use and land cover data. This helps to reduce the risks associated with the water allocation process.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Modelos Teóricos , Brasil , Ecosistema , Bosques
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 22, 2021 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389165

RESUMEN

The prediction of dispersion of gases emitted from rooftop stacks in a built environment is important for preventing or minimizing their harmful effects on human health. In this study, the wind flow and dispersion of exhaust gas emitted from rooftop stacks on buildings in an urban environment under different atmospheric thermal stabilities were investigated using numerical simulations. The wind flow field and dispersion contaminants were simulated using a computational fluid dynamics model with the k-ε turbulent schemes being resolved by the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach. An isolated building was modeled under conditions of varying thermal stratification of the boundary layers (neutral, unstable, and stable conditions). The diffusion flow field within the building wake zone was investigated for various stack sites (center, right side, and left side). Experiments were conducted in a wind tunnel to validate the numerical simulation results, by using the data qualitatively and quantitatively. The numerical simulation results were consistent with the experimental observations. The results indicated that the pollutant concentration of the plume spread was high near the stack and decreased with increasing distance from the stack. Under stable conditions, the flow motion and separation increased in the wake zone, and the pollutant concentration of the lateral spread at the average human height decreased. Under unstable conditions, the flow of the vortex circulation was fast and strong, and the pollutant concentration of the vertical spread was high.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Simulación por Computador , Gases/análisis , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 27, 2021 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389180

RESUMEN

Anthropogenic activities release effluents containing nutrients and pathogenic bacteria that change the characteristics of coastal ecosystems. An important type of marine pollution which has occurred in 3 different states in India during 2019 is sea foam. Sea foam was found on Hole beach, Goa (Lat: 15.404° N, Long: 73.787° E), where nutrients (NO3- = 137 µM and organic nitrogen = 121 µM) from a garbage dumpyard are released directly via streams/gutters to coastal waters. This resulted in a bloom of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana, associated with high concentration of total organic carbon and fucoxanthin. Decay of this bloom along with strong agitation due to rocks and wave action resulted in sea foam. We isolated foam-associated bacteria and identified pathogenic bacteria including Enterobacter cancerogenus through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Such foam-associated pathogenic bacteria, could be antibiotic resistant, and may have adverse effects on human health. This can also hamper the tourism industry of a small state like Goa that relies heavily on tourism.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Enterobacter , Humanos , India , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 18, 2021 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389181

RESUMEN

The mussel Perna perna is one of the most used bioindicators of coastal areas and the most economically exploited species in Brazil through mariculture. In the present study, P. perna was used to investigate metal pollution in the estuarine area of Vitória Bay. Four sampling sites were located along an estuarine branch of Vitória Bay and stations were sampled during three campaigns. Trace metals in the tissues of P. perna were evaluated as well as dissolved trace metals and other ancillary variables in the water column. Dissolved Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, and Fe concentrations surpassed the tolerance limits stablished by legislation in all the sampling campaigns. P. perna exhibited concentrations in disagreement with the Brazilian legislation for Cr and As. A general trend of higher concentrations in outer stations was observed for most metals, what suggested the occurrence of flocculation process in the lower estuary, reducing the concentrations of dissolved elements and increasing their bioavailability for the biota through the particulate form. Cd was highlighted with elevated concentrations in dissolved fraction but not detected in P. perna, probably due to chlor-complex formation under influence of more saline waters. Al, Ba, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, and As were considered bioavailable, once they were accumulated in the mussels' tissues. Hazard index (HI) and target cancer risk (TCR) showed that the consumption of mussels from the study area offers health risk issues, being iron and arsenic the main contributors for the high indexes.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Disponibilidad Biológica , Brasil , Biomarcadores Ambientales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Estuarios , Metales Pesados/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 24, 2021 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389182

