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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 88, 2022 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020072

RESUMEN

The particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere may be composed of many elements and compounds, including toxic species and hazardous materials, which demand effective control of its emissions, starting with the knowledge of the sources. In this sense, the mineralogical analysis of the PM might be a powerful tool. Here, we present a comprehensive mineralogical characterization of the coarse and fine PM in an industrialized city southeast of Brazil, including a discussion about the transport, deposition, and potential sources associated. Elemental and mineralogical analyses by EDXRF and RSr-XRD were performed on SPM, TSP, PM10, and PM2.5. The results showed distinct mineralogical composition depending on the PM size. Mineral phases in SPM and TSP were majorly composed of hematite and quartz, while PM10 and PM2.5 were majorly composed of carbon, halite, sulfates, and carbon. The results show hazardous mineral phases associated with respiratory injuries in all PM size classes, such as hematite, pyrite, EC, and quartz. The XRD analysis also revealed primary particles of sulfate in the region close to industrial sources.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Brasil , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Minerales , Tamaño de la Partícula , Material Particulado/análisis
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 87, 2022 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020087

RESUMEN

Springs are a significant source of high quality and perennial freshwater supply for remote communities and sustain rich biodiversity and ecosystems in the Himalayas. About 60-70% of the Himalayan population directly depends on springs to meet their domestic and livelihood needs. Despite that, decline in approximately 60% of low discharge springs have been reported in the last couple of decades. In addition, nitrates and faecal coliform contamination linked to septic tanks, open defecation, and fertiliser application have been reported. A high degree of urbanization with 500 growing townships and 8-10 large cities has further threatened the sustenance of these vital resources, causing a severe water crisis in the Himalayas. Spring rejuvenation can enhance water access and livelihoods and help achieve several sustainable development goals (SDGs). However, multiple challenges hinder the success of such initiatives. A fundamental limitation is the poor understanding of complex groundwater (spring) systems and their interactions with human societies. This review identified crucial knowledge gaps by synthesizing available knowledge on springs and revival efforts from peer-reviewed journals and reports by practitioners and governing bodies. The review also highlights the limitations of spring revival approaches and recommends future management options. There is a critical lack of comprehensive data as a large research on the Himalayan spring systems results from small-scale spring centric studies focussing primarily on hydrology. In contrast, the impacts of hydrogeology, ecology, socio-economics and developmental activities on springs are less explored. Lack of scientific inputs on the hydrogeological regime and limited support by the state is a barrier to scaling spring rejuvenation programs. Long term monitoring, location-specific mapping of local hydrogeological and socio-economic settings at aquifer scale and collaborations among different stakeholders are essential to facilitate holistic knowledge development on spring systems and successful spring revival. The authors recommend ensuring sustenance by recognizing the value of springs in the mainstream programs and policies and develop appropriate management framework for the management of spring systems.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Manantiales Naturales , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Agua
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 89, 2022 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022848

RESUMEN

Access to water through shallow groundwater wells is a common practice in coastal settlements. This, coupled with a lack of planning for wastewater disposal promotes fecal contamination of groundwater and poses a threat to human health. Here, the spatial and temporal dynamics of groundwater fecal contamination was evaluated during summer and winter (2013 and 2014) in a coastal protected area having a high touristic relevance (Cabo Polonio, Uruguay). Fecal coliforms (FC) abundance in groundwater was significantly higher during summer, related to an influx of ~ 1000 tourists per day. A significant spatial autocorrelation was found in 2014, when the abundance of FC in a well was influenced by its three nearest wells (Moran and Geary tests). The applied statistical models (mixed models) indicated that total phosphorus and organic matter were the variables significantly explaining FC abundance. The risk for human health was estimated using groundwater-extracted DNA and qPCR of genes encoding for E. coli virulence factors (stx1, stx2, and eae). Potential Shiga toxin-producing enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic pathotypes were detected, even at FC abundances ≤ 1 CFU (100 mL-1). Moreover, we found that contaminated groundwater reached the beach, being the presence of FC in sand detected even in winter and showing its highest frequency nearby groundwater wells consistently having high FC abundance (hot spots). Altogether, the results show that fecal contamination of shallow groundwater in Cabo Polonio involves a risk for human health that intensifies during summer (associated to a significant increase of tourists). This contamination also impacts the beach, where FC can remain through the whole year.


