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1.
J Med Virol ; 96(6): e29728, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38860589

RESUMEN

Since May 2022, several countries outside of Africa experienced multiple clusters of monkeypox virus (MPXV)-associated disease. In the present study, anti-MPXV and anti-vaccinia virus (VACV) neutralizing antibody responses were evaluated in two cohorts of subjects from the general Italian population (one half born before the WHO-recommended end of smallpox vaccination in 1980, the other half born after). Higher titers (either against MPXV or VACV) were observed in the cohort of individuals born before the interruption of VACV vaccination. An association between VACV and MPXV antibody levels was observed, suggesting that the smallpox vaccination may confer some degree of cross-protection against MPXV infection. Results from this study highlight low levels of immunity toward the assessed Orthopoxviruses, especially in young adults, advocating the introduction of a VACV- or MPXV-specific vaccine in case of resurgence of monkeypox disease outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Neutralizantes , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Monkeypox virus , Vacuna contra Viruela , Vacunación , Virus Vaccinia , Humanos , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Masculino , Adulto , Femenino , Vacuna contra Viruela/inmunología , Vacuna contra Viruela/administración & dosificación , Italia/epidemiología , Monkeypox virus/inmunología , Adulto Joven , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Virus Vaccinia/inmunología , Mpox/epidemiología , Mpox/inmunología , Adolescente , Viruela/prevención & control , Viruela/inmunología , Viruela/epidemiología , Protección Cruzada/inmunología , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Niño
2.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1414224, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38863833

RESUMEN

Monkeypox (mpox) is an infectious disease caused by the mpox virus and can potentially lead to fatal outcomes. It resembles infections caused by viruses from other families, challenging identification. The pathogenesis, transmission, and clinical manifestations of mpox and other Orthopoxvirus species are similar due to their closely related genetic material. This review provides a comprehensive discussion of the roles of various proteins, including extracellular enveloped virus (EEV), intracellular mature virus (IMV), and profilin-like proteins of mpox. It also highlights recent diagnostic techniques based on these proteins to detect this infection rapidly.


Asunto(s)
Monkeypox virus , Mpox , Proteínas Virales , Monkeypox virus/genética , Monkeypox virus/patogenicidad , Humanos , Proteínas Virales/genética , Mpox/diagnóstico , Mpox/virología , Animales
3.
J Gen Virol ; 105(6)2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38861287

RESUMEN

Increased human-to-human transmission of monkeypox virus (MPXV) is cause for concern, and antibodies directed against vaccinia virus (VACV) are known to confer cross-protection against Mpox. We used 430 serum samples derived from the Scottish patient population to investigate antibody-mediated cross-neutralization against MPXV. By combining electrochemiluminescence immunoassays with live-virus neutralization assays, we show that people born when smallpox vaccination was routinely offered in the United Kingdom have increased levels of antibodies that cross-neutralize MPXV. Our results suggest that age is a risk factor of Mpox infection, and people born after 1971 are at higher risk of infection upon exposure.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Neutralizantes , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Monkeypox virus , Mpox , Vacuna contra Viruela , Humanos , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Vacuna contra Viruela/inmunología , Vacuna contra Viruela/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Monkeypox virus/inmunología , Adulto Joven , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Mpox/inmunología , Mpox/prevención & control , Femenino , Adolescente , Anciano , Masculino , Protección Cruzada/inmunología , Escocia , Factores de Edad , Pruebas de Neutralización , Niño , Vacunación , Viruela/prevención & control , Viruela/inmunología , Preescolar , Reacciones Cruzadas , Anciano de 80 o más Años
4.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13487, 2024 06 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38866796

RESUMEN

Since spring 2022, the global epidemiology of the monkeypox virus (MPXV) has changed. The unprecedented increase of human clade II MPXV cases worldwide heightened concerns about this emerging zoonotic disease. We analysed the positivity rates, viral loads, infectiousness, and persistence of MPXV DNA for up to 4 months in several biological samples from 89 MPXV-confirmed cases. Our data showed that viral loads and positivity rates were higher during the first two weeks of symptoms for all sample types. Amongst no-skin-samples, respiratory specimens showed higher MPXV DNA levels and median time until viral clearance, suggesting their usefulness in supporting MPXV diagnosis, investigating asymptomatic patients, and monitoring viral shedding. Infectious virus was cultured from respiratory samples, semen, and stools, with high viral loads and collected within the first 10 days. Notably, only one saliva and one semen were found positive for viral DNA after 71 and 31 days from symptoms, respectively. The focus on bloodstream samples showed the best testing sensitivity in plasma, reporting the overall highest MPXV DNA detection rate and viral loads during the 3-week follow-up as compared to serum and whole-blood. The data here presented can be useful for MPXV diagnostics and a better understanding of the potential alternative routes of its onward transmission.


