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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112094, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677382

RESUMEN

Honey has multifaceted nutritional and medicinal values; however, its quality is hinged on the floral origin of the nectar. Taking advantage of the large areas that they cover; honeybees are often used as bioindicators of environmental contamination. The focus of the present paper was to examine the quality of honey from within the vicinity of an abandoned pesticide store in Masindi District in western Uganda. Surficial soils (<20 cm depths) and honey samples were collected from within the vicinity of the abandoned pesticide store and analysed for organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues using gas chromatograph coupled to an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The mean level of ∑DDTs in all the soil samples was 503.6 µg/kg dry weight (d.w). ∑DDTs contributed 92.2% to the ∑OCPs contamination loads in the soil samples, and others (lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, and endosulfans) contributed only 7.8%. Ratio (p, p'-DDE+p, p'-DDD)/p, p'-DDT of 1.54 suggested historical DDT input in the area. In all the honey samples, the mean level of ∑DDTs was 20.9 µg/kg. ∑DDTs contributed 43.3% to ∑OCPs contamination loads in the honey samples, followed by lindane (29.8%), endosulfans (23.6%) and dieldrin (3.2%), with corresponding mean levels of 14.4, 11.4 and 1.55 µg/kg, respectively. Reproductive risk assessment was done based on the hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) procedure. In our study, the calculated HIs for adults (102.38), and children (90.33) suggested high potential health risks to the honey consumers. Lindane, endosulfan and p, p'-DDD detected in the honey samples at levels exceeding the acute reference dose (ARfD) are known risk factors for spontaneous abortion, reduced implantation, menstrual cycle shortening, impaired semen quality, and prostate cancer in exposed individuals and experimental animal models.


Asunto(s)
Exposición Dietética/estadística & datos numéricos , Miel/análisis , Hidrocarburos Clorados/análisis , Residuos de Plaguicidas/análisis , Adulto , Aldrín/análisis , Animales , Niño , DDT/análisis , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/análisis , Dieldrín/análisis , Endosulfano/análisis , Biomarcadores Ambientales , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Femenino , Hexaclorociclohexano/análisis , Humanos , Masculino , Plaguicidas/análisis , Salud Reproductiva , Análisis de Semen , Suelo , Uganda
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112085, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690007

RESUMEN

Nangasai basin is a semi-arid watershed where agriculture is the main source of economy. In present day, increasing population demands increase in food productivity which leads to increase use of fertilizers and chemical pesticides in agriculture. These fertilizers on the other hand mix up with the groundwater and increase the pollution, which affects human health adversely. So, for controlling the groundwater contamination risk proper water resource management and assessment of groundwater vulnerability is extremely important. Total 7 hydrogeological parameters have been considered for this study, and the final groundwater vulnerability map has been prepared by overlay weighted method with the help of DRASTIC index, which is classified into 5 vulnerable classes (very high, high, moderate, low, and very low). In the south and south-eastern regions of the basin namely Deghi, Bankada, Baram, Macha, Katin, Tilabani high groundwater contamination is been observed. For validating the model, the water quality parameters-nitrate and TDS have been used with the accuracy of 89% and 86% respectively. Using effective as well as scientifically approved methods, the anthropogenic and agricultural contamination can be controlled and managed which will lower the risk of contamination. This map can be further utilized as a base map for management of groundwater pollution and its planning.


Asunto(s)
Agricultura , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminación del Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Sistemas de Información Geográfica , Agua Subterránea , Humanos , India , Nitratos , Plaguicidas , Ríos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminación del Agua/análisis , Recursos Hídricos
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112092, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690008