Asunto(s)
Escherichia coli , Agua Subterránea , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Virulencia , Pozos de Agua
4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 90, 2022 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022957

RESUMEN

In recent years, Brazil has become a major global contributor to the occurrence of national fires and greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the fire foci data of the past 20 years to determine their relationship with climatic variables in various Brazilian regions. The variables evaluated included fire foci, land surface temperature, rainfall, and standardized precipitation index, which were obtained via remote sensing from 2000 to 2019. The data were subjected to trend analyses (Mann-Kendall and Pettitt tests) and a multivariate analysis of canonical variables for evaluation. The results showed that the Midwest and North regions had the highest occurrence of fire foci throughout the study period, and that the North region had the highest accumulated annual rainfall. Thus, these regions require specific public policies to prevent future fires. Overall, the Midwest, Southeast, and South regions exhibit significant increasing fire foci tendencies. Our results reveal that this trend is related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomena, which alter climatic variables such as precipitation, land surface temperature, and the standardized precipitation index. Finally, the sugarcane growing area had a significant linear relationship with fire foci in the Southeast region, especially in the state of São Paulo, the major national sugarcane producer.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Incendios , Brasil , El Niño Oscilación del Sur , Análisis Multivariante
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 91, 2022 Jan 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35024963

RESUMEN

Taking detailed rules for implementing of the plan on atmospheric pollution prevention and control in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and surrounding areas promulgated and implemented in 2013 as the starting point, taking air pollution as the research object, using the propensity score matching method and difference-in-differences method to answer whether coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei is conducive to resolving the problem of air pollution. Using panel data from 251 cities in China 2003-2016, this paper discusses the environmental effects and mechanisms of coordinated urban cluster development. The results showed that the coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei had a significant and continuous effect on the convergence of PM2.5 to low levels. The results of further mechanism identification show that the policy of atmospheric joint defense rules in the process of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei coordinated development mainly promotes the convergence of PM2.5 through population and economic scale effect, structural effect and technical effect, and promotes the convergence of PM2.5 in the low direction by reducing the economic growth scale of the city itself. It is suggested to further promote the formation and development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei integration, strengthen cooperation among local governments in environmental governance e across regions, and promote the green growth and coordinated development of urban clusters.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Beijing , China , Ciudades , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Política Ambiental , Contaminación Ambiental , Material Particulado/análisis
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 92, 2022 Jan 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35028760

RESUMEN

Monitoring and determining the amount of water in reservoirs is of great importance in terms of water planning and management. This study proposes a geographic information system (GIS)-based methodology to estimate the water volume changes in water reservoirs. Two specific methods are proposed using Australian National University's Digital Elevation Model (ANUDEM) raster surface and Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) surface models, both utilizing normalized difference water index (NDWI) of Sentinel 2A satellite images for water-covered area and coastline and digital elevation model (DEM) for 3D modelling of the reservoir. The most crucial part of this study is the comprehensive evaluation of the model findings considering hydrological, meteorological and anthropogenic factors, simultaneously. Application of the proposed methods is provided for the analysis of the multi-temporal water volume changes of Bayramiç Dam Lake (Çanakkale, Turkey) in two hydrological periods covering the 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 water years. The results indicate that the TINS model produced water volume values much closer to the in situ Turkish General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works (DSI) values than the ANUDEM model. The performance of these methods was also assessed by the temporal dynamics of surface hydrological processes. Regarding the water storage dynamics, hydro-meteorological factors influence the water input, while anthropogenic factors strongly influence the water output. Water consumption for irrigation and electricity generation was found to be the most important water budget components of the total water consumption.