Asunto(s)
Líquidos Corporales , ADN Viral , Monkeypox virus , Carga Viral , Humanos , ADN Viral/genética , Líquidos Corporales/virología , Masculino , Monkeypox virus/genética , Monkeypox virus/aislamiento & purificación , Cinética , Semen/virología , Mpox/virología , Mpox/epidemiología , Mpox/diagnóstico , Saliva/virología , Femenino , Adulto , Esparcimiento de Virus , Persona de Mediana Edad
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862422

RESUMEN

The monkeypox virus (mpox virus, MPXV) epidemic in 2022 has posed a significant public health risk. Yet, the evolutionary principles of MPXV remain largely unknown. Here, we examined the evolutionary patterns of protein sequences and codon usage in MPXV. We first demonstrated the signal of positive selection in OPG027, specifically in the Clade I lineage of MPXV. Subsequently, we discovered accelerated protein sequence evolution over time in the variants responsible for the 2022 outbreak. Furthermore, we showed strong epistasis between amino acid substitutions located in different genes. The codon adaptation index (CAI) analysis revealed that MPXV genes tended to use more non-preferred codons compared to human genes, and the CAI decreased over time and diverged between clades, with Clade I > IIa and IIb-A > IIb-B. While the decrease in fatality rate among the three groups aligned with the CAI pattern, it remains unclear whether this correlation was coincidental or if the deoptimization of codon usage in MPXV led to a reduction in fatality rates. This study sheds new light on the mechanisms that govern the evolution of MPXV in human populations.


Asunto(s)
Uso de Codones , Evolución Molecular , Monkeypox virus , Humanos , Monkeypox virus/genética , Proteínas Virales/genética , Filogenia , Selección Genética , Codón/genética , Secuencia de Aminoácidos/genética , Sustitución de Aminoácidos/genética , Mpox/virología , Mpox/genética
6.
Viruses ; 16(5)2024 04 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38793563

RESUMEN

A natural monkeypox virus infection may not induce sufficient neutralizing antibody responses in a subset of healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate monkeypox virus-neutralizing antibodies six months after infection and to assess the virological factors predictive of a poor immunological response. Antibodies were assessed using a plaque reduction neutralization test at six months from mpox infection; mpox cutaneous, oropharyngeal, and anal swabs, semen, and plasma samples were tested during infection. Overall, 95 people were included in the study; all developed detectable antibodies. People who were positive for the monkeypox virus for more days had higher levels of antibodies when considering all tested samples (p = 0.029) and all swabs (p = 0.005). Mpox cycle threshold values were not predictive of antibody titers. This study found that the overall days of monkeypox virus detection in the body, irrespective of the viral loads, were directly correlated with monkeypox virus neutralizing antibodies at six months after infection.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Neutralizantes , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Monkeypox virus , Mpox , Pruebas de Neutralización , Carga Viral , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Humanos , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Monkeypox virus/inmunología , Masculino , Mpox/inmunología , Mpox/virología , Adulto , Femenino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
7.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4488, 2024 May 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38802350

RESUMEN

Understanding of infection dynamics is important for public health measures against monkeypox virus (MPXV) infection. Herein, samples from multiple body sites and environmental fomites of 77 acute MPXV infections (HIV co-infection: N = 42) were collected every two to three days and used for detection of MPXV DNA, surface protein specific antibodies and neutralizing titers. Skin lesions show 100% positivity rate of MPXV DNA, followed by rectum (88.16%), saliva (83.78%) and oropharynx (78.95%). Positivity rate of oropharynx decreases rapidly after 7 days post symptom onset (d.p.o), while the rectum and saliva maintain a positivity rate similar to skin lesions. Viral dynamics are similar among skin lesions, saliva and oropharynx, with a peak at about 6 d.p.o. In contrast, viral levels in the rectum peak at the beginning of symptom onset and decrease rapidly thereafter. 52.66% of environmental fomite swabs are positive for MPXV DNA, with highest positivity rate (69.89%) from air-conditioning air outlets. High seropositivity against A29L (100%) and H3L (94.74%) are detected, while a correlation between IgG endpoint titers and neutralizing titers is only found for A29L. Most indexes are similar between HIV and Non-HIV participants, while HIV and rectitis are associated with higher viral loads in rectum.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , Monkeypox virus , Mpox , Esparcimiento de Virus , Humanos , Masculino , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Estudios Prospectivos , Adulto , Monkeypox virus/inmunología , Mpox/inmunología , Mpox/virología , Mpox/epidemiología , Saliva/virología , Saliva/inmunología , Infecciones por VIH/inmunología , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/sangre , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Longitudinales , ADN Viral , Orofaringe/virología , Orofaringe/inmunología , Coinfección/inmunología , Coinfección/virología , Coinfección/epidemiología , Carga Viral , Fómites/virología
8.
Viruses ; 16(5)2024 05 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38793665