RESUMEN

The increasing trend of population growth along with the rapid groundwater-based agricultural expansion and decreasing trend of mean annual rainfall in the Northwest region of Bangladesh has been exacerbating the declination of groundwater for further expansion. Therefore, the present study attempts to demarcate the potential groundwater abstraction zones from the assessment of potential recharge and available recharge. Potential recharge was obtained with commonly used geospatial-based weighted linear combination (WLC) technique. Here, WLC analysis was based on eight factors related to physiographic (e.g. drainage density, lineament density, slope), geomorphologic (e.g. geomorphology, lithology, soil), land use and land cover (LULC) and hydrology (i.e. rainfall). Available net recharge was assessed for the period 1993-2017 by employing the water table fluctuation method. Finally, the resultant map on potential abstraction was characterized into five different classes, viz. 'very low', 'low', 'moderate', 'high' and 'very high'. The derived map reveals that 'very high' potential zone is distributed along the Teesta river floodplain, especially the northeastern part. In contrast, the Barind Tract (i.e. the southwestern and the southcentral parts) area shows 'very low' groundwater prospect. Such fused interpretations are expected to contribute to the planning of integrated management of water resources.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Agua Subterránea , Bangladesh , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Agua
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 19, 2021 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389183

RESUMEN

The paper focuses on the effect of ponds (geographically isolated wetlands) on water quality within internally drained areas in a river catchment. The important part of the study was the point of formation of a periodic hydrographic network of internally drained areas linked with a main river as well as the identification of the circulation pattern of ions in such a system. The aim of the study was to examine the extent to which ponds pollute the main river upon physical connection with it. Research has shown that ponds participate actively in material circulation-including that of water and biogenic ions. The hydrographic network in Young Glacial areas is subject to very large seasonal changes. In the study area, the total length of the stream network in the dry season equaled 12 km, while in the wet season almost 75 km. At the same time, almost 50% of the internally drained areas in the catchment became connected with the surface runoff network. Such large seasonal changes in the hydrographic network yield large changes in stream water chemistry. In the study area, only 6 ponds were linked to the stream network during the dry season, while in the wet season, this number increased to 125. The parts of catchments featuring the largest changes in the hydrographic network as well as the largest number of ponds temporarily linked with surface runoff networks were characterized by a high content of total nitrogen and phosphorus-up to 244.2 kg N km2 per month and 26.2 kg P km2 per month.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Ríos , Fósforo/análisis , Calidad del Agua , Humedales
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 17, 2021 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389185

RESUMEN

The bioaccessibility of some elements (As, B, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) in soils and vegetables was determined using the physiologically based extraction test. An investigation of the geochemical phases of soils through sequential extraction methods followed by ICP-MS detection was also undertaken. Samples were collected from Iskele, Begendikler and Yolbasi villages in the Bigadic region and Yildiz village in the Susurluk region of Balikesir province, Turkey. All of these villages are close to boron mines. Principal component analysis and correlation analysis demonstrated the interrelationship between the bioaccessibility values of these elements in the gastric and intestinal extracts of soils as well as the plant samples grown in those soils and the elements' concentrations in the different soil fractions. From the bioaccessible concentrations of the elements in the intestinal phases, it was shown that the amounts of As, B, Cu, Mn and Ni in some plant samples were higher than the recommended and tolerable values for human consumption. The bioaccessibilty of these elements in the soils and plants were statistically related with the concentrations of these elements in the labile phases of the soil. The methodology adopted here would be applicable to determining interactions between elements and soil fractions and the interrelationships between bioaccessibility data and soil fractions for any soil samples.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes del Suelo , Suelo , Boro , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Turquia , Verduras
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 21, 2021 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389219

RESUMEN

Ecosystem services (ESs) have been affected drastically by rapid urban sprawl and significant land-use changes (LUC) in Nansi Lake Basin (NLB) in China. Based on land-use data with a 30-m resolution from 1990 to 2015, we analyzed the process of LUC by atlas analysis and explored the impacts of LUC on ecological service value (ESV) under urban sprawl. The results showed that water area and buildup land increased significantly from 1990 to 2015. The area of cultivated land, forests, grassland, and unutilized land decreased. Land transfer mainly occurred between cultivated land, water area, and grassland. The total amount of land transfer was 4830.64 km2, and the average transfer rate is 185.79 km2/year in 26 years. The most obvious transfer occurred in period IV. The increased buildup land was mainly transferred from cultivated land. The total urban sprawl in the NLB was 1623.37 km2 in the past 26 years, with an average expansion rate of 62.44 km2/year, with the fastest sprawl in period IV. Tengzhou city was the most prominent area of expansion. Its ESV increased by 5.73 × 107 US$ with an increased rate of 2.21 × 106 US$/year. The annual total value of regulating and supporting services in the first-level ESs in the NLB accounted for 54.8 and 25.2% of the total ESV in all years, which were the primary types of ESs. Water area, forests, and cultivated land were the principal contributors to ESV changes. In conclusion, urban sprawl had a significant negative effect on ESV changes. Urban sprawl, water area, forests, and cultivated land were all sensitive factors for ESV changes.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Lagos , China , Ciudades , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Monitoreo del Ambiente
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 23, 2021 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389226