Asunto(s)
Lagos , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos , Australia , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Agua
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 93, 2022 Jan 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35028740

RESUMEN

Pharmaceutical residues and nanoplastic and microplastic particles as emerging pollutants in the aquatic environment are a subject of increasing concern in terms of the effect on water sources and marine organisms. There is lack of information about pharmaceutical-nanoplastic and pharmaceutical-microplastic mixtures. The present study aimed to investigate the fate and effect of pharmaceutical residues and nanoplastic and microplastic particles, the results of combinations of pharmaceutical residues with nanoplastic and microplastic particles, and toxic effects of pharmaceutical residues and nanoplastic and microplastic particles. Moreover, the objective was also to introduce analytical methods for pharmaceuticals, along with instrumental techniques for nanoplastic and microplastic particles in aquatic environments and organisms. PhAC alone can affect marine environments and aquatic organisms. When pharmaceutical residues combine with nanoplastic and microplastic particles, the rate of toxicity increases, and the result of this phenomenon constitutes this kind of pollutant in wastewater. Hence, the rate of mortality in organisms enhances. This study aimed to investigate the effect of pharmaceuticals residues and nanoplastic and microplastic particles, and a mixture of pharmaceutical residues and nanoplastic and microplastic particles in aquatic biota. Another object was survey methods for recognizing pharmaceutical residues and nanoplastic and microplastic particles. The findings show that pharmaceutical residues in organisms caused cell structure damage, inflammatory response, and nerve cell apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of microplastic particles in the human food chain and their impact on human health. Moreover, this review aims to present an innovative methodology based on comprehensive analytical techniques used to determine and identify pharmaceuticals adsorbed on nano- and microplastics in aquatic ecosystems. Finally, this review addresses the knowledge gaps and provides insights into future research strategies to better understand their interactions.


Asunto(s)
Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Organismos Acuáticos , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 48, 2022 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978609

RESUMEN

This study aimed to assess the metagenomic changes of soil bacterial community after constructing a crude oil flowline in Basilicata region, Italy. Soils identified a total of 56 taxa at the phylum level and 485 at the family level, with a different taxa distribution, especially in samples collected on 2014. Since microbiological diversity occurred in the soils collected after 2013 (the reference year), we performed a differential abundance analysis using DESeq2 by GAIA pipeline. In the forest area, 14 phyla and 126 families were differentially abundant (- 6.06 < logFC > 7.88) in 2014 compared to 2013. Nine families were differentially abundant in 2015, with logFC between - 3.16 and 4.66, while 20 families were significantly more abundant and 16 less abundant in 2016, with logFC between - 6.48 and 6.45. In the cultivated area, 33 phyla and 260 families showed differential abundance in 2014. In the next year (2015), 14 phyla were significantly more abundant and 19 less abundant, while 29 families were substantially more abundant and 139 less abundant, with fold changes ranging between - 5.67 and 4.01. In 2016, 33 phyla showed a significantly different abundance, as 14 were more abundant and 19 decreased, and 81 families showed a significantly increased amount with logFC between - 5.31 and 5.38. These results hypothesise that the analysed site is an altered soil where the development of particular bacterial groups attends to bioremediation processes, naturally occurring to restore optimal conditions.


Asunto(s)
Petróleo , Suelo , Resinas Compuestas , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Microbiología del Suelo
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35010793

RESUMEN

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a severe public health and social problem worldwide. A limitation of the existing literature is that multiple environmental variables have not been frequently elaborated, which is why the overall effect of the environment on COVID-19 has not been conclusive. In this study, we used generalized additive model (GAM) to detect the relationship between meteorological and air pollution variables and COVID-19 in four urban agglomerations in China and made comparisons among the urban agglomerations. The four urban agglomerations are Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), middle reaches of the Yangtze River (MYR), Yangtze River Delta (YRD), and the Pearl River Delta (PRD). The daily rates of average precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, sunshine duration, and atmospheric pressure were selected as meteorological variables. The PM2.5, PM10, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO) contents were selected as air pollution variables. The results indicated that meteorological and air pollution variables tended to be significantly correlated. Moreover, the nature of the relationship between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and meteorological and air pollution variables (i.e., linear or nonlinear) varied with urban agglomerations. Among the variance explained by GAMs, BTH had the highest value (75.4%), while MYR had the lowest value (35.2%). The values of the YRD and PRD were between the above two, namely 45.6% and 62.2%, respectively. The findings showed that the association between SARS-CoV-2 and meteorological and air pollution variables varied in regions, making it difficult to obtain a relationship that is applicable to every region. Moreover, this study enriches our understanding of SARS-CoV-2. It is required to create awareness within the government that anti-COVID-19 measures should be adapted to the local meteorological and air pollution conditions.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , COVID-19 , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , China/epidemiología , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Material Particulado/análisis , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35010834