RESUMEN

Over the last two decades, effect-directed analysis (EDA) gained importance as a seminal screening tool for tracking biological effects of environmental organic micro-pollutants (MPs). As EDA using high-performance liquid chromatography and bioassays is costly and time consuming, recent implementations of this approach have combined high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) with effect-based methods (EBMs) using cell-based bioassays, enabling the detection of estrogenic, androgenic, genotoxic, photosystem II (PSII)- inhibiting, and dioxin-like sample components on a HPTLC plate. In the present study, the developed methodologies were applied as a HPTLC-based bioassay battery, to investigate toxicant elimination efficiency of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and to characterize the toxic potential of landfill leachates. Activity levels detected in untreated landfill leachates, expressed as reference compound equivalence (EQ) concentration, were up to 16.8 µg ß-naphthoflavone-EQ L-1 (indicating the degree of dioxin-like activity), 1.9 µg estradiol-EQ L-1 (estrogenicity) and 8.3 µg diuron-EQ L­1 (PSII-inhibition), dropping to maximal concentrations of 47 ng ß-naphthoflavone-EQ L-1, 0.7 µg estradiol-EQ L-1 and 53.1 ng diuron-EQ L-1 following treatment. Bisphenol A (BPA) is suggested to be the main contributor to estrogenic activity, with concentrations determined by the planar yeast estrogen screen corresponding well to results from chemical analysis. In the investigated WWTP samples, a decrease of estrogenic activity of 6-100% was observed following treatment for most of the active fractions, except of a 20% increase in one fraction (Rf = 0.568). In contrast, androgenicity with concentrations up to 640 ng dihydrotestosterone-EQ L-1 was completely removed by treatment. Interestingly, genotoxic activity increased over the WWTP processes, releasing genotoxic fractions into receiving waters. We propose this combined HPTLC and EBM battery to contribute to an efficient, cheap, fast and robust screening of environmental samples; such an assay panel would allow to gain an estimate of potential biological effects for prioritization prior to substance identification, and its routine application will support an inexpensive identification of the toxicity drivers as a first tier in an EDA strategy.


Asunto(s)
Bioensayo/métodos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Purificación del Agua , Compuestos de Bencidrilo , Cromatografía en Capa Delgada/métodos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Estrógenos/toxicidad , Fenoles , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análisis , Aguas Residuales/análisis , beta-naftoflavona
5.
Aquat Toxicol ; 233: 105793, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667916

RESUMEN

Sperm quantity/quality are significant reproductive endpoints with clear links to population level dynamics. Amphipods are important model organisms in environmental toxicology. Despite this, field monitoring of male fertility in invertebrates has rarely been used in monitoring programs. The aim of this study was to compare sperm quality/quantity in an amphipod collected at six UK locations with differing water quality. Due to low sperm counts and an observed lack of relationship between sperm count and weight in amphipods collected from a nationally protected conservation area (Langstone Harbour, England), we also compared datasets from this site over a decade to determine the temporal significance of this finding. One collection to evaluate a female reproductive endpoint was also performed at this site. Interestingly, this harbour consistently presented some of the lowest sperm counts comparable to highly industrial sites and low eggs number from females. Amphipods collected from all the sites, except from Langstone Harbour, presented strong positive correlations between sperm count and weight. Given Langstone Harbour has several international and national protected statutes primarily for marine life and birds, our results indicate that E. marinus, one important food component for wading birds, might be impacted by unknown reproductive stressors. These unknown stressors maybe related to agricultural runoff, leachate from historical landfills and effluent from storm water overflows. This study highlights the importance of exploring new reproductive endpoints such as sperm quantity/quality in marine monitoring programs.


Asunto(s)
Anfípodos/efectos de los fármacos , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Espermatozoides/efectos de los fármacos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Anfípodos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Animales , Ecotoxicología , Inglaterra , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Dinámica Poblacional , Reproducción/efectos de los fármacos , Recuento de Espermatozoides , Espermatozoides/citología
6.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 149(3): 1838, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765773

RESUMEN

Sweden stands out among the other European countries by the degree of restrictive measures taken towards handling the 2019 coronavirus outbreak, associated with the CoViD-19 pandemic. While several governments have imposed a nationwide total or partial lockdown to slow down the spread of the virus, the Swedish government has opted for a recommendation-based approach together with a few imposed restrictions. In a previous contribution by the authors, the impact of the Swedish strategy was observed through the monitored variation of the city noise levels during a period associated with the so-called "first wave" of the pandemic in Stockholm. A very strong impact of these recommendations was shown on the evolution of the noise levels in central Stockholm. This highlighted the potential of acoustic sensor networks both for enforcement of regulation and monitoring of the effectiveness of their implementation. The present contribution presents a follow-up to this urban noise monitoring in central Stockholm, Sweden, for the period leading to the so-called "second wave" of the pandemic in Europe. Both the evolution of adherence to the recommendations and the impact of the recurrence of cases combined with reinforced recommendations are observed through the evolution of the measured noise levels. While the measurements show a gradual lower level of compliance, in particular, past the summer break, these also show again a rapid response to the reinforced recommendations issued by the authorities in mid-fall of 2020. These observations thus confirm the potential associated with detailed urban noise monitoring, for instance here acting as a proxy to evaluating the response to recommendations or restrictions in times of crisis.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Ruido , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Adhesión a Directriz , Humanos , Pandemias , Suecia
7.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 149(3): 1796, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765803