RESUMEN

High-rise residential developments are rapidly increasing in urban areas. Smaller residential units in this high rise bring a reduction in windows, resulting in poor indoor air ventilation. In addition, materials used in interiors can emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which can significantly affect human health. Since people spend 90% of their time indoors, an evaluation of indoor air quality is especially important for high-rise residential buildings with an analysis of determining factors. This study aims to measure the concentrations of VOCs, formaldehyde, and particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) in 9 high-rise residential buildings in Bangkok by using the accidental sampling method (n = 252) and to investigate possible important determining factors. The results show that the average concentrations of VOCs, formaldehyde, PM2.5, and PM10 in 9 high-rise residential buildings were at good to moderate levels in the indoor air quality index (IAQI) and that high pollutant concentrations were rarely found except in new constructions. Moreover, it was found that the age of buildings shows strong correlations with all pollutants (p value < 0.0001). Old buildings showed significantly lower pollutant concentrations than new and under-construction buildings at a 95% confidence level. The findings from this investigation can be used as part of sustainable well-being design guidelines for future high-rise residential developments.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Análisis Factorial , Humanos , Material Particulado/análisis , Tailandia , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 25, 2021 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389229

RESUMEN

Vulnerability assessment and mapping is a significant tool for sustainable management of the precious natural groundwater resources. DRASTIC is an extensively used index model to map groundwater vulnerable zones. However, the original DRASTIC model rates and weights used in most of the research depict the poor correlation between nitrate concentration and groundwater vulnerability index. Wilcoxon test and five population-based metaheuristic (MH) algorithms, namely, firefly algorithm (FA), invasive weed optimization (IWO), teaching learning-based optimization (TLBO), shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA), and particle swarm optimization (PSO), were used to optimize the rates and weights of the DRASTIC model to improve its accuracy. The performance of all the employed metaheuristic algorithms converges to a global optimal solution at different iterations, and to choose the best algorithm for DRASTIC weights optimization, a ranking methodology was proposed. The algorithms were ranked by calculating the relative closeness of alternatives with computational speed and the number of iterations as attributes in the TOPSIS method. This study identifies FA as the outperforming algorithm among the employed for this specified weight optimization problem based on ranking. The result of the optimization model proposed depicts significant improvement in the correlation coefficient between the groundwater vulnerability index and nitrate concentration from 0.0545 for the original DRASTIC model to 0.7247 for the Wilcoxon-MH- DRASTIC. Hence, this ranking approach can be adopted when global optimal solution is found by all employed algorithms in DRASTIC weight optimization.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Agua Subterránea , Algoritmos , Modelos Teóricos , Nitratos/análisis
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 26, 2021 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389231

RESUMEN

Soil and water are vital natural resources. However, due to their indiscriminate use, these resources are being seriously threatened. Therefore, it is essential to manage them in a sustainable way and leave them for future generations. Population and agricultural areas have expanded, deforesting native landscapes for cultivation and pastures. As a result, soil loss from agricultural areas is increasing the amount of sediment transport in water courses. The objective of this study was to quantify soil loss and sediment yield from the Corrente dos Matões sub-basin (CMSB). These measurements are essential to quantify the environmental impact of advancing agricultural frontiers. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) was applied due to its wide use, compatibility with GIS, and data availability. The suspended sediment transport was calculated by collecting samples with DH-48 sampler. From the application of USLE, the average soil erosion contributed very little to sediment delivery in the watercourse, with a magnitude of only 0.37 t ha-1 year-1. The highest soil loss was associated with greater slope and was observed in areas with agriculture or under the absence of vegetation cover. The low transport of suspended sediments in CMSB is due to the existence of preserved sites. About 99% of the sub-basin had a low degree of erosion. The high degree of soil loss was attributed to the cliffs and the development of agricultural activities leaving the soil uncovered. This work will help identify the most susceptible areas to water erosion for optimizing the allocation of financial resources for the preservation of this natural resource.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Suelo , Agricultura , Brasil , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 20, 2021 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389235