RESUMEN

Epidemiologic studies have established that mpox (formerly known as monkeypox) outbreaks worldwide in 2022-2023, due to Clade IIb mpox virus (MPXV), disproportionately affected gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men. More than 35% and 40% of the mpox cases suffer from co-infection with HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (e.g., Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus), respectively. Bacterial superinfection can also occur. Co-infection of MPXV and other infectious agents may enhance disease severity, deteriorate outcomes, elongate the recovery process, and potentially contribute to the morbidity and mortality of the ensuing diseases. However, the interplays between MPXV and HIV, bacteria, other STI pathogens and host cells are poorly studied. There are many open questions regarding the impact of co-infections with HIV, STIs, or bacterial superinfections on the diagnosis and treatment of MPXV infections, including clinical and laboratory-confirmed mpox diagnosis, suboptimal treatment effectiveness, and induction of antiviral drug resistance. In this review article, we will discuss the progress and knowledge gaps in MPXV biology, antiviral therapy, pathogenesis of human MPXV and its co-infection with HIV, STIs, or bacterial superinfections, and the impact of the co-infections on the diagnosis and treatment of mpox disease. This review not only sheds light on the MPXV infection and co-infection of other etiologies but also calls for more research on MPXV life cycles and the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis of co-infection of MPXV and other infectious agents, as well as research and development of a novel multiplex molecular testing panel for the detection of MPXV and other STI co-infections.


Asunto(s)
Coinfección , Infecciones por VIH , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Humanos , Masculino , Coinfección/microbiología , Coinfección/virología , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Monkeypox virus , Mpox/virología , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/microbiología , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/virología , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/complicaciones , Sobreinfección/microbiología , Sobreinfección/virología , Femenino
9.
Antivir Ther ; 29(3): 13596535241255199, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38801671

RESUMEN

Background: Monkeypox has emerged as a noteworthy worldwide issue due to its daily escalating case count. This illness presents diverse symptoms, including skin manifestations, which have the potential to spread through contact. The transmission of this infectious agent is intricate and readily transfers between individuals.Methods: The hypothetical protein MPXV-SI-2022V502225_00135 strain of monkeypox underwent structural and functional analysis using NCBI-CD Search, Pfam, and InterProScan. Quality assessment utilized PROCHECK, QMEAN, Verify3D, and ERRAT, followed by protein-ligand docking, visualization, and a 100-nanosecond simulation on Schrodinger Maestro.Results: Different physicochemical properties were estimated, indicating a stable molecular weight (49147.14) and theoretical pI (5.62) with functional annotation tools predicting the target protein to contain the domain of Chordopox_A20R domain. In secondary structure analysis, the helix coil was found to be predominant. The three-dimensional (3D) structure of the protein was obtained using a template protein (PDB ID: 6zyc.1), which became more stable after YASARA energy minimization and was validated by quality assessment tools like PROCHECK, QMEAN, Verify3D, and ERRAT. Protein-ligand docking was conducted using PyRx 9.0 software to examine the binding and interactions between a ligand and a hypothetical protein, focusing on various amino acids. The model structure, active site, and binding site were visualized using the CASTp server, FTsite, and PyMOL. A 100 nanosecond simulation was performed with ligand CID_16124688 to evaluate the efficiency of this protein.Conclusion: The analysis revealed significant binding interactions and enhanced stability, aiding in drug or vaccine design for effective antiviral treatment and patient management.


