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1.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299814, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573972

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Snakebites are a dangerous and significant medical emergency that occurs worldwide. The World Health Organization has recommended that teaching and training in the prevention and management of snakebites be included in the curriculum of nursing schools and other educational activities. Identification of venomous snakes and first aid would be more critical in the prevention of occupational danger worldwide. This study aims to assess the knowledge in identifying venomous snakes, snakebites, and first aid methods of snakebites among nursing students in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed among 425 nursing students who were studying in different educational settings: undergraduates at the University of Ruhuna, and nursing students in the three schools of nursing in Galle, Matara, and Hambantota. Data were gathered by incorporating a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire after obtaining institutional permission. The total score of whole knowledge ranged from 0 to 34 for the identification of venomous snakes. Data collection was performed after obtaining ethical clearance from the Ethics Review Committee, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka. RESULTS: Most of the students (82.6%) were in the 24-26 age category and the majority were females. Most of the sample (64.7%) had low knowledge of identifying venomous snakes. A higher percentage of students (57.4%) had a sufficient level of knowledge about first aid methods associated with snakebites and 169 participants (39.8%) had a high level of knowledge regarding first aid methods. Further, a significant impact on students' knowledge and knowledge of first aid methods was reported. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: The overall knowledge of identifying venomous snakes among the nursing students was inadequate. However, the knowledge about the first aid methods was at a moderate level. Strategies are needed to improve knowledge in identifying venomous snakes and first aid methods of snakebites amongst nursing students in both educational settings.


Asunto(s)
Mordeduras de Serpientes , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Animales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Mordeduras de Serpientes/diagnóstico , Mordeduras de Serpientes/epidemiología , Mordeduras de Serpientes/terapia , Serpientes , Estudios Transversales , Primeros Auxilios
2.
A A Pract ; 18(4): e01744, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557929

RESUMEN

Snakebite pain can be challenging to control. We describe our experience managing intolerable pain after conventional treatment failed. A 35-year-old man, presented after a viper snakebite, suffering from intolerable pain in the affected extremity. He had no significant past medical history. All attempts to control the pain conventionally were unsuccessful. Treatment with a supraclavicular nerve block resulted in immediate relief. After the block receded, only a dull pain remained, which later disappeared without recurrence. This experience illustrates the need for personalized pain treatment to avoid subsequent complications.


Asunto(s)
Bloqueo del Plexo Braquial , Mordeduras de Serpientes , Viperidae , Masculino , Animales , Humanos , Adulto , Mordeduras de Serpientes/complicaciones , Mordeduras de Serpientes/terapia , Dolor , Nervios Periféricos
3.
Bull World Health Organ ; 102(4): 234-243, 2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38562205

RESUMEN

Objective: To assess knowledge and practices related to snakebite prevention among Chinese residents. Methods: By using a multistage random sampling approach augmented by snowball sampling, we surveyed residents from 10 provinces, one municipality and one autonomous region south of the Yangtze River Basin between May 2022 and February 2023. We supplemented the data with a national online survey. We used a χ2-test to identify differences in knowledge and behaviour across various demographic characteristics. We conducted multifactor logistic regression analyses to evaluate factors potentially influencing snakebite knowledge and practices. Findings: We obtained 55 775 valid survey responses, 16 200 respondents from the face-to-face survey and 39 575 respondents from the online survey. Only 25.7% (14 325) respondents demonstrated adequate knowledge about snakebites whereas 25.6% (14 295) respondents knew basic first-aid practices or preventive behaviours. Age, marital status, educational attainment, occupation, type of residence and frequency of exposure to nature are significant independent variables affecting snakebite knowledge (P-values: < 0.05). On the other hand, gender, age, marital status, educational attainment, occupation and type of residence were significant independent variables affecting the behaviour of snakebite prevention and first aid (P-values: < 0.05). Conclusion: There is a notable shortfall in knowledge, first aid and preventive behaviours among Chinese residents regarding snakebites. Misguided first aid practices can severely compromise the effectiveness of evidence-based therapeutic interventions. Consequently, improving health education concerning snakes and snakebites in this population is needed.