RESUMEN

While studies of urban acoustics are typically restricted to the audio range, anthropogenic activity also generates infrasound (<20 Hz, roughly at the lower end of the range of human hearing). Shutdowns related to the COVID-19 pandemic unintentionally created ideal conditions for the study of urban infrasound and low frequency audio (20-500 Hz), as closures reduced human-generated ambient noise, while natural signals remained relatively unaffected. An array of infrasound sensors deployed in Las Vegas, NV, provides data for a case study in monitoring human activity during the pandemic through urban acoustics. The array records a sharp decline in acoustic power following the temporary shutdown of businesses deemed nonessential by the state of Nevada. This decline varies spatially across the array, with stations close to McCarran International Airport generally recording the greatest declines in acoustic power. Further, declines in acoustic power fluctuate with the time of day. As only signals associated with anthropogenic activity are expected to decline, this gives a rough indication of periodicities in urban acoustics throughout Las Vegas. The results of this study reflect the city's response to the pandemic and suggest spatiotemporal trends in acoustics outside of shutdowns.


Asunto(s)
Acústica/instrumentación , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Actividades Humanas , Ciudades , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Monitoreo del Ambiente/instrumentación , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Humanos , Nevada , Ruido , Pandemias
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 213: 112043, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588189

RESUMEN

We describe a green new method for the synthesis of water-soluble photoluminescent carbon dots (CDs) that were functionalized with methimazole (MTZ) and applied to determine Hg2+ based on the fluorescence extinction. Starch obtained from rice was used as a natural source for the production of CDs by hydrothermal treatment. Also, it was proposed a factorial design to optimize the parameters for CD synthesis and the results showed that the luminescence intensity is a function of temperature and not of the heating time in the hydrothermal process. The synthesized CDs were characterized using fluorescence techniques, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), it was found the formation of CDs on a nanometer scale with an average size of 11 nm. The functionalization with MTZ, eliminated all interferences from other metals, indicating a selective response to Hg2+ ions. The method was applied to Hg2+ determination in waters. Under optimal conditions, was obtained a limit of detection of 1.8 × 10-7 mol L-1 with a linear range from 3.3 × 10-7 to 50.0 × 10-6 mol L-1. Therefore, the proposed method can be considered a simple, selective, and precise alternative that minimizes the number of reagents used for Hg2+ determination in natural waters, and can be applied on a large scale in environmental analyzes.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Mercurio/análisis , Metimazol/química , Puntos Cuánticos/química , Carbono/química , Fluorescencia , Colorantes Fluorescentes/química , Iones/química , Espectrometría de Fluorescencia/métodos , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Almidón
9.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 233: 113692, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592569