Asunto(s)
Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Monkeypox virus , Proteínas Virales , Proteínas Virales/química , Proteínas Virales/metabolismo , Monkeypox virus/química , Simulación por Computador , Humanos , Ligandos , Unión Proteica , Dominios Proteicos , Simulación de Dinámica Molecular , Conformación Proteica , Modelos Moleculares , Relación Estructura-Actividad , Sitios de Unión
10.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0300778, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38758816

RESUMEN

Mpox (formerly known as monkeypox) virus and some related poxviruses including smallpox virus pose a significant threat to public health, and effective prevention and treatment strategies are needed. This study utilized a reverse vaccinology approach to retrieve conserved epitopes for monkeypox virus and construct a vaccine that could provide cross-protection against related viruses with similar antigenic properties. The selected virulent proteins of monkeypox virus, MPXVgp165, and Virion core protein P4a, were subjected to epitope mapping for vaccine construction. Two vaccines were constructed using selected T cell epitopes and B cell epitopes with PADRE and human beta-defensins adjuvants conjugated in the vaccine sequence. Both constructs were found to be highly antigenic, non-allergenic, nontoxic, and soluble, suggesting their potential to generate an adequate immune response and be safe for humans. Vaccine construct 1 was selected for molecular dynamic simulation studies. The simulation studies revealed that the TLR8-vaccine complex was more stable than the TLR3-vaccine complex. The lower RMSD and RMSF values of the TLR8 bound vaccine compared to the TLR3 bound vaccine suggested better stability and consistency of hydrogen bonds. The Rg values of the vaccine chain bound to TLR8 indicated overall stability, whereas the vaccine chain bound to TLR3 showed deviations throughout the simulation. These results suggest that the constructed vaccine could be a potential preventive measure against monkeypox and related viruses however, further experimental validation is required to confirm these findings.


Asunto(s)
Simulación de Dinámica Molecular , Monkeypox virus , Humanos , Monkeypox virus/inmunología , Epítopos de Linfocito T/inmunología , Epítopos de Linfocito T/química , Epítopos de Linfocito B/inmunología , Epítopos de Linfocito B/química , Simulación por Computador , Poxviridae/inmunología , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Mapeo Epitopo , Mpox/prevención & control , Mpox/inmunología , Animales , Receptor Toll-Like 8/inmunología
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 73(19): 435-440, 2024 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753567

RESUMEN

Clade I monkeypox virus (MPXV), which can cause severe illness in more people than clade II MPXVs, is endemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), but the country has experienced an increase in suspected cases during 2023-2024. In light of the 2022 global outbreak of clade II mpox, the increase in suspected clade I cases in DRC raises concerns that the virus could spread to other countries and underscores the importance of coordinated, urgent global action to support DRC's efforts to contain the virus. To date, no cases of clade I mpox have been detected outside of countries in Central Africa where the virus is endemic. CDC and other partners are working to support DRC's response. In addition, CDC is enhancing U.S. preparedness by raising awareness, strengthening surveillance, expanding diagnostic testing capacity for clade I MPXV, ensuring appropriate specimen handling and waste management, emphasizing the importance of appropriate medical treatment, and communicating guidance on the recommended contact tracing, containment, behavior modification, and vaccination strategies.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Mpox , República Democrática del Congo/epidemiología , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Mpox/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Monkeypox virus/aislamiento & purificación
12.
J Korean Med Sci ; 39(18): e165, 2024 May 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742294

RESUMEN

We aimed to characterize the genomes of monkeypox virus isolates from the Far East, providing insights into viral transmission and evolution. Genomic analysis was conducted on 8 isolates obtained from patients with monkeypox virus disease in the Republic of Korea between May 2022 and early 2023. These isolates were classified into Clade IIb. Distinct lineages, including B.1.1, A.2.1, and B.1.3, were observed in 2022 and 2023 isolates, with only the B.1.3 lineage detected in six isolates of 2023. These genetic features were specific to Far East isolates (the Republic of Korea, Japan, and Taiwan), distinguishing them from the diverse lineages found in the Americas, Europe, Africa, and Oceania. In early 2023, the prevalence of the B.1.3 lineage of monkeypox virus identified in six patients with no overseas travel history is considered as an indicator of the potential initiation of local transmission in the Republic of Korea.