Asunto(s)
Mordeduras de Serpientes , Animales , Humanos , Mordeduras de Serpientes/epidemiología , Mordeduras de Serpientes/prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Serpientes , China/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(3): e0012070, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38527073

RESUMEN

Snakebite envenomation is a significant global health issue that requires specific antivenom treatments. In Taiwan, available antivenoms target a variety of snakes, but none specifically target Trimeresurus gracilis, an endemic and protected species found in the high mountain areas of Taiwan. This study evaluated the effectiveness of existing antivenoms against T. gracilis venom, focusing on a bivalent antivenom developed for Trimeresurus stejnegeri and Protobothrops mucrosquamatus (TsPmAV), as well as monovalent antivenoms for Deinagkistrodon acutus (DaAV) and Gloydius brevicaudus (GbAV). Our research involved in vivo toxicity testing in mice and in vitro immunobinding experiments using (chaotropic) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, comparing venoms from four pit viper species (T. gracilis, T. stejnegeri, P. mucrosquamatus, and D. acutus) with three types of antivenoms. These findings indicate that TsPmAV partially neutralized T. gracilis venom, marginally surpassing the efficacy of DaAV. In vitro tests revealed that GbAV displayed higher binding capacities toward T. gracilis venom than TsPmAV or DaAV. Comparisons of electrophoretic profiles also reveal that T. gracilis venom has fewer snake venom C-type lectin like proteins than D. acutus, and has more P-I snake venom metalloproteases or fewer phospholipase A2 than G. brevicaudus, T. stejnegeri, or P. mucrosquamatus. This study highlights the need for antivenoms that specifically target T. gracilis, as current treatments using TsPmAV show limited effectiveness in neutralizing local effects in patients. These findings provide crucial insights into clinical treatment protocols and contribute to the understanding of the evolutionary adaptation of snake venom, aiding in the development of more effective antivenoms for human health.


Asunto(s)
Crotalinae , Mordeduras de Serpientes , Trimeresurus , Humanos , Ratones , Animales , Antivenenos/uso terapéutico , Venenos de Serpiente , Mordeduras de Serpientes/tratamiento farmacológico , Venenos de Víboras/toxicidad
6.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 358, 2024 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38519650

RESUMEN

Snakebite envenoming is an important public health issue responsible for mortality and severe morbidity. Where mortality is mainly caused by venom toxins that induce cardiovascular disturbances, neurotoxicity, and acute kidney injury, morbidity is caused by toxins that directly or indirectly destroy cells and degrade the extracellular matrix. These are referred to as 'tissue-damaging toxins' and have previously been classified in various ways, most of which are based on the tissues being affected (e.g., cardiotoxins, myotoxins). This categorisation, however, is primarily phenomenological and not mechanistic. In this review, we propose an alternative way of classifying cytotoxins based on their mechanistic effects rather than using a description that is organ- or tissue-based. The mechanisms of toxin-induced tissue damage and their clinical implications are discussed. This review contributes to our understanding of fundamental biological processes associated with snakebite envenoming, which may pave the way for a knowledge-based search for novel therapeutic options.


Asunto(s)
Mordeduras de Serpientes , Humanos , Mordeduras de Serpientes/tratamiento farmacológico , Venenos de Serpiente/toxicidad , Venenos de Serpiente/uso terapéutico , Matriz Extracelular , Salud Pública
7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 173: 116290, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458010

RESUMEN

Jatropha mollissima (Pohl) Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory disorders. So, a topical gel containing the hydroethanolic extract of its leaves was developed and evaluated for its anti-inflammatory, wound healing, and antiophidic properties in mice. First, the chemical profile of different parts of the plant was characterized by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) using molecular networking. In the leaf extract, 11 compounds were characterized, with a particular emphasis on the identification of flavonoids. The gel efficiently inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema, as well as acute and chronic croton oil-induced ear edema models, thereby reducing inflammatory and oxidative parameters in inflamed tissues. Besides anti-inflammatory activity, the herbal gel showed significant wound healing activity. The edematogenic, hemorrhagic and dermonecrotic activities induced by Bothrops jararaca snake venom were effectively inhibited by the treatment with J. mollissima gel. The association with the herbal gel improved in up to 90% the efficacy of commercial snake antivenom in reduce venom-induced edema. Additionally, while antivenom was not able to inhibit venom-induced dermonecrosis, treatment with herbal gel reduced in 55% the dermonocrotic halo produced. These results demonstrate the pharmacological potential of the herbal gel containing J. mollissima extract, which could be a strong candidate for the development of herbal products that can be used to complement the current antivenom therapy against snake venom local toxicity.