RESUMEN

The aim of the present study was to develop a simple, sensitive, and specific approach to quantifying the SARS-CoV-2 genome in wastewater and to evaluate this approach as a means of epidemiological surveillance. Twelve wastewater samples were collected from a metropolitan area in north-eastern France during April and May 2020. In addition to the quantification of the SARS-CoV-2 genome, F-specific RNA phages of genogroup II (FRNAPH GGII), naturally present in wastewater, were used as an internal process control for the viral concentration and processing of RT-PCR inhibitors. A concentration method was required to allow the quantification of the SARS-CoV-2 genome over the longest possible period. A procedure combining ultrafiltration, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol purification, and the additional purification of the RNA extracts was chosen for the quantification of the SARS-CoV-2 genome in 100-mL wastewater samples. At the same time, the COVID-19 outbreak was evaluated through patients from the neighbouring University Hospital of Nancy, France. A regular decrease in the concentration of the SARS-CoV-2 genome from ~104 gc/L to ~102 gc/L of wastewater was observed over the eight weeks of the study, during which the population was placed under lockdown. The SARS-CoV-2 genome was even undetectable during one week in the second half of May and present but non-quantifiable in the last sample (28 May). A concordant circulation in the human community was highlighted by virological diagnosis using respiratory samples, which showed a decrease in the number of COVID-19 cases from 677 to 52 per week over the same period. The environmental surveillance of COVID-19 using a reliable viral quantification procedure to test wastewater is a key approach. The real-time detection of viral genomes can allow us to predict and monitor the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in clinical settings and survey the entire urban human population.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Genoma Viral , Aguas Residuales/microbiología , /diagnóstico , Precipitación Química , Ciudades/epidemiología , Francia/epidemiología , Hospitales Universitarios , Humanos , Ultrafiltración , Proteínas Virales/química , Proteínas Virales/aislamiento & purificación , Microbiología del Agua
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 212: 112010, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550081

RESUMEN

Coastal areas are under continuous and increasing pressure from different human activities. A mixture of contaminants (e.g. hydrocarbons, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), emerging contaminants, and others), originating mainly from populated, industrialised and agricultural areas, can reach the marine environment through different means such as wastewater discharge, soil runoffs, leaching from agriculture, and volatilisation/deposition. In this context, marine sediments have increasingly been considered repositories for a variety of pollutants that can accumulate and be stored for long periods, acting as a secondary source of contaminants during subsequent dredging operation or vessel manoeuvring. Chemical and ecotoxicological analyses of sediments are routinely conducted to evaluate the potential hazard/risk to the environment, either on bulk sediment or elutriate. In general, sediment elutriates are commonly prepared according to ASTM Guide even if alternative protocols are proposed by USACE for the various condition that they have to represent. The goal of the present study was to determine if the toxicological properties of ASTMprepared elutriates are comparable to those obtained from the USACE protocol. Sediment coming from 3 harbours (Olbia, Cagliari, and Toulon), as part of the "Se.D.Ri.Port" Interreg Project, were processed to obtain elutriates according to ASTM Guide and USACE Dredging Elutriate protocol and tested with the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus embryo development test. Moreover, the significance of different stirring times of water/sediment mixture (1 h, 3 h, and 24 h) was tested with both the ASTM and USACE protocol. In addition to the biological analysis, for each sediment sample, heavy metals concentration, granulometry, and organic matter were determined. Even if for the ports of Toulon and Cagliari, the ASTM and USACE elutriates showed comparable results with P. lividus bioassay, for the port of Olbia the two protocols showed different criticalities. Preliminary results show that for the site Olbia elutriates prepared with the USACE protocol resulted in higher toxicity than elutriates obtained with ASTM (p < 0.001). In conclusion, differences in preparation protocols appear to be significant and can lead to different results in biological testing. To overcome this problem and to obtain more reliable evaluations of risk to the environment, standardisation and regulation must be the next goals in sediment management procedure.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Embrionario/efectos de los fármacos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Metales Pesados/toxicidad , Paracentrotus/efectos de los fármacos , Agua de Mar/química , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad , Animales , Bioensayo , Ecotoxicología , Humanos , Italia , Larva/efectos de los fármacos , Larva/crecimiento & desarrollo , Mar Mediterráneo , Metales Pesados/análisis , Paracentrotus/embriología , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 212: 112006, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556810

RESUMEN

Particulate matter (PM) is a carrier of many substances. Microorganisms are vital constituents contained in PM, and their varieties and concentrations are closely connected to human health and animal production. This study aimed to investigate the distribution characteristics of bioaerosols inside a pig house and in the respiratory tract of pigs. Environmental indices inside a nursery pig house were monitored in winter, including temperature, relative humidity, total suspended particulate (TSP), PM10, PM2.5, NH3, CO2, CO and NO. The concentrations of airborne culturable bacteria, fungi and Escherichia coli were detected. Then, 16S rRNA sequencing technology was applied to identify different-sized bioaerosols and bacteria in the respiratory tract of piglets. The results showed that the concentration of airborne culturable bacteria inside the pig house was significantly higher than that outside, and no significant difference was found among culturable fungi and Escherichia coli. The 16S rRNA results showed that the bacterial aerosols presented high similarity to the bacteria in the respiratory tract of piglets. The airborne bacterial aerosols within the size range of 1.1-3.3 µm showed high similarity to the bacteria in the lower respiratory tract (bronchus and lung) of piglets. In addition, four potential pathogenic bacterial genera (Escherichia-Shigella, Streptococcus, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas) were identified both in the bacterial aerosols and the respiratory tract of piglets. These results will provide a significant scientific basis for exploring the potential risk of aerosols from animal houses to human and animal health.