RESUMEN

High NO2 concentrations (long term average of 383 µg/m3 in 2016/2017) recorded at Birmingham New Street railway station have resulted in the upgrade of the bi-directional fan system to aid wind dispersion within the enclosed platform environment. This paper attempts to examine how successful this intervention has been in improving air quality for both passengers and workers within the station. New air pollution data in 2020 has enabled comparisons to the 2016/2017 monitoring campaign revealing a 23-42% decrease in measured NO2 concentrations. The new levels of NO2 are below the Occupational Health standards but still well above the EU Public Health Standards. This reduction, together with a substantial decrease (up to 81%) in measured Particulate Matter (PM) concentrations, can most likely be attributed to the new fan system effectiveness. Carbon Monoxide levels were well below Occupational and Public Health Standards at all times. The COVID-19 pandemic "initial lockdown" period has also allowed an insight into the resultant air quality at lower rail-traffic intensities, which produced a further reduction in air pollutants, to roughly half the pre-lockdown concentrations. This study shows the scope of improvement that can be achieved through an engineering solution implemented to improve the ventilation system of an enclosed railway station. Further reduction in air pollution would require additional approaches, such as the removal of diesel engine exhaust emissions via the adoption of electric or diesel-electric hybrid powered services.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , COVID-19 , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Pandemias , Material Particulado/análisis , SARS-CoV-2 , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 83, 2022 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015153

RESUMEN

This research was conducted to determine the concentration of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, and Ni) in the sediments as well as the gill and muscle tissue of Siganus javus and two species of algae (Padina australis and Sargassum vulgare) collected from the Persian Gulf coasts of Bushehr province, which were studied using standard laboratory methods. The general form and trend of metal uptake at different stations in the gill and muscle tissue was Cu > Ni > Pb. The results of the study of metal uptake in both algae showed that the uptake of all three metals was higher in Padina species (Pb ˂ Cu ˂ Ni). The estimated daily intake (EDI), estimated weekly intake (EWI), allowable fish consumption rate limit (CRlim), and the target hazard quotients (THQ) for the consumption of this fish were also calculated. It was found that the concentration of heavy metals in the edible parts of the fish did not exceed the permissible limits proposed by the WHO, MAFF, JECFA, and NHMRC for human consumption, but the Ni concentration was higher than standard. The consumer risk indexes for non-cancerous diseases due to all metals were lower than standard. Also, the total risk index (HI) in this study was 0.065.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Biomarcadores Ambientales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Humanos , Océano Índico , Irán , Metales Pesados/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 84, 2022 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015159