Asunto(s)
Venenos de Crotálidos , Euphorbiaceae , Jatropha , Mordeduras de Serpientes , Animales , Ratones , Euphorbiaceae/química , Antivenenos/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Extractos Vegetales/química , Jatropha/química , Composición de Medicamentos , Mordeduras de Serpientes/tratamiento farmacológico , Edema/inducido químicamente , Edema/tratamiento farmacológico , Antiinflamatorios/efectos adversos , Cicatrización de Heridas
8.
Lancet Planet Health ; 8(3): e163-e171, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453382

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Climate change is expected to have profound effects on the distribution of venomous snake species, including reductions in biodiversity and changes in patterns of envenomation of humans and domestic animals. We estimated the effect of future climate change on the distribution of venomous snake species and potential knock-on effects on biodiversity and public health. METHODS: We built species distribution models based on the geographical distribution of 209 medically relevant venomous snake species (WHO categories 1 and 2) and present climatic variables, and used these models to project the potential distribution of species in 2070. We incorporated different future climatic scenarios into the model, which we used to estimate the loss and gain of areas potentially suitable for each species. We also assessed which countries were likely to gain new species in the future as a result of species crossing national borders. We integrated the species distribution models with different socioeconomic scenarios to estimate which countries would become more vulnerable to snakebites in 2070. FINDINGS: Our results suggest that substantial losses of potentially suitable areas for the survival of most venomous snake species will occur by 2070. However, some species of high risk to public health could gain climatically suitable areas for habitation. Countries such as Niger, Namibia, China, Nepal, and Myanmar could potentially gain several venomous snake species from neighbouring countries. Furthermore, the combination of an increase in climatically suitable areas and socioeconomic factors (including low-income and high rural populations) means that southeast Asia and Africa (and countries including Uganda, Kenya, Bangladesh, India, and Thailand in particular) could have increased vulnerability to snakebites in the future, with potential effects on public human and veterinary health. INTERPRETATION: Loss of venomous snake biodiversity in low-income countries will affect ecosystem functioning and result in the loss of valuable genetic resources. Additionally, climate change will create new challenges to public health in several low-income countries, particularly in southeast Asia and Africa. The international community needs to increase its efforts to counter the effects of climate change in the coming decades. FUNDING: German Research Foundation, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research, Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación de España, European Regional Development Fund.


Asunto(s)
Mordeduras de Serpientes , Animales , Humanos , Mordeduras de Serpientes/epidemiología , Cambio Climático , Ecosistema , Salud Pública , Biodiversidad , Kenia
11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 9(3)2024 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485142

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Antivenom is a lifesaving medicine for treating snakebite envenoming, yet there has been a crisis in antivenom supply for many decades. Despite this, substantial quantities of antivenom stocks expire before use. This study has investigated whether expired antivenoms retain preclinical quality and efficacy, with the rationale that they could be used in emergency situations when in-date antivenom is unavailable. METHODS: Using WHO guidelines and industry test requirements, we examined the in vitro stability and murine in vivo efficacy of eight batches of the sub-Saharan African antivenom, South African Institute for Medical Research polyvalent, that had expired at various times over a period of 30 years. RESULTS: We demonstrate modest declines in immunochemical stability, with antivenoms older than 25 years having high levels of turbidity. In vitro preclinical analysis demonstrated all expired antivenoms retained immunological recognition of venom antigens and the ability to inhibit key toxin families. All expired antivenoms retained comparable in vivo preclinical efficacy in preventing the lethal effects of envenoming in mice versus three regionally and medically important venoms. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides strong rationale for stakeholders, including manufacturers, regulators and health authorities, to explore the use of expired antivenom more broadly, to aid in alleviating critical shortages in antivenom supply in the short term and the extension of antivenom shelf life in the longer term.


Asunto(s)
Antivenenos , Mordeduras de Serpientes , Ratones , Humanos , Animales , Antivenenos/uso terapéutico , Mordeduras de Serpientes/tratamiento farmacológico , Ponzoñas/uso terapéutico
12.
BMC Nephrol ; 25(1): 112, 2024 Mar 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515042

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Snakebite is a public health problem leading to about 58,000 deaths every year in India. Kidney injury subsequent to snakebite envenomation is common with a reported prevalence of up to 32%. The current study aims to elucidate the spectrum of kidney histopathology in acute kidney injury (AKI) cases associated with snake bites. METHODS: We searched seven electronic database studies to identify studies describing the histopathological findings in the kidney with snakebite envenomation. Two reviewers independently conducted titles and abstract screening as well as full-text evaluation for the final inclusion decision. Data were extracted as per the standardized form. We conducted narrative synthesis. Studies done exclusively on autopsy findings, in vitro studies, and case reports were excluded. RESULTS: We retrieved 1464 studies and finally included 28 studies which met the eligibility criteria in the analysis. Most studies were single-centre and the majority were cross-sectional. Overall we included a total of 534 renal biopsies. Russell's viper bite was the most common cause related to AKI. Acute tubular necrosis was the most common finding followed by acute interstitial nephritis, acute cortical necrosis (ACN), and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Vasculitis changes in vessels were rarely reported. Lesions such as ACN and TMA were associated with poor outcomes. CONCLUSION: This analysis supports the notion that renal biopsies are important to guide prognosis and increase our knowledge about post-snake bite AKI pathophysiology.