Asunto(s)
Microbiología del Aire/normas , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Material Particulado/análisis , Sistema Respiratorio/microbiología , Aerosoles , Animales , China , Polvo , Humanos , ARN Ribosómico 16S , Estaciones del Año , Porcinos , Temperatura
12.
Sci Adv ; 7(3)2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523881

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 lockdowns led to major reductions in air pollutant emissions. Here, we quantitatively evaluate changes in ambient NO2, O3, and PM2.5 concentrations arising from these emission changes in 11 cities globally by applying a deweathering machine learning technique. Sudden decreases in deweathered NO2 concentrations and increases in O3 were observed in almost all cities. However, the decline in NO2 concentrations attributable to the lockdowns was not as large as expected, at reductions of 10 to 50%. Accordingly, O3 increased by 2 to 30% (except for London), the total gaseous oxidant (O x = NO2 + O3) showed limited change, and PM2.5 concentrations decreased in most cities studied but increased in London and Paris. Our results demonstrate the need for a sophisticated analysis to quantify air quality impacts of interventions and indicate that true air quality improvements were notably more limited than some earlier reports or observational data suggested.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Ciudades , Gases/análisis , Humanos , Londres , Aprendizaje Automático , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/análisis , Ozono/análisis , Paris , Material Particulado , Temperatura
13.
Ann Rev Mar Sci ; 13: 283-311, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395347

RESUMEN

Surface temperature documents our changing climate, and the marine record represents one of the longest widely distributed, observation-based estimates. Measurements of near-surface marine air temperature and sea-surface temperature have been recorded on platforms ranging from sailing ships to autonomous drifting buoys. The raw observations show an imprint of differing measurement methods and are sparse in certain periods and regions. This review describes how the real signal of global climate change can be determined from these sparse and noisy observations, including the quantification of measurement method-dependent biases and the reduction of spurious signals. Recent progress has come from analysis of the observations at increasing levels of granularity and from accounting for artifacts in the data that depend on platform types, measurement methods, and environmental conditions. Cutting across these effects are others caused by how the data were recorded, transcribed, and archived. These insights will be integrated into the next generation of global products quantified with validated estimates of uncertainty and the dependencies of its correlation structure. Further analysis of these records using improved data, metadata, and methods will certainly uncover more idiosyncrasies and new ways to improve the record.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Temperatura , Actividades Humanas , Cooperación Internacional , Navíos
14.
Nat Protoc ; 16(2): 1129-1151, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33437065

RESUMEN

The complexity and dynamics of human diseases are driven by the interactions between internal molecular activities and external environmental exposures. Although advances in omics technology have dramatically broadened the understanding of internal molecular and cellular mechanisms, understanding of the external environmental exposures, especially at the personal level, is still rudimentary in comparison. This is largely owing to our limited ability to efficiently collect the personal environmental exposome (PEE) and extract the nucleic acids and chemicals from PEE. Here we describe a protocol that integrates hardware and experimental pipelines to collect and decode biotic and abiotic external exposome at the individual level. The described protocol has several advantages over conventional approaches, such as exposome monitoring at the personal level, decontamination steps to increase sensitivity and simultaneous capture and high-throughput profiling of biotic and abiotic exposures. The protocol takes ~18 h of bench time over 2-3 d to prepare samples for high-throughput profiling and up to a couple of weeks of instrumental time to analyze, depending on the number of samples. Hundreds to thousands of species and organic compounds could be detected in the airborne particulate samples using this protocol. The composition and complexity of the biotic and abiotic substances are heavily influenced by the sampling spatiotemporal factors. Basic skillsets in molecular biology and analytical chemistry are required to carry out this protocol. This protocol could be modified to decode biotic and abiotic substances in other types of low or ultra-low input samples.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/instrumentación , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Exposoma , Humanos
15.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 56(2): 188-196, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499735