RESUMEN

The existing knowledge on long-term climate trends over glaciated parts of Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) is limited. The present study aims at assessing the long-term (1901-2016) as well as the recent (1990-2016) temperature and precipitation trends over the glaciated parts of western (WH), central (CH) and eastern Himalaya (EH) within the IHR using Climate Research Unit Time Series version 4.01 (CRU TS4.01) data. Mann-Kendall and Sen's slope estimator tests were employed to determine the monotonic trend direction and magnitude of change over time on annual and seasonal basis. The temperature and precipitation trends were quantitatively assessed here in terms of percent change over mean as well as in absolute terms. Results show that annual average temperature remains > 0 °C in WH (2.26 °C) and CH (3.24 °C) but < 0 °C in EH (-0.97 °C). Long-term analysis (1901-2016) reveals the maximum warming in EH (74.67% or 0.93 °C) followed by WH (52.56% or 0.64 °C) and minimum in CH (44.31% or 0.73 °C). The winter warming is notably higher (WH: 1.11 °C, CH: 1.19 °C and EH: 1.41 °C) than the summer (WH: 0.31 °C, CH: 0.26 °C and EH: 0.54 °C). Annual precipitation gradually increases from WH (535.57 mm) to CH (749.91 mm) to EH (1249.49 mm), of which 68%, 76%, and 90% respectively, are summer-induced. Nevertheless, precipitation showed no clear trend in WH (slight increase of 4.53%) and EH (slight decrease of -5.30%), but a clear reduction in CH (-19.25%). Seasonally, precipitation decreased in winter (-4.53%) but increased in summer (10.65%) in WH, clearly decreased in both winter (-24.69%) and summer (-17.01%) in CH, and slightly increased in winter (2.21%) but decreased in summer (-6.80%) in EH. In recent decades (1990-2016), warming trend further accelerated in WH (0.95 °C) and CH (1.01 °C) but decreased in EH (0.60 °C). The overall precipitation trends also changed during 1990-2016 as WH experienced an overall reduction (-5%), CH maintained a declining trend (-13.10%), and EH showed slight increase (1.01%). The study concludes that the climate of glaciated parts has changed significantly, but the trend and magnitude is highly heterogeneous over different regions which likely influenced the glaciated environment.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Clima , Estaciones del Año , Temperatura
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 85, 2022 Jan 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35018529

RESUMEN

Increasing mining and industrial discharge of untreated wastewater, as well as excessive use of fertilizers for agricultural purposes, and heavy metal contamination in soil have become one of the serious environmental problems worldwide. In the present study, pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of arsenic contamination and other factors on the growth and development of local forage grasses like Purple guinea and Ruzi grasses under controlled conditions. Influence of arsenic concentration, soil properties, and fertilizers on biosorption and withstanding potential of grasses was studied using model soil and real-time arsenic-contaminated mine soil. High arsenic contents in soil significantly affected the growth as well as biomass production of grasses and declined the overall biomass production concerning exposure durations. Purple guinea and Ruzi grasses showed growth tolerance in arsenic-contaminated soils with concentrations of 100 and 150 mg/kg respectively. Grass species, soil compositions, and properties, fertilizers, growth duration, etc. potentially influenced arsenic accumulation in grasses. Both local forage grasses showed <1 bio-accumulation factor (BAF) and bio-concentration factor (BCF) after 45 days that indicates the minimum harvesting time of 45 days, and biosorption rate was found significant to the exposure duration. Maximum translocation factor (TF) values observed in Purple guinea and Ruzi grasses were 0.65 and 0.95, respectively which are < 1, therefore, these local forage grasses could be labeled as arsenic-metallophytes and ability to tolerate high levels of heavy metals without much biosorption. The results confirmed that local forage grasses have much growth tolerance potential against arsenic in real-time mine soil with desired fertilizers and these species could be used for sustainable management of ecological health of the Thung Kum gold mine area in Thailand.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico , Contaminantes del Suelo , Arsénico/análisis , Biodegradación Ambiental , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Guinea , Poaceae , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 86, 2022 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35018533

RESUMEN

This study aimed to investigate the acute and chronic hazard quotients of chlorpyrifos and diazinon for tomatoes in preharvest and postharvest conditions, and to evaluate the relationship between the main variables, including temperature and contact time and pesticide dissipation at different conditions using response surface methodology for the first time. The qualification analyses were conducted by a gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The Monte Carlo simulation technique was utilized to evaluate the variability and uncertainty and achieve more accurate results in the health risk assessment process. A quadratic model and the second-order polynomial analysis were employed to investigate the mutual effect of time and temperature on removing diazinon and chlorpyrifos. Based on findings, the chronic hazard quotient values of chlorpyrifos and diazinon residues ranged from 0.43 - 1.33 to 0.13 - 2.27 for boiling, 0.65 - 1.49 to 3.05 - 7.15 for room condition, and 0.63 - 1.92 to 3.28 - 7.47 for refrigerator condition, respectively. According to the Monte Carlo simulation, the hazard quotient and estimated daily intake values were more affected by the consumption rate, pesticide concentration, and body weight. The results of response surface methodology showed that the effect of temperature variations on the dissipation of both pesticides was more than that of contact time variations.