RESUMEN

Soil heavy metal (Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, V, As) concentrations in different areas were analyzed to investigate the effects of different industrial activities on heavy metal pollution status, potential ecological risk, and human health risk in Panzhihua. Our results showed that Cu and V enrichment in soil was due to ore smelting. Soil Cr accumulation was related to coal ore mining. Soil Cd, Zn, As, and Pb enrichment was attributed to high-temperature coal combustion. Under the effect of industrial activities, soils were moderately contaminated with Cd, uncontaminated to moderately contaminated with As and Zn, and uncontaminated with Cr, Cu, V, and Pb. Soil heavy metal potential ecological risk was considerable, and non-carcinogenic risks and carcinogenic risks of soil heavy metals were acceptable for adults but unacceptable for children. Thermal power generation was the dominated industrial activity that influence the soil heavy metal concentrations and environmental risks in Panzhihua, which posed considerable potential ecological risks and unacceptable heavy metal non-carcinogenic risks and As carcinogenic risk to both adults and children. This study indicates that industrial activities have great effects on heavy metal pollution, ecological risks, and health risk, and more attention should be paid to the ecological risk and health risks brought by thermal power generation.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , Adulto , Niño , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Metales Pesados/toxicidad , Medición de Riesgo , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 28, 2021 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392829

RESUMEN

In contrast to the expectations of an increase in annual fire activity and the severity of fire season due to climate change and large fires, which have been occurring in recent years, a downtrend has been identified in fire activity in many studies conducted for the whole of Europe in recent years. Similarly, in Turkey, according to the General Directorate of Forestry statistics, while there is an increase in the number of annual fires, the burnt area has a downtrend pattern. In this study, fire activity and climate data statistics for Turkey were examined along with the fire season length and severity. The results obtained conform with the studies conducted in places from Spain at the westernmost part of Mediterranean Europe to Israel at the easternmost part of the Mediterranean. Considering the changes in temperatures, temperature rise of 2 to 3 °C was detected at all stations in the study area. No decrease was observed in the average temperatures at any of the stations within the study period between 1940 and 2018. On the other hand, the precipitation trend varied according to the stations. Although there have been increases in precipitation in Fethiye, Isparta, and Marmaris since 1960, the decrease in precipitation by 132 mm in Afyon since 1970 and the decrease in precipitation by 137 mm in Bodrum since 1940 are attention-grabbing. These stations are followed by Izmir station with 66 mm and Cesme station with 37 mm of decrease, despite being smaller decreases. In the study, the long-term (1940-2018) data of the meteorological stations discussed within the study, the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) and the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC) values were calculated. According to the FWI results used in determining the severity and length of fire season on the coastline of Turkey from the northern Aegean to Antalya, the likelihood of large fires decreased by about 52% in 2018 compared to 1970. This decrease in FWI value indicates that the fire severity is reduced. The specified decrease in fire severity also explains the reason of the decrease in the burnt area that occurred over the years in Turkey. No significant change was observed in the FFMC values indicating the possibility of human-induced fires between 1970 and 2018.


Asunto(s)
Fuego , Incendios Forestales , Canadá , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Israel , Estaciones del Año , España , Árboles , Turquia
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 31, 2021 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399946

RESUMEN

Droughts, which consist of natural and transient water deficits, endanger the water, food, and energy security of ecosystems. An effective drought preparedness strategy must focus on mitigating socioeconomic vulnerabilities to the phenomenon. In this context, the article aims to analyze the multi-annual characteristic of droughts in the Northeast region of Brazil. The study identifies each pixel under a spatial-temporal perspective of the phenomenon's severity, based on data from the Drought Monitor, providing a multi-annual and cumulative view of the extreme event. The approach aggregates a series of spatial-temporal drought severity data in a single product with clusters of monthly data referring to 5 years of outputs from the Drought Monitor. The results reveal that from July 2014 to June 2019, over 75% of the Northeast region of Brazil (NEB) area registers exceptional drought for, at least, 1 month along the 5 years. This result means impacts on water supply and crops that correspond respectively to the water dams collapsing volumes and widespread agricultural losses. Despite the natural recurrence and constancy of drought phenomena in the region, water management policies have often based the building of disproportionate and costly water infrastructure works. Cumulative multi-annual analysis of the outputs of drought monitoring can be an early warning system for water basins, regions, or municipalities, notably those who usually live with recurrent highly severe droughts, and remain neglected upon a remarkable vulnerability. This approach also supports proactive and preventive drought management instead of the usual emergency crisis management model.