RESUMEN

Chemical treatment of sugarcane seed with fungicides and insecticides prior to planting increases yields of cane and sugar for the perennial, annually harvested crop. However, the fate of the applied chemicals is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to measure the aerobic dissipation of selected billet seed treatment chemicals in a mineral sugarcane soil from Louisiana. Soil samples from the surface 15 cm were treated with either thiamethoxam, azoxystrobin, fluxapyroxad, propiconazole, or pyraclostrobin and monitored over 100 days under laboratory conditions. Insecticide and fungicide levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Dissipation data were fitted to four kinetic models: simple first-order (SFO), first order multi-compartment (FOMC), double-first order in parallel (DFOP), and hockey-stick (HS). The dissipation half-life (DT50) of thiamethoxam, azoxystrobin, fluxapyroxad, propiconazole, or pyraclostrobin were 275, 100, 144, 74, and 39 d, respectively. Overall, the DT50 for the pesticides in the study indicated medium to long persistence in soil under the conditions of the experiment. This is the first report for several of these pesticides related to the aerobic dissipation in soils used to grow sugarcane.


Asunto(s)
Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Fungicidas Industriales/análisis , Insecticidas/análisis , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Suelo/química , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/instrumentación , Monitoreo del Ambiente/instrumentación , Saccharum , Semillas
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467108

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis is a disease having adverse effects on bone health and causing fragility fractures. Osteoporosis affects approximately 200 million people worldwide, and nearly 9 million fractures occur annually. Evidence exists that, in addition to traditional risk factors, certain environmental substances may increase the risk of osteoporosis. METHODS: The European Human Biomonitoring Initiative (HBM4EU) is a joint program coordinating and advancing human biomonitoring in Europe. HBM4EU investigates citizens' exposure to several environmental substances and their plausible health effects aiming to contribute to policymaking. In HBM4EU, 18 priority substances or substance groups were selected. For each, a scoping document was prepared summarizing existing knowledge and health effects. This scoping review is based on these chemical-specific scoping documents and complementary literature review. RESULTS: A possible link between osteoporosis and the body burden of heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), and industrial chemicals such as phthalates and per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) was identified. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence shows that environmental substances may be related to osteoporosis as an adverse health effect. Nevertheless, more epidemiological research on the relationship between health effects and exposure to these chemicals is needed. Study results are incoherent, and pervasive epidemiological studies regarding the chemical exposure are lacking.


Asunto(s)
Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Metales Pesados/efectos adversos , Osteoporosis/inducido químicamente , Monitoreo Biológico , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Contaminantes Ambientales/efectos adversos , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Humanos , Osteoporosis/epidemiología
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459148

RESUMEN

Although sclerotia are known as the resting bodies of fungi, the exact biochemical properties of melanized sclerotia that allow them to remain in the soil and retain their structure are unclear. This study aims to examine the mobility and accumulation of metals in melanin-pigmented sclerotia from low pH forest soils, focusing on Al, Cu, Zn, As, and Pb, and to discuss the regulating factors involved in element transfer from soil to sclerotia. Soil and sclerotia samples were collected from five sites, with soil samples analyzed for pH and element composition and sclerotium samples investigated in terms of element composition and 14C age. Results from our study indicate that sclerotia may archive the mobilization and availability of metal ions such as Zn, Cu, As, and Pb, as well as major metal ions such as Al and Fe. Although availability and uptake are influenced by environmental conditions, the mechanism of Al accumulation in sclerotia may be abiotically promoted due to melanin in sclerotia found in forest soil. Sclerotia can be a bio-indicator of environmental pollution. Our study makes a significant contribution to environmental toxicology, as few studies have focused on accumulation of metals in each transfer step from soil to sclerotia.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico/análisis , Hongos/química , Metales/análisis , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Bosques , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Melaninas , Suelo/química
18.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(2)2021 Jan 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513950