Asunto(s)
Cloropirifos , Lycopersicon esculentum , Residuos de Plaguicidas , Cloropirifos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Residuos de Plaguicidas/análisis
15.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e251566, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019090

RESUMEN

The Seybouse is the second largest river basin in Algeria, hosting an important biodiversity and providing various ecosystem services. This watershed is highly influenced by agricultural and industrial activities, which threaten its biodiversity and ecosystem integrity. The use of benthic macroinvertebrates as biological indicators has a long tradition in developed countries and integrated into all assessments of the ecological quality of river systems. However, the macroinvertebrates of many North African regions are still not well studied, including those of the Seybouse river. The aim of this study is to assess the inventory and ecological role of benthic macroinvertebrates in inland waters of the Seybouse River and determine the impact of pollution on their spatial distributions. We sampled the benthic macrofauna of Wadi Seybouse and its affluents using regular surveys in three sites, of which one was in the upper Seybouse Bouhamdane in Medjez Amar and two in the middle Seybouse. Between December 2019 and May 2020, 10 physico-chemical parameters (pH, EC, OD, water speed, NO3, Salinity, NO2, MES, turbidity, depth) were measured in order to establish a health state diagnosis of these aquatic ecosystems. The complementary biological approach by the analysis of populations of macroinvertebrates identified 7482 individuals and 40 taxa divided into five classes: Crustaceans which were the most dominant, insects with the main orders (Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera and Odonata), Molluscs, Nematodes and Annelids. The physico-chemical analyzes and the application of the organic pollution indices indicated a strong to excessive pollution for all sites, especially in Seybouse upstream.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Invertebrados , Animales , Biodiversidad , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Ríos
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 80, 2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35006348

RESUMEN

Wastewater is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic impurities, suspended solids, nutrients, saprotrophic and disease-causing bacteria and other microbes. When untreated wastewater is discharged into the rivers, seas, or oceans, it causes harm to human and aquatic life. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the wastewater quality before diverting it into receiving water. The main aim of this study was the selection of an appropriate aggregation function to propose the wastewater quality index (WWQI) which is suitable for monitoring the spatial and seasonal variations of wastewater quality in the stormwater flow channel (SWF) located in Kolkata, India. Two different aggregation functions, i.e., weighted geometric mean function and weighted arithmetic mean function, were tested and analysed with primary data. Twelve wastewater quality parameters were selected. And, sampling was done seasonally for a 1-year period from December 2018 to December 2019 at eight selected locations along the SWF channel. The relative weights of each parameter were calculated based on their relative significance. Sub-index rating curves were generated to each parameter for WWQI calculations. The results revealed that weighted arithmetic mean function produced higher values of WWQI than geometric mean function. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis was carried out to evaluate the aggregation function that best suits the data of the SWF channel. The sensitivity analysis also revealed that weighted arithmetic mean function, being linear and free from ambiguity and less eclipsing, was more appropriate for measuring the WWQI for the SWF channel. Therefore, the study concluded that weighted arithmetic mean function was the most suitable aggregation function to calculate the WWQI for the SWF channel.


Asunto(s)
Aguas Residuales , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , India , Ríos , Estaciones del Año , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 79, 2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35006389

RESUMEN

The status and trend of mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), and arsenic (As) in the sediment of Bohai Bay from 1978 to 2017 were evaluated. The results indicated that the sediment status in 2017 was good. The contents of Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Zn, and As in all the monitoring stations were lower than category I. But, it is worth noting that the contents of Cu, Cr, and As in some stations were between threshold effects levels (TEL) and probable effects levels (PEL) guidelines, which were occasionally correlated to negative ecological effects. Since the reform and opening up of China, only the average content of Cd in 1996 was between category II and category III, but that in other years did not exceed category I. The average contents of Hg, Pb, Cu, Cr, Zn, and As were lower than category I. The Chinese Government should continue to pay high attention to the total quantity control measures of major risk factors Cd, Cu, Cr, and As.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Bahías , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 78, 2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35006399