Asunto(s)
Lesión Renal Aguda , Mordeduras de Serpientes , Microangiopatías Trombóticas , Humanos , Mordeduras de Serpientes/complicaciones , Mordeduras de Serpientes/epidemiología , Mordeduras de Serpientes/diagnóstico , Riñón , Lesión Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Microangiopatías Trombóticas/diagnóstico , India/epidemiología , Necrosis
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(3): e0012052, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38530781

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Progress in snakebite envenoming (SBE) therapeutics has suffered from a critical lack of data on the research and development (R&D) landscape. A database characterising this information would be a powerful tool for coordinating and accelerating SBE R&D. To address this need, we aimed to identify and categorise all active investigational candidates in development for SBE and all available or marketed products. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this landscape study, publicly available data and literature were reviewed to canvas the state of the SBE therapeutics market and research pipeline by identifying, characterising, and validating all investigational drug and biologic candidates with direct action on snake venom toxins, and all products available or marketed from 2015 to 2022. We identified 127 marketed products and 196 candidates in the pipeline, describing a very homogenous market of similar but geographically bespoke products and a diverse but immature pipeline, as most investigational candidates are at an early stage of development, with only eight candidates in clinical development. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Further investment and research is needed to address the shortfalls in products already on the market and to accelerate R&D for new therapeutics. This should be accompanied by efforts to converge on shared priorities and reshape the current SBE R&D ecosystem to ensure translation of innovation and access.


Asunto(s)
Mordeduras de Serpientes , Toxinas Biológicas , Humanos , Antivenenos , Manejo de Datos , Mordeduras de Serpientes/terapia
14.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 57: e008032024, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38537001

RESUMEN

A 22-year-old female researcher was bitten by a Leptodeira annulata on the index finger of the left hand during a contention activity. After removing the snake, a little bleeding and redness was observed in the bite region, accompanied by fang marks. Thirty minutes later, edema had progressed to the dorsum of the hand. After four hours, edema persisted, but the bitten area was slightly whitened. Treatment consisted of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs. The edema resolved completely and disappeared after 48 hours. Overall, this report presents the first case of envenomation in humans caused by Leptodeira annulata in Brazil.


Asunto(s)
Colubridae , Lagartos , Mordeduras de Serpientes , Humanos , Animales , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Mordeduras de Serpientes/complicaciones , Brasil , Edema/etiología , Antivenenos/uso terapéutico
15.
Biomolecules ; 14(3)2024 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38540699

RESUMEN

Viperid snake venoms induce severe tissue damage, characterized by the direct toxic action of venom components, i.e., phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) and metalloproteinases (SVMPs), concomitantly with the onset of endogenous inflammatory processes, in an intricate scenario of tissue alterations. Understanding the expression of relevant genes in muscle tissue will provide valuable insights into the undergoing pathological and inflammatory processes. In this study, we have used the Nanostring technology to evaluate the patterns of gene expression in mouse skeletal muscle 1 h, 6 h, and 24 h after injection of the venoms of Bothrops asper and Daboia russelii, two medically relevant species in Latin America and Asia, respectively, with somewhat different clinical manifestations. The dose of venoms injected (30 µg) induced local pathological effects and inflammation in muscle tissue. We focused our analysis on genes related to extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism, immune system, programmed cell death, and autophagy. The results revealed a complex pattern of expression of genes. Regarding ECM metabolism and regulation, up-regulated genes included proteinase inhibitor Serpine 1, thrombospondin 1, collagens 1A1 and 4A1 (at 1 h in the case of B. asper), TIMP1, MMP-3 (at 24 h), and lysil oxidase (LOX). In contrast, collagen chains 5A3 and 5A1 were down-regulated, especially at 6 h. Transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß) and several genes related to myofibroblast regulation were also up-regulated, which might be related to the development of fibrosis. Several genes related to cytokine and chemokine synthesis and regulation and NFκB signaling were also up-regulated. Our observations show a variable expression of genes associated with programmed cell death and autophagy, thus revealing a hitherto unknown role of autophagy in tissue affected by snake venoms. These results provide clues to understanding the complex pattern of gene expression in tissue affected by viperid snake venoms, which likely impacts the final pathophysiology of damaged tissue in envenomings.