RESUMEN

The detection of water contamination with Legionella pneumophila is of critical importance to manufacturers of water processing equipment and public health entities dealing with water networks and distribution systems. Detection methods based on polymerase chain reaction or biosensor technologies require preconcentration steps to achieve attractive sensitivity levels. Preconcentration must also be included in protocols of automated collection of water samples by systems designed for quasi-continuous monitoring of remotely located water reservoirs for the presence of L. pneumophila. We designed and characterized a water sampling module for filtration and backwashing intended for analysis of low-to-medium contaminated water, typically with L. pneumophila bacteria not exceeding 50 colony-forming units per milliliter. The concentration factors of 10× and 21× were achieved with 0.22 and 0.45 µm filters, respectively, for samples of bacteria prepared in clean saline solutions. However, a 5× concentration factor was achieved with 0.45 µm filters for a heavily contaminated or turbid water typical of some industrial water samples.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Legionella pneumophila/aislamiento & purificación , Microbiología del Agua , Filtración , Agua , Contaminación del Agua/estadística & datos numéricos
19.
Anal Chem ; 93(4): 2299-2308, 2021 02 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411532

RESUMEN

ß-Lactam antibiotics such as penicillins and cephalosporins are extensively used for human infection therapy. Consistent unintended exposure to these antibiotics via food and water is known to promote antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogenesis with high morbidity and mortality in humans. An optical enzymatic biosensor for rapid and point-of-use detection of these antibiotics in food and water has been developed and tested. Enzymatic hydrolysis of ß-lactams, on the electroactive polyaniline nanofibers, altered the polymeric backbone of the nanofibers, from emeraldine base form to emeraldine salt, which was measured as an increase in evanescent wave absorbance at 435 nm. The sensors were calibrated by spiking antibiotic-free milk with ceftazidime (as a model ß-lactam analyte) in a linear range of 0.36-3600 nM (R2 = 0.98). The calibration was further validated for packaged milk, local cow milk, and buffalo milk. A similar calibration was devised for chicken meat samples in a linear range of 9-1800 nM (R2 = 0.982) and tap water in a linear range of 0.18-180 nM (R2 = 0.99). Interestingly, it was possible to use the same calibration for the determination of other ß-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cefotaxime), which reflects the usefulness of the sensor for wide-scale deployment. The sensor performance was validated with a wastewater sample, from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), qualitatively analyzed by high-resolution liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy for detection of ß-lactams. The sensor scheme developed and tested is of grassroot relevance as a quick solution for measurement of ß-lactam residues in food and environment.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos de Anilina/química , Antibacterianos/química , Residuos de Medicamentos/química , Contaminación de Alimentos , beta-Lactamas/química , Animales , Pollos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminantes Ambientales/química , Hidrólisis , Carne/análisis , Leche/química , Estructura Molecular , Nanoestructuras , Fibras Ópticas , Aguas Residuales/química
20.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 80(1): 134-143, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386939

RESUMEN

Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in groundwater and leachate around selected waste dumpsites from two southwestern states of Nigeria were investigated. Samples were Soxhlet-extracted using hexane/methylene chloride mixture and cleaned-up with preconditioned solid-phase extraction cartridges. The ∑PAHs (PCBs) (all in µg/L) in the boreholes, leachate, and hand-dug well across all locations ranged from below detection limit (BDL) to 0.62 (BDL to 0.067), 1.16 to 9.96 (0.003 to 0.041), and BDL to 0.01 (0.001-0.031), respectively. Low molecular weight-PAHs accounted for ≥61% of ∑PAHs detected across all locations. The highly chlorinated hexa-PCBs [2,2',3,4,4',5'-HeCB(#180), 2,2',3,4',5',6-HeCB(#34) and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-HeCB(#153)] dominated the entire congener profiles. Pyrene and 2,3',4,4',5-PeCB(#118) constituted 56% and 58% of the ∑PAHs and ∑PCBs, respectively. Sampled water is not adequately safe for drinking and may pose cancer risk. This study should be sustained for health risk and sustenance of an enduring ecological integrity.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Agua Subterránea/química , Bifenilos Policlorados/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Instalaciones de Eliminación de Residuos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Nigeria , Pirenos/análisis
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