RESUMEN

Healthy agroecosystems provide a range of ecosystem services, and the lack of information about the importance of their health degree leads to the unsustainability of these agroecosystems. To assess the health status of agroecosystems, a model was developed using spatial analysis-based procedures in Geographic Information System (GIS) media, surveyed data, and field monitoring at Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. Initially, a survey-based study was conducted in 50 barley fields of Bandar-e-Torkaman County, north of Iran, during the 2016-2017 years. Then, the health index maps were provided by spatial analysis-based functions in GIS media. For accurate estimation of health status in barley agroecosystems, some meteorological variables were layered. Finally, the health status of the agroecosystems was determined based on six indices, including pesticides consumption rate, chemical fertilizers consumption rate, crop yield, and cultivar type, soil organic matter, and biodiversity indices. When all the layers overlaid, only 12% of the surveyed agroecosystems were located in the healthy class. The use of proper tillage methods, the appropriate weed control operations, the optimum consumption of high-quality pesticides, high soil organic matter, and grain yield > 2.6 ton ha-1 were the main reasons for obtaining of health degree in these agroecosystems. In contrast, the consumption of low-quality pesticides, the use of inappropriate tillage tools and machinery, the little knowledge of the farmers about the optimum rates and consumption methods of pesticides and chemical fertilizers, and resistance of some weeds to herbicides were identified as the most essential reasons for non-health status in the most surveyed barley agroecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Ecosistema , Biodiversidad , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Suelo , Control de Malezas
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 77, 2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35006403

RESUMEN

The emergence of COVID-19 has brought the entire planet to a halt. Many countries, including India, were compelled to shut down most urban, industrial, social and other activities as a result of the pandemic. Due to a series of complete lockdowns imposed in India from March 24 to May 17, 2020, and state-wise local level restrictions afterward, have resulted in significant reduction of emissions of numerous atmospheric pollutants. The objective of this study is to analyse the change in concentration of various pollutants such as nitrogen oxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) due to lockdown and also to quantify the contribution of crop stubble burning to air pollution. The Sentinel-5P based NO2 and CO observations for 2019 and 2020 and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-based AOD observations for 2016-2020 were used for detecting the variations. The obtained results showed a significant decrease in NO2 levels during various stages of lockdown. Small decrease in CO levels was observed across most part of the India. With a few exceptions, such as coastal and desert regions, there was a moderate decrease in AOD levels. Furthermore, to study the contribution of NO2, CO and AOD from crop stubble burning, MODIS observations on active fire events were obtained from Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). The burning of crop stubble increased NO2 emissions by 22 to 80%. CO levels, on the other hand, have risen by 7 to 25%. A considerable variation in AOD was reported, ranging from 1 to 426%.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , COVID-19 , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , India , SARS-CoV-2 , Triticum
20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(2): 81, 2022 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013799

RESUMEN

Biomass combustion in indoor kitchens contributes a lot to the PM2.5 exposure burden among millions of people worldwide. Emitted potential pollutants from the biomass combustion oven may enormously degrade indoor air quality during cooking time and impact crowded rooms with inadequate indoor ventilation. The concept of developing a "ventilation index" may be a valuable alternative to assess indoor air quality. A new empirical formula of the ventilation index has been proposed recently, in which multiple studies need to be validated by various studies. This study is a part of the validation process and has ended up with supportive evidence-based insight into residential indoor air quality. Ninety-three households were selected from 25 villages of Tamil Nadu, India, to monitor the parameters required to apply in the empirical formula. However, the association between indoor air velocity and PM2.5 (considered a surrogate component of indoor air quality) was focused on emphatically. Other important variables, e.g., used amount of biomass cooking fuel, kitchen room index, room temperature, and relative humidity, were also monitored to observe the ventilation index. Indoor PM2.5 data were compared categorically with variable air velocities. Those who were using only biomass for cooking in indoor kitchens were recruited in the study. The air pollution exposure burden among the community population is expected to be minimized when the desired ventilation index is optimized and applied in configured kitchens and living rooms. Then, it may attract government policy to accept the ventilation index as a critical parameter for green housing schemes.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Biomasa , Culinaria , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , India , Material Particulado/análisis
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