Asunto(s)
Sequías , Ecosistema , Brasil , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Abastecimiento de Agua
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 33, 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403439

RESUMEN

In Algeria, the arid steppe watershed currently suffers from serious environmental problems, including land degradation, poor water resource management, soil conservation, and land cover management. This situation is manifested by several events such as soil erosion, depletion of water resources, and loss of biodiversity, which are partly related to the acceleration of the soil degradation process. In order to improve the functioning of ecosystems in these watersheds, public authorities and farmers have undertaken restoration and protection efforts through land-use planning programs. The objective of this study is to test the stability, reliability, and anti-erosion effectiveness of these anti-erosion developments that currently exist on three sites, Sfissifa, Belguered, and Ain Sefra, in the face of the exceptional extreme rainfall events recorded especially in 2007-2008 (250 mm), both on cultivated land and in pasture and forest areas. We found that the traditional techniques generally used by farmers (terraces, stone cordons, toub walls, use of manure, cultivation in tanks and on ridges) have a great positive impact on water and soil conservation at the level of the cultivated plots. In addition, the modern techniques developed by the State (torrential correction, hill retention, reforestation) have proved to be very useful for water and soil conservation on a large scale, i.e., at the level of watersheds. This combination of these two types of development is almost indispensable to ensure a very positive impact on land productivity and the reduction of the risk of degradation.


Asunto(s)
Suelo , Agua , Argelia , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 32, 2021 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403463

RESUMEN

In Solan district, the developmental activities associated with chemical based farming, rapid urbanization, and rampant industrialization have led to many diarrhoeal, gastroenteritis, and hepatitis disease outbreaks. This has necessitated for microbiological assessment of indicator organisms, the thermotolerant coliforms, in drinking water sources, and their relationship with diarrhoeal disease. All the 49 Public Health Institutes (PHIs) of the district were categorized into very low, low, moderate, and high disease burden regions by stratification method. For drinking water, 55.5, 16.5, and 17% people preferred springs, borewells, and hand-pump respectively. These sources inventoried by Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice survey in one of very low and seven of high disease burden regions, and were analyzed by multiple tube fermentation technique. A cross-sectional survey of 200 children was undertaken for diarrhoeal disease estimation. Parwanoo, an industrial and Kurgal, a non industrial region witnessed highest (30.20) and lowest (4.40) Most Probable Number (MPN) per 100 ml water of thermotolerant coliforms, respectively. Thermotolerant coliforms were also observed significantly more (16.77 MPN/100 ml water) in monsoon than in post monsoon season (9.04 MPN per 100 ml water). The thermotolerant coliform Escherichia coli was recovered from six and three water sources respectively during monsoon and post monsoon. A strong correlation (r = 0.78) existed between the diarrhoeal disease occurrence and the concentration of thermotolerant coliforms in monsoon whereas it was moderate (r = 0.61) in post monsoon. The study indicated more contamination of water sources due to industrial activities which further got aggravated during the rainy season of the region.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Toluidinas , Microbiología del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 34, 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404908

RESUMEN

A total of fifty-five soil samples were collected from four locations, namely, residential, industrial, dumpsite, and sewage in Agbara industrial estate, Ogun state, Nigeria. The samples were analyzed using a high purity germanium detector (HPGe) to measure the activity concentration of radionuclides. Background radiation measurements were also taken at each point where soil samples were collected using Geiger Muller (GM) counter. The mean activity concentrations measured in the soil samples were 171.33 for 40K, 9.11 for 232Th, and 5.05 for 226Ra in Bq/kg. The mean absorbed dose rate in the air due to radionuclides (40K, 232Th, and 226Ra) in the soil is calculated to be 14.77 nGy/h, and the mean annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) is 0.02 mSv/year. The mean equivalent dose rate (EDR) from GM counter for background radiation is 0.22 µSv/h, and the mean annual effective dose rate (AEDR) is 0.39 mSv/year. These values are below the world average values, except EDR and AEDR with mean values higher than the world standard. The comparison of radiation dose rates revealed that radionuclides contributed 6.7% to background radiation. The equivalent dose (EDorgans) for various organs of the body was calculated, and results showed that values do not pose any immediate health hazard. The excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) due to exposure to background radiation indicated that the dwellers and industrial workers in the study area may develop cancer over a lifetime due to accumulated dose.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo de Radiación , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Suelo , Radiación de Fondo , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Nigeria , Radioisótopos de Potasio/análisis , Dosis de Radiación , Radioisótopos/análisis , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Suelo/análisis , Torio/análisis
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 37, 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409544