Asunto(s)
Venenos de Crotálidos , Mordeduras de Serpientes , Animales , Ratones , Antivenenos , Mordeduras de Serpientes/genética , Venenos de Serpiente , Venenos de Crotálidos/farmacología , Músculos , Colágeno
16.
Toxicon ; 241: 107682, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460605

RESUMEN

Hemorrhagic stroke is a severe complication reported in cases of Bothrops atrox snakebite envenomation. We report an unusual case of a patient who evolved with an intracranial hemorrhagic stroke and was in a coma for more than five years in a tertiary hospital located in Manaus, Amazonas. 52-year-old man, carpenter, resident in the rural area of the municipality of Tabatinga, located 1106 km from Manaus, capital of Amazonas, Brazil, victim of an accident involving Bothrops atrox evolution with cardiorespiratory arrest, acute kidney injury and hemorrhagic stroke. After 43 days of hospitalization in the ICU, he was transferred to the ward, without contact with the environment and family, sent for home treatment, however, without acceptance by family members. During a long hospital stay for a period of 6 years, totally dependent on special care, in a flexed position, using a tracheostomy and mechanical ventilation, diagnosed and treated for hospital infections throughout his hospitalization, he died due to bacterial pneumonia. Losses of autonomy can result in an individual being completely disconnected from social life - a "social death before physical death".


Asunto(s)
Bothrops , Venenos de Crotálidos , Accidente Cerebrovascular Hemorrágico , Mordeduras de Serpientes , Masculino , Animales , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mordeduras de Serpientes/complicaciones , Mordeduras de Serpientes/terapia , Brasil , Accidente Cerebrovascular Hemorrágico/complicaciones , Hospitales , Antivenenos
17.
Toxicon ; 241: 107683, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460604

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To establish a preclinical large-animal model of Deinagkistrodon acutus snakebite envenomation and evaluate its feasibility. METHODS: The venom of D. acutus (0 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, or 10 mg/kg) was injected into the left biceps femoris of 11 male pigs. Then, the circumferences of the limbs were regularly measured, and changes in muscle injury biomarkers, blood parameters, coagulation function, vital organ function and injury biomarkers were regularly detected. At 24 h after venom injection, the animals were euthanized, and the pathological damage to the vital organs mentioned above was evaluated. RESULTS: The two pigs receiving 10 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg snake venom died at 8 h and 12 h after injection, respectively. The remaining pigs were equally divided into 0 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, and 2 mg/kg snake venom groups, and all of them survived to 24 h after injection. Compared with the pigs receiving 0 mg/kg snake venom, the pigs receiving 1 mg/kg or 2 mg/kg snake venom exhibited significant abnormities, including limb swelling; increased muscle injury biomarker creatine kinase (CK) and coagulation function indicators prothrombin time and D-dimer; and decreased blood routine indicator platelet and coagulation function indicator fibrinogen. Moreover, significant abnormalities in myocardial and cerebral function and injury biomarkers in the heart, brain, liver, kidney and intestine were also observed. In particular, the abnormalities mentioned above were significantly obvious in those pigs receiving 2 mg/kg snake venom. Pathological evaluation revealed that the morphology of muscle, heart, brain, liver, kidney, and intestine in those pigs receiving 0 mg/kg snake venom was normal; however, pathological damage was observed in those pigs receiving 1 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg snake venom. Similarly, the pathological damage was more severe in those pigs receiving 2 mg/kg snake venom. CONCLUSION: The intramuscular injection of 2 mg/kg D. acutus venom seems to be an optimal dose for examining the preclinical efficacy of existing and novel therapeutics for treating D. acutus envenomation in pigs.