Asunto(s)
Genoma Viral , Monkeypox virus , Mpox , Filogenia , República de Corea/epidemiología , Humanos , Mpox/epidemiología , Mpox/virología , Monkeypox virus/genética , Monkeypox virus/aislamiento & purificación , Epidemias , Genómica/métodos , Masculino , ARN Viral/genética , Femenino
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 483, 2024 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730352

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Monkeypox (Mpox) is an important human pathogen without etiological treatment. A viral-host interactome study may advance our understanding of molecular pathogenesis and lead to the discovery of suitable therapeutic targets. METHODS: GEO Expression datasets characterizing mRNA profile changes in different host responses to poxviruses were analyzed for shared pathway identification, and then, the Protein-protein interaction (PPI) maps were built. The viral gene expression datasets of Monkeypox virus (MPXV) and Vaccinia virus (VACV) were used to identify the significant viral genes and further investigated for their binding to the library of targeting molecules. RESULTS: Infection with MPXV interferes with various cellular pathways, including interleukin and MAPK signaling. While most host differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are predominantly downregulated upon infection, marked enrichments in histone modifiers and immune-related genes were observed. PPI analysis revealed a set of novel virus-specific protein interactions for the genes in the above functional clusters. The viral DEGs exhibited variable expression patterns in three studied cell types: primary human monocytes, primary human fibroblast, and HeLa, resulting in 118 commonly deregulated proteins. Poxvirus proteins C6R derived protein K7 and K7R of MPXV and VACV were prioritized as targets for potential therapeutic interventions based on their histone-regulating and immunosuppressive properties. In the computational docking and Molecular Dynamics (MD) experiments, these proteins were shown to bind the candidate small molecule S3I-201, which was further prioritized for lead development. RESULTS: MPXV circumvents cellular antiviral defenses by engaging histone modification and immune evasion strategies. C6R-derived protein K7 binding candidate molecule S3I-201 is a priority promising candidate for treating Mpox.


Asunto(s)
Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Monkeypox virus , Virus Vaccinia , Proteínas Virales , Humanos , Proteínas Virales/genética , Proteínas Virales/metabolismo , Virus Vaccinia/genética , Virus Vaccinia/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Monkeypox virus/genética , Mpox/virología , Mapas de Interacción de Proteínas , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Poxviridae/genética , Poxviridae/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/virología , Fibroblastos/metabolismo
14.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4660, 2024 May 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38821921

RESUMEN

The recent outbreak of mpox epidemic, caused by monkeypox virus (MPXV), poses a new threat to global public health. Here, we initially assessed the preexisting antibody level to the MPXV B6 protein in vaccinia vaccinees born before the end of the immunization program and then identified two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), hMB621 and hMB668, targeting distinct epitopes on B6, from one vaccinee. Binding assays demonstrate that both MAbs exhibit broad binding abilities to B6 and its orthologs in vaccinia (VACV), variola (VARV) and cowpox viruses (CPXV). Neutralizing assays reveal that the two MAbs showed potent neutralization against VACV. Animal experiments using a BALB/c female mouse model indicate that the two MAbs showed effective protection against VACV via intraperitoneal injection. Additionally, we determined the complex structure of B6 and hMB668, revealing the structural feature of B6 and the epitope of hMB668. Collectively, our study provides two promising antibody candidates for the treatment of orthopoxvirus infections, including mpox.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Monoclonales , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Epítopos , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C , Animales , Humanos , Femenino , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Ratones , Anticuerpos Monoclonales/inmunología , Epítopos/inmunología , Monkeypox virus/inmunología , Infecciones por Poxviridae/inmunología , Infecciones por Poxviridae/prevención & control , Virus Vaccinia/inmunología , Orthopoxvirus/inmunología , Mpox/inmunología , Mpox/prevención & control
15.
Anal Chem ; 96(21): 8342-8348, 2024 May 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728056

RESUMEN

In this study, we reported a selective impedimetric biosensor for the detection of A29 which is the target protein of the monkeypox virus (MPXV). The working principle of the biosensor relies on the interaction mechanism between A29, which is an internal membrane protein of MPXV, and the heparan sulfate receptor. For this purpose, after immobilizing heparan sulfate onto the gold screen-printed electrode surface, its interaction with A29 protein was monitored using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. After the optimization of experimental parameters, the analytical characteristics of the developed MPVX immunosensor were examined. The developed immunosensor exhibited a linear detection range between 2.0 and 50 ng mL-1, with a detection limit of 2.08 ng mL-1 and a quantification limit of 6.28 ng mL-1. Furthermore, a relative standard deviation value of 2.82% was determined for 25 ng mL-1. Apart from that, sample application studies were also performed with the standard addition of A29 protein to 1:10 diluted real serum samples that were taken from healthy individuals, and very good recovery values were obtained.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas Electroquímicas , Monkeypox virus , Humanos , Inmunoensayo/métodos , Técnicas Electroquímicas/métodos , Técnicas Biosensibles/métodos , Límite de Detección , Oro/química , Electrodos , Espectroscopía Dieléctrica
16.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 13(1): 2356153, 2024 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767199