RESUMEN

Indoor exposure to air pollutants emitted by solid fuels used for cooking or heating homes remains as a problem to solve. The most affected people are newborns, mothers, children, and people with disabilities, due to the time they spend at home. This study is the first in a rural area of South America, which measures indoor air pollutants (PM2.5 and black carbon) in different environments, inhabited by people with disabilities. The research was supported through a sociodemographic characterization, a methodology useful for future studies, continuous monitoring for 72 h of pollutants, and emission sources, cooking habits, and pre-existing diseases were identified. The primary sources of emissions are improved wood-burning stoves and their chimney. In households where firewood is used, the average concentrations of PM2.5 were the highest (between 10.9 and 3302.5 µg/m3), as were the average concentrations of BC (average 72 h between 2.6 and 51.2 µg/m3) compared with the houses that use gas (average 72 h between 2.6 and 6 µg/m3). In 57% of the households visited, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for PM2.5 (25 µg/m3 for 24 h) were exceeded. The results reveal that rural concentrations of BC can be up to 2.5 times higher than those of an urban area with high vehicular traffic and high population density and could be used to establish a baseline that allows the implementation of control mechanisms to reduce pollution of indoor air.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Personas con Discapacidad , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Carbono , Niño , Colombia , Culinaria , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Material Particulado/análisis , Población Rural , América del Sur
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 36, 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409600

RESUMEN

The study highlights the presence of pathogenic strains of microorganisms in two swimming pools, highly frequented in the city of Yaounde. Thus, the water samples from these swimming pools have undergone physicochemical and biological treatments using conventional techniques. Three groups of microorganisms (Bacteria, Protozoa, and Helminths) were identified and quantified in these swimming pools with weakly acidic waters (6.79 ± 0.35) with an average temperature of 26.63 ± 0.53 °C and suspended matter ranging from 2 to 150 mg.l-1. The total bacterial load varies between 8 × 103 and 6000 × 103 CFU/100 ml. It consists of mesophilic aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, fecal coliforms, total coliforms, fecal streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Protozoan cysts and oocysts range from 122 to 505 per liter of water. These values are slightly lower for helminth eggs and larvae (0 to 108 eggs and larvae/l). In both swimming pools, significant correlations were observed between some abiotic and biotic parameters. The waters of the studied swimming pools are subject to fecal pollution. Swimmers would therefore be exposed to biological contaminations, responsible for pathologies. The most common diseases are linked to gastroenteritis (diarrhea), but infections of all kinds may be overgrown (conjunctivitis, ear infections, dermatitis, respiratory infections).


Asunto(s)
Piscinas , Animales , Camerún , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Microbiología del Agua
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(1): 35, 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409602

RESUMEN

Birds can serve as effective biomonitors of air pollution, yet few studies have quantified external particulate matter accumulation on bird feathers. Biomonitoring of airborne elemental carbon (EC) is of critical significance because EC is a component of particulate matter with adverse effects on air quality and human health. To assess their effectiveness for use in EC monitoring, we compared EC accumulation on bird feathers at two sites that differed in vehicular traffic volume in an urban environment within the Dallas-Fort Worth Metropolitan Area, USA. Moulted flight feathers from domestic chickens were experimentally exposed to ambient EC pollution for 5 days in two urban microenvironments 1.5 km distant from each other that differed in traffic volume--adjacent to an interstate highway and a university campus bus stop. Feathers near the highway accumulated approximately eight times more EC (307 ± 34 µg m-2 day-1), on average, than feathers near the bus stop (40 ± 9 µg m-2 day-1). These findings indicate that EC accumulation on feathers varies over short distances within urban areas and that bird feathers potentially can be used for biomonitoring airborne EC.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Plumas , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Animales , Carbono/análisis , Pollos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Plumas/química , Humanos , Material Particulado/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
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