Asunto(s)
Crotalinae , Mordeduras de Serpientes , Masculino , Animales , Porcinos , Mordeduras de Serpientes/tratamiento farmacológico , Mordeduras de Serpientes/veterinaria , Mordeduras de Serpientes/patología , Venenos de Serpiente/toxicidad , Biomarcadores
18.
Toxicon ; 241: 107681, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461896

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The deaths from and morbidities associated with snakebites - amputations, loss of function in the limb, visible scarring or tissue damage - have a vast economic, social, and psychological impact on indigenous communities in the Brazilian Amazon, especially children, and represent a real and pressing health crisis in this population. Snakebite clinical and research experts have therefore proposed expanding antivenom access from only hospitals to include the community health centers (CHC) located near and within indigenous communities. However, there are no studies examining the capacity of CHCs to store, administer, and manage antivenom treatment. In response to this gap, the research team calling for antivenom decentralization developed and validated an expert-based checklist outlining the minimum requirements for a CHC to provide antivenom. METHODS: The objective of this study was thus to survey a sample of CHCs in indigenous territories and evaluate their capacity to provide antivenom treatment according to this accredited checklist. The checklist was administered to nurses and doctors from 16 CHCs, two per indigenous district in Amazonas/Roraima states. RESULTS: Our results can be conceptualized into three central findings: 1) most CHCs have the capacity to provide antivenom treatment, 2) challenges to capacity are human resources and specialized items, and 3) antivenom decentralization is feasible and appropriate in indigenous communities. CONCLUSION: Decentralization would provide culturally and contextually appropriate care accessibility to a historically marginalized and underserved population of the Brazilian Amazon. Future studies should examine optimal resource allocation in indigenous territories and develop an implementation strategy in partnership with indigenous leaders. Beyond the indigenous population, the checklist utilized could be applied to community health centers treating the general population and/or adapted to other low-resource settings.


Asunto(s)
Mordeduras de Serpientes , Niño , Humanos , Mordeduras de Serpientes/tratamiento farmacológico , Mordeduras de Serpientes/epidemiología , Antivenenos/uso terapéutico , Brasil/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Centros Comunitarios de Salud
19.
Toxicon ; 241: 107686, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508243

RESUMEN

Envenomations by the common green racer (Chlorosoma viridissimum) are seldom reported in the literature. Herein, we report three cases caused by the same specimen of C. viridissimum in three different victims in the Brazilian Amazon. In all cases, the victims were either a biologist or biology students that were handling the animal and were bitten in their upper limbs. The victims showed only local symptoms, such as edema, tooth marks, pain, erythema, ecchymoses and bleeding. One of the patients presented extensive ecchymosis. Two patients sought medical care, but were only treated for local manifestations and evolved without complications. Chlorosoma viridissimum is capable of provoking mild to moderate signs and symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Colubridae , Mordeduras de Serpientes , Animales , Humanos , Mordeduras de Serpientes/terapia , Brasil , Dolor/etiología , Hemorragia/complicaciones , Antivenenos
20.
Toxicon ; 240: 107638, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311255

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Platyceps ventromaculatus is a non-front-fanged colubrid snake of unknown medical significance. In this study, we highlight the clinical manifestations and outcomes of P. ventromaculatus bites. We also emphasise the need to create awareness among clinicians and the public for its potential to be confused with serious venomous bites such as Echis carinatus sochureki. METHODS: This series is part of an ongoing observational clinical study from our tertiary care hospital in Jodhpur, India on the profile and outcomes of snakebite envenoming. Data was collected after approval from Institute Ethics Committee. The date and time of the bite, geographical location, type of human-snake conflict, time-to-reach a healthcare facility, antivenom used (dose), and outcomes were recorded. We retrospectively examined our clinical data for images suggestive of P. ventromaculatus and present the clinical details of these patients. The photographs were identified utilising taxonomic keys for species identification. RESULTS: A total of four images and three patients with bites due to P. ventromaculatus were identified. The clinical effects included mild local erythema, pain, transient local bleeding, and edema. All bites occurred during daylight hours, 2 during agricultural activities, and one at home. Twenty-minute Whole Blood Clotting Test was persistently prolonged for 12 h after the bite in one patient. All patients were treated symptomatically, observed at the emergency department, and discharged within 24 h. None of the patients received antivenom. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, P. ventromaculatus has so far not been reported to result in envenoming or medically significant bites. This study highlights that Platyceps bite can present with clinically significant local and possibly systemic findings that may lead to confusion with saw-scaled viper (Echis) envenoming. Clinicians must receive appropriate training so as to be aware and recognize regional snake species that do not require antivenom so as to avoid unnecessary antivenom administration.


Asunto(s)
Colubridae , Mordeduras de Serpientes , Animales , Humanos , Antivenenos/uso terapéutico , Mordeduras de Serpientes/tratamiento farmacológico , Estudios Retrospectivos , India/epidemiología
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