RESUMEN

Men who have sex with men and people living with HIV are disproportionately affected in the 2022 multi-country monkeypox epidemic. The smallpox vaccine can induce cross-reactive antibodies against the monkeypox virus (MPXV) and reduce the risk of infection. Data on antibodies against MPXV induced by historic smallpox vaccination in people with HIV are scarce. In this observational study, plasma samples were collected from people living with and without HIV in Shenzhen, China. We measured antibodies binding to two representative proteins of vaccinia virus (VACV; A27L and A33R) and homologous proteins of MPXV (A29L and A35R) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We compared the levels of these antibodies between people living with and without HIV. Stratified analyses were performed based on the year of birth of 1981 when the smallpox vaccination was stopped in China. Plasma samples from 677 people living with HIV and 746 people without HIV were tested. A consistent pattern was identified among the four antibodies, regardless of HIV status. VACV antigen-reactive and MPXV antigen-reactive antibodies induced by historic smallpox vaccination were detectable in the people born before 1981, and antibody levels reached a nadir during or after 1981. The levels of smallpox vaccine-induced antibodies were comparable between people living with HIV and those without HIV. Our findings suggest that the antibody levels against MPXV decreased in both people living with and without HIV due to the cessation of smallpox vaccination.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales , Infecciones por VIH , Monkeypox virus , Vacuna contra Viruela , Humanos , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Masculino , Vacuna contra Viruela/inmunología , Vacuna contra Viruela/administración & dosificación , Infecciones por VIH/inmunología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/virología , Adulto , Femenino , China/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Monkeypox virus/inmunología , Viruela/inmunología , Viruela/prevención & control , Viruela/epidemiología , Viruela/historia , Vacunación , Mpox/inmunología , Mpox/epidemiología , Mpox/historia , Reacciones Cruzadas/inmunología , Adulto Joven , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Virus Vaccinia/inmunología
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1451: 1-20, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38801568

RESUMEN

Monkeypox (Mpox) is a zoonotic disease caused by a virus (monkeypox virus-MPV) belonging to the Poxviridae family. In humans, the disease has an incubation period of 5-21 days and then progresses in two phases, the prodromal phase and the rash phase. The prodromal phase is characterized by non-specific symptoms such as fever, muscle pain, malaise, lymphadenopathy, headache, and chills. Skin lesions appear in the rash phase of the disease. These lesions progress through different stages (macules, papules, vesicles, and pustules). In May 2022, WHO reported an outbreak of human Mpox in several countries which were previously Mpox-free. As per the CDC report of March 01, 2023, a total of 86,231 confirmed cases of Mpox and 105 deaths have been reported from 110 countries and territories across the globe. Notably, more than 90% of these countries were reporting Mpox for the first time. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that this outbreak was associated with the virus from the West African clade. However, most of the cases in this outbreak had no evidence of travel histories to MPV-endemic countries in Central or West Africa. This outbreak was primarily driven by the transmission of the virus via intimate contact in men who have sex with men (MSM). The changing epidemiology of Mpox raised concerns about the increasing spread of the disease in non-endemic countries and the urgent need to control and prevent it. In this chapter, we present all the documented cases of Mpox from 1970 to 2023 and discuss the past, present, and future of MPV.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades , Monkeypox virus , Mpox , Animales , Humanos , Monkeypox virus/genética , Monkeypox virus/patogenicidad , Mpox/epidemiología , Mpox/transmisión , Mpox/virología , Filogenia , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/virología , Zoonosis/transmisión
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1451: 75-90, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38801572

RESUMEN

The current multicounty outbreak of monkeypox virus (MPXV) posed an emerging and continued challenge to already strained public healthcare sector, around the globe. Since its first identification, monkeypox disease (mpox) remained enzootic in Central and West African countries where reports of human cases are sporadically described. Recent trends in mpox spread outside the Africa have highlighted increased incidence of spillover of the MPXV from animal to humans. While nature of established animal reservoirs remained undefined, several small mammals including rodents, carnivores, lagomorphs, insectivores, non-human primates, domestic/farm animals, and several species of wildlife are proposed to be carrier of the MPXV infection. There are established records of animal-to-human (zoonotic) spread of MPXV through close interaction of humans with animals by eating bushmeat, contracting bodily fluids or trading possibly infected animals. In contrast, there are reports and increasing possibilities of human-to-animal (zooanthroponotic) spread of the MPXV through petting and close interaction with pet owners and animal care workers. We describe here the rationales and molecular factors which predispose the spread of MPXV not only amongst humans but also from animals to humans. A range of continuing opportunities for the spread and evolution of MPXV are discussed to consider risks beyond the currently identified groups. With the possibility of MPXV establishing itself in animal reservoirs, continued and broad surveillance, investigation into unconventional transmissions, and exploration of spillover events are warranted.


Asunto(s)
Monkeypox virus , Mpox , Zoonosis , Animales , Mpox/transmisión , Mpox/epidemiología , Mpox/virología , Humanos , Monkeypox virus/patogenicidad , Monkeypox virus/genética , Zoonosis/transmisión , Zoonosis/virología , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Animales Salvajes/virología
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1451: 91-109, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38801573

RESUMEN

Although the smallpox virus has been eradicated worldwide, the World Health Organization (WHO) has issued a warning about the virus's potential to propagate globally. The WHO labeled monkeypox a world public health emergency in July 2022, requiring urgent prevention and treatment. The monkeypox virus is a part of the Poxviridae family, Orthopoxvirus genus, and is accountable for smallpox, which has killed over a million people in the past. Natural hosts of the virus include squirrels, Gambian rodents, chimpanzees, and other monkeys. The monkeypox virus has transmitted to humans through primary vectors (various animal species) and secondary vectors, including direct touch with lesions, breathing particles from body fluids, and infected bedding. The viral particles are ovoid or brick-shaped, 200-250 nm in diameter, contain a single double-stranded DNA molecule, and reproduce only in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Monkeypox causes fever, cold, muscle pains, headache, fatigue, and backache. The phylogenetic investigation distinguished between two genetic clades of monkeypox: the more pathogenic Congo Basin clade and the West Africa clade. In recent years, the geographical spread of the human monkeypox virus has accelerated despite a paucity of information regarding the disease's emergence, ecology, and epidemiology. Using lesion samples and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the monkeypox virus was diagnosed. In the USA, the improved Ankara vaccine can now be used to protect people who are at a higher risk of getting monkeypox. Antivirals that we have now work well against smallpox and may stop the spread of monkeypox, but there is no particular therapy for monkeypox.


Asunto(s)
Monkeypox virus , Mpox , Monkeypox virus/patogenicidad , Monkeypox virus/genética , Monkeypox virus/fisiología , Animales , Humanos , Mpox/virología , Mpox/epidemiología , Mpox/transmisión , Filogenia
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1451: 125-137, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38801575

RESUMEN

Poxviruses are notorious for having acquired/evolved numerous genes to counteract host innate immunity. Chordopoxviruses have acquired/evolved at least three different inhibitors of host necroptotic death: E3, which blocks ZBP1-dependent necroptotic cell death, and vIRD and vMLKL that inhibit necroptosis downstream of initial cell death signaling. While this suggests the importance of the necroptotic cell death pathway in inhibiting chordopoxvirus replication, several chordopoxviruses have lost one or more of these inhibitory functions. Monkeypox/mpox virus (MPXV) has lost a portion of the N-terminus of its E3 homologue. The N-terminus of the vaccinia virus E3 homologue serves to inhibit activation of the interferon-inducible antiviral protein, ZBP1. This likely makes MPXV unique among the orthopoxviruses in being sensitive to interferon (IFN) treatment in many mammals, including humans, which encode a complete necroptotic cell death pathway. Thus, IFN sensitivity may be the Achille's Heel for viruses like MPXV that cannot fully inhibit IFN-inducible, ZBP1-dependent antiviral pathways.


Asunto(s)
Interferón Tipo I , Proteínas Virales , Humanos , Animales , Interferón Tipo I/inmunología , Interferón Tipo I/metabolismo , Proteínas Virales/genética , Proteínas Virales/metabolismo , Monkeypox virus/efectos de los fármacos , Monkeypox virus/fisiología , Monkeypox virus/genética , Inmunidad Innata , Necroptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Mpox/